THE MARTYRDOM OF Gom-Bur-Za, instead of frightening the Filipino patriots, made them More determined to fight the evils of Spanish Rule. The illustrados, led by Dr.Jose Rizal, M.H. del Pilar, and Graciano Lopez Jaena, organized the Propaganda Movement which wasa peaceful crusade for reforms. These Patriots were called Propagandist beacause they waged their movement by means of pen and tongue to expose the defects of Spanish rule in the Philippines and the urgency of reforms to remedy them. The Propaganda Movement failed,but the ideas of freedom and justice which it sowed paved the ground for the Philippine Revolution that the Katipunan and Andres Bonifacio began in the hills of Balintawak in August 1896.
After 1872, Philippine conditions went from bad to worse. The deportation of Filipino leaders to Spanish penal colonies, the persecution of the intellectuals, and the abuses of the Spanish masters continued unabated. The Filipino exiles of 1872 and many patriotic students abroad met in Hong Kong, Singapore, Barcelona, Madrid, Paris, London, and other foreign cities. Inspired by a common cause, they banded together and consecrated themselves to the work of promoting the welfare and happiness of their fatherland. Aggressively but peacefully, by means of their writings and speeches, they crusaded for reforms to rectify the evils of the spanish colonial system. The peaceful campaign for reforms was known in Philippine history as the “Propaganda Movement”. It began in 1872, when Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were executed at the Luneta and ended in 1896 when Rizal was exiled to Dapitan.
<ul><li>The Propaganda Movement was not a revolutionary or seditious affair. The men who led it were loyal to spain; they asked merely for reforms, not independence. The reforms which they asked were as follows; </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes. </li></ul><ul><li>Filipinization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the friars. </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights for Filipinos, such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom to meet and petition for redredd of grievances. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Propagandists were the scions of good families, highly intelligent, educated, patriotic, and courageous, who symbolized the flower of filipino manhood. Of these propagandists, one of the greatest was Marcelo H. del Pilar of Bulacan, lawyer and journalist, beloved by the masses for his eloquent Tagalog and fearless defense of the poor against friar abuses . </li></ul>Other Filipino propagandists worthy of mention wre Jose Rizal, physician-novelist and a many-splendored genius; Graciano Lopez Jaena, the greatest orator of the Propaganda Movement; Mariano Ponce, medical student and biographical writer; Juan Luna and felix Ressurreccion Hidalgo, master of the brush; Dr. Pedro A. Paterno, lawyer and man of letters; Antonio Luna, Pharmacist and Essayist; Pedro Serrano Laktaw, teacher-tutor of Prince Alfonso de bouron (later king Alfonso XIII of Spain); Jose Ma. Panganiban, Linguists and Essayist; Fernando Canon, Engineer and Musician; Jose Alejandrino, Engineer and Political writer; Isabelo delos Reyes, Folklorist, news-Paperman, and scholar; and Dominador Gomez, physician and orator.
<ul><li>The Filipino propagandists were not alone in their campaign for reforms, they were supported by foreigners. Foremost among them was Ferdinand Blumentritt,. He praised Rizal’s two novels (Noli and Fili) and wrote the “Prologue” to Rizal’s annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Paris, 1890). </li></ul><ul><li>Among the liberal Spaniards who aided the Filipino Propagandists was Don Juan Atayde. In September 1882 he founded a civic association of Spaniards and Filipinos in Madrid called Circullo Hispano-Filipino and published the newspaper Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Organized by the Filipino Students in Madrid. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Miguel Morayta , Statesman, historian, journalist, and Rizal’s professor at the Central University of Madrid. </li></ul><ul><li>Francisco Pi y Margall, statesman and former President of the First Spanish Republic (1873-1875) </li></ul><ul><li>Emilio Junoy, journalist and member of the cortes. </li></ul><ul><li>Msnuel Ruiz Zorrilla, parliamentarin and leader of the Spanish Republican Party. </li></ul>
<ul><li>On March 1, 1888, Manila was rocked by a tumultuous event. This was the anti-friar demonstration of hundreds of Filipino patriots led by the Manila patriotic lawyer, Doroteo Cortes, with the secret assistance of M. H. del Pilar and Jose A. Ramos, a London-educated rich merchant and leading Masonic leader. </li></ul><ul><li>The demonstrators, including many gobernadorcillos of the towns around Manila, marched through the city streets to the Ayuntamiento (City Hall) and formally submitted to acting Civil Governor Jose Centeno of Manila Province an anti-friar manifesto addressed to Queen Regent Maria Cristina. This manifesto, tittled “Long Live the Queen! Long Live the Army! Down with Friars!” </li></ul>
The “Anti-Friar Manifesto of 1888” denounced the anti-Filipino Archbishop, Pedro Payo, and the bad friars for medding in the movement, enriching themselves contrary to their monastic vow of poverty, opposing the teaching of Spanish language to the Filipinos, and keeping the Philippines in obscuranism. It requested the expulsion of the friars from the Philippines. As a result of the anti-friar demonstration and manifesto of 1888, the powerful friars avenged themselves by persecuting the leaders and signers of the manifesto, having them arrested and thrown into prison. Fortunately, the Spanish Queen Regent issued an amnesty in 1889 pardoning the patriotic demonstrators .
<ul><li>Graciano Lopez Jaena founded a fortnightly newspaper, La Solidaridad, in Barcelona on February 15 1889. </li></ul>
<ul><li>to portray vividly the deporable conditions of the Philippines, </li></ul><ul><li>To work peacefully for political and social forms </li></ul><ul><li>To combat the evil forces of medievalism and reaction </li></ul><ul><li>To advocate liberal ideas and progress and </li></ul><ul><li>To champion the legimate aspirations of the Filipino people for democracy and happiness. </li></ul>
La Solidaridad was printed in Barcelona from February 15 to October 31, 1889 until last issue on November 15, 1895. On December 1889, M.H. del Pilar replaced Jaena as its editor, remaining as such until the demise of La Solidaridad on November 15, 1895, after an existence of seven years.
Dr. Jose Rizal (Laan Laan) Mariano Ponce (Naning, Kalipulako or Tigbalang )
Antonio Luna (Taga-Ilog) Jose Ma. Panganiban (Jomampa)
Others… :D <ul><li>Antonio Ma. Regidor </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Pedro A. Paterno </li></ul><ul><li>Isabelo de los Reyes </li></ul><ul><li>Eduardo de Lete </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Alejandrino.. Etc.. </li></ul>In the last issue of La Solidaridad (November 15, 1895). M.H. del pilar wrote his farewell editorial saying : “We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery.”
<ul><li>Despite its political spirit, the Propaganda Movement produced certain meritorious literary works which contributed to the blossoming of Filipino literature. It gave birth to the first Filipino novel, Ninay, which was written by Dr. Pedro A. Paterno, doctor of laws and man-of-letters, and published at Madrid in 1885. He also wrote a volume of melodious poems Sampaguitas (Madrid, 1880) and a historical book, La Antigua Civilizacion Tagalog (Madrid, 1887) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Gregorio Sanciangco, economist and also a doctor of laws, authored the book entitled El Progreso de Filipinas (Madrid, 18810, and a treatise on colonial economics and politics in the Philippines. M.H. del Pilar, lawyer and journalist, excelled as political pamphleteer. His pamphletes were classics of satire, notably Dasalan at Tuksohan (1880), La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas (18880, and La Frailocracia Filipina (1889). Lopez Jaena, the greastest orator of the Propaganda, was also a gifted writer. In his satirical novelette, Fray Botod (Fat Friar). He ridiculed the Spanish friars who became very fat for eating too much and living in luxury at the expense of poor Filipinos, whom they abuse. In one of his articles published in La Solidaridad entitled “En Tinieblas” (In Utter Darkness), he lambasted the biased Spanish writers for their absurdities. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Antonio Luna </li></ul><ul><li>who wrote the book, Impresiones , a collection of essays describing the customs of the spaniards in Madrid. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Jose Ma. Panganiban </li></ul><ul><li>author of the crictical essay “La Universidad de Filipinas: Plan de Estudios” (published in La Solidaridad) which exposed the defects of the Church-dominated education in the Philippines, </li></ul><ul><li>Isabelo de los Reyes </li></ul><ul><li>folklorist and historians, who authored El folk-Lore Filipino (1887) and Historia de Ilocos (1890, 2 volumes) </li></ul><ul><li>Mariano Ponce </li></ul><ul><li>biographer, who wote the series “Celebres Filipinos” in La Solidaridad. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Dr. Jose Rizal, of Course was the greatest writer of the Propaganda Movement. Aside from his famous novels (Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo) he wrote many essays and poems of literary merit. He was als0 a formidable polemicist, as evidenced by his satirical replies to his detractors, notably La Vision del Frey Rodriguez (1889) , in which he exposed the stupidities and imbecilities of Frey Jose Rodriguez, first friar to attack the Noli and Por Telefono (1891), in which he lamponed Fray Salvador Front, who wrote the report of the censorship commission banning the Noli. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Masonry played a significant role in the Propaganda Movement. Many Filipino patriots turned Masons, including Marcelo H. del Pilar, G. Lopez Jaena, Rizal, Ponce, and others, because they needed help of the Masons in Spain and in other foreign countries in their fight for reforms. The first Filipino Masonic lodge called Revolution was founded by Lopez jaena in Barcelona and was recognized on April, 1889 by the Grande Oriental Espanol headed by Don Miguel Morayta. </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the end of 1891, M.H del Pilar, with the consent of the Grande Oriente Espanol, sent Serrano Laktaw to the Philippines to establish the First Filipino Masonic lodge in Manila. In compliance with his mission, Serrano Laktaw founded in Manila on January 6, 1892, Lodge Nilad, the first Filipino Masonic lodge in the Philippines. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Filipino propagandists and their Spanish friends organized the Asociacion Hispano-Filipino (Hispano-Philippine Association) in Madrid in January 12, 1889, for the purpose of securing reforms for the Philippines. The president was Don Miguel Morayta , Spanish professor at the University of Madrid. The vice president was General Felipe da la Corte, who had resided in the Philippines. Dominador Gomez was the sercretary. All Filipinos in Europe were considered active members, and prominent scholars and statesman of other nationalities were made honorary members. </li></ul>
<ul><li>To facilitate its work, the association was divided into three sections: </li></ul><ul><li>Political Section headed by M.H. del Pilar </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Section headed by M. Ponce </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation Section headed by Tomas Arejola </li></ul>
<ul><li>Liga Filipina. </li></ul>While living in HongKong, Rizal conceived the idea of establishing a civic association composed of Filipinos. He called it the Liga Filipina (Philippine League). He wrote its constitution with the help of Jose Ma. Basa, an exile of 1872. After finishing the constitution, he returned to Manila.
<ul><li>Shortly after arriving in Manila on June 26, 1892, Rizal conferred with Governor General Despujol. He succeeded in obtaining a pardon for his family, but failed to secure sanction for his project to establish a Filipino colony in Borneo. </li></ul><ul><li>On the night of July 3, 1892, Rizal founded the Liga Filipina (Philippine League) in a house at Ilaya Street, Tondo. According to its constitution, the aims of the League were the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Union of the Archipelago into a compact, vigorous and homogenous body. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Protection in all cases of pressing necessity. </li></ul><ul><li>Defense against all violence and injustice. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of education, agriculture and commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Study and application of reforms . </li></ul>The motto of the Liga Filipina was Unus Instar Omnium. The officers were as follows: Ambrosio Salvador, president; Agustin de la Rosa, fiscal; Bonidacio Arevalo, treasurer and DeodatoArellano, secretary. Among the members were Andres Bonifacio, Apolinario Mabini, Mamerito Natividad, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Moises Salvador, Jose A. Dizon, Domingo Franco, Timoteo Paez, Arcadio del Rosario, Numeriano Andrano, Timoteo Lanuza and Doroteo Ongjunco.
<ul><li>Rizal’s to Dapitan proved to be the swan song of the Propaganda Movement. The Liga Filipina collapsed. The radical Andres Bonifacio and other radical members separated from it, for they were disenchanted by the peaceful campaign. The conservative Liga members, including Domingo Franco, Numeriano Andriano, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista. Timoteo Paez and Apolinario Mabini, organized themselves into a new group called Los Compromisaros because each member pledged or promised to contribute money for the financial aid of the Propaganda Movement in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>For some months, the Compromisarios sent funds to M.H del Pilar in Madrid for the continued printing of La Solidaridad. But time came when many members of the Compromisarios stopped paying their contributions so that the flow of funds to spain ceased. And for lack of funds, La Solidaridad died out after its last issue on November 15, 1895. </li></ul>
<ul><li>With the demise of La Solidaridad , the Propaganda Movement came to a futile end. </li></ul>The Founding of the Katipunan . Andres Bonifacio, a member of the Liga Filipina , did not join the Compromisarios who were conservative intellectuals and affluent merchants because he was both poor and a man of action and radical views. He firmly believed that the happiness and welfare of the Filipino People could not be achieved by peaceful requests for reforms, but by violent revolution.