Intrinsic - Internal
• Material – Matter
• Proximate - Direct
• Remote - Relative
• Formal - Form
Extrinsic - External
•Final - End
•Agent - Person
•Instrumental - What acts
in subordination to a
• Principal - Guides the action as a norm or
rule of behaviour
• Primary - Is a basic, foundational
proposition or assumption that
cannot be deduced from any other
proposition or assumption.
• Secondary - Sub sequential,
dependent of the primary cause.
Cause - Society
•Intrinsic - People
• Material - People living in the
• Proximate - Families
• Remote - Individuals
• Formal - Moral union of will.
Extrinsic - Love for common
• Final - Common good
• Agent - Government officials
• Instrumental - Political
• Principal - Justice
• Primary- Principle of
solidarity, of subsidiarity, of
• Secondary - Liberalism and
COMMON GOOD – FINAL CAUSE
Totality of all social conditions that
allows people as groups and as individuals
to reach their proper fulfilment – is what is
morally good for man as man.
BREAKDOWN OF DEFINITION
Very basis which justifies public authority or makes it
Ultimate goal which civil authority strives to attain.
Premised on the assumption that every man has the right
to all he needs.
Based on the moral order. It builds on the notion and
principles of right and wrong. Not amoral.
PREREQUISITES OF COMMON
All citizens enjoy freedom (of will), peace and
Freedom is exercised according to right reason;
respect for natural law.
Protection of person’s fundamental rights.
Each individual can develop to his/her fullest.
Concept of common good as applied to the
good of the entire world and the whole creation.
Greatly helped by worldwide collaboration since
we all suffer or benefit, in one way or another,
from each other.
THE PRINCIPLE OF SOLIDARITY
• It is also called “Principle of Fellowship”.
• Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class)
that produces or is based on community of
interests, objectives, and standards. It refers
to the ties in a society that bind people
together as one.
• It requires that all units of society – the
individual, the family, various institutions
like schools, churches, etc. – regardless
of size, must actively and selflessly
participate in managing all economic,
political, and cultural activities.
• There must be a sense of cooperation
among the people in working for the
common good of their society.
THE PRINCIPLE OF SUBSIDIARITY
• It is also called “Principle of Supplementary
• Subsidiarity is an organising principle
of decentralisation, stating that a matter ought to
be handled by the smallest, lowest, or least
centralised authority capable of addressing that
matter effectively. The Oxford English
Dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a
central authority should have a subsidiary function,
performing only those tasks which cannot be
performed effectively at a more immediate or local
• It maintains the relationship
between the state or any higher
body and the lower bodies that is
conducive to or favourable to
attaining the common good.
THE PRINCIPLE OF PARTICIPATION
• Participation can be expressed essentially
in a series of activities by means of which
the citizens either as an individual or in
association with others, whether directly or
through representation, contributes to the
cultural, economic, political, and social life
of the civil community to which he or she
• I t devel ops t he qual i t i es of t he
per son, especi al l y i n t he sense of
i ni t i at i ve and r esponsi bi l i t y and
hel ps guar ant ee hi s/her r i ght s.
• I t al so seeks and f aci l i t at es t he
i nvol vement of t hose pot ent i al l y
af f ect ed by or i nt er est ed i n a
deci si on, hol ds t hat t hose who ar e
af f ect ed by a deci si on have a r i ght
t o be i nvol ved i n t he deci si on-maki ng
pr ocess, and i mpl i es t hat t he publ i c's
cont r i but i on wi l l i nf l uence t he
deci si on.
LIBERALISM AND SOCIALISM
• Espouses individualism which
naturally leads to free enterprise
• It gets bad when profit is made
supreme good to which values,
morals, and other higher good
may be ignored or sacrificed in
• Wreaks greater havoc as its effects
on man and his society far
exceeds those of liberalism.
• Attacks on our person is
conscious, deliberate and
• Based on wrong assumptions that
only universal social is real and
therefore the only one that counts.