Malolos republic

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Malolos republic

  1. 1. MALOLOS REPUBLIC - the first Philippine Republic
  2. 2. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION AND DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Aguinaldo was proclaimed the president of the Philippine Republic in Malolos. </li></ul><ul><li>Aguinaldo established the Dictatorial Government in May 1898 to show the capacity of Filipinos for self-government, and a month later, the Revolutionary Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Diff. departments were created for the division of duties of the new government. </li></ul><ul><li>In September, the Congress was convoked at Malolos and a constitution prepared to guide the government in its prgress toward republicanism. </li></ul><ul><li>December 1898 – Treaty of Paris, the United States decided to take over the Philippines </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>THE DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Aguinaldo decided to establish a Filipino government in the wake of his military victories. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a draft of a plan for the establishment of a revolutionary government, prepared by Mariano Ponce . </li></ul><ul><li>Consul Wildman – advised Aguinaldo to establish a dictatorial government in which could lead to a republican government similar to that of the united States. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista – Aguinaldo’s 1 st adviser, who also told him to form a dictatorial government. </li></ul><ul><li>May 24 1898 – Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing the Dictatorial Government which nullified the orders issued under the authority of the Biak-na-Bato Republic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>TREATMENT OF ENEMY </li></ul><ul><li>May 29, 1898 – one of Aguinaldo’s 1 st acts as a dictator, urging the people to stop the disgraceful treatment of Spanish prisoners. </li></ul><ul><li>Aguinaldo issued another order on June 1, providing that all classes of crimes were to be tried by competent military tribunals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>June 5, 1898 – Aguinaldo issued a decree setting aside June 12 as the day for proclamation of Philippine Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Julian Felipe – composer from Cavite, who showed the draft of Composition entitled Marcha Filipina Magdalo which was later changed to Marcha Nacional Filipana . </li></ul><ul><li>June 12, 1898 – proclamation of the independence of the Philippines at Cavite el Viejo (Kawit). </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine National Flag – made in HongKong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo , and Delfina Herboza . </li></ul><ul><li>Act of Declaration of Independence – prepared by Ambrosio Riamzares Bautista, signed by 98 people, however was promulgated on August 1. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>APOLINARIO MABINI </li></ul><ul><li>Adviser of Aguinaldo, his two titles were </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dark Chamber of the President ” (for those who envied him) and “ Brains of the Revolution ”. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>REORGANIZATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Decree of June 18, 1898 – provided for the reorganization of local government in those provinces already freed from Spanish control. </li></ul><ul><li>Poblacion – Town, electors were to elect town chief , headman for each barrio, 3 delegates: for public & internal order, for justice & civil registry, and for taxes & property. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Assembly – Town chief->President, Headman->V.Pres, Delegate for justice and civil registry->Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary Congress – proposes measures concerning the preservation of internal order and external security of these lands. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE </li></ul><ul><li>Outlined in a supplementary decree of June 20, 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>Town chief was automatically the judge of the town. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Came after 1 month of Dictatorial Government through decree on June 23, 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Departments were created: 1) Dept. of Foreign Affairs, Navy and Commerce , 2) Dept. of War and Public Works , 3) Dept. of Police and Internal Order, Justice, Education and Hygiene , and 4) Dept. of Finance, Agriculture and Manufacturing Industry. </li></ul><ul><li>July 15, 1898 – 1 st Cabinet Appointments </li></ul><ul><li>* Baldomero Aguinaldo – war and public works </li></ul><ul><li>* Leandro Ibarra – interior * Mariano Trias – finance </li></ul><ul><li>foreign affairs was first offered to Mariano Ponce but he declined, so it was given to Mabini instead. </li></ul><ul><li>September 28 – 6 departments: Foreign Affairs, War, Interior, Welfare, Justice & Treasury. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>MALOLOS CONGRESS </li></ul><ul><li>*Revolutionary Congress at Barasoain, Malolos </li></ul><ul><li>September 4 - 50 delegates </li></ul><ul><li>September 10 - 60 delegates </li></ul><ul><li>Banda Pasig - played the National Anthem </li></ul><ul><li>Felipe Buencamino - wrote Aguinaldo's speech </li></ul><ul><li>Officers: President: Pedro A. Paterno Vice President: Benito Legarda 1st Secretary: Gregorio Araneta 2nd Secretary: Pablo Ocampo </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>The most important achievements of the Malolos Congress:  </li></ul><ul><li>1. In September 29, 1898, ratified the declaration of Philippine independence held at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 2. Passage of a law that allowed the Philippines to borrow P 20 million from banks for government expenses 3. Establishment of the Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools 4. Drafting of the Philippine Constitution 5. Declaring war against the United States on June 12, 1899 </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>The Malolos Constitution  </li></ul><ul><li>Mabini envisioned the Congress to be an advisory body of the President. </li></ul><ul><li>But his idea was contradicted by Congress when it opposed to draft a constitution. Congress advanced the opinion that a modern constitution </li></ul><ul><li>was imperative in order to secure the recognition of the Philippine independence by foreign powers. Manibi, on the other hand argued that a delicate task as the framing of the constitution  should be done in a peaceful and quiet mood </li></ul><ul><li>Mabini added that Congress was convoked not to frame a constitution, but to advise the President and to give him popular support.   </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>although his arguments were unassailable he was defeated by majority under the leadership of Paterno. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, Mabini submitted his Constitutional Plane of the Philippine Republic, but Congress, for the second time, overruled him. </li></ul><ul><li>A committee to draft the constitution was created, with Felipe G. Calderon as its mort prominent member. </li></ul><ul><li>the committee, under the influence of Calderon, also set aside, but in a subtle manner, Paterno's constitutional plan </li></ul><ul><li>With the advice of Cayettano Arellano, Calderon drew up his plans for a constitution, deriving inspiration from the constitutions of Mexico, Belgium, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil and France </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>In the session of October 8, Calderon presented the draft of his constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Printed copies of it were made on October 21, and discussions began at October 25, </li></ul><ul><li>The most tumultuous discussions occurred when the provision making Catholicism the religion of the State came up for consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>After much heated debates on the subject, the Congress voted on it. The result was a tie. </li></ul><ul><li>The second voting resulted in the victory of the separation of the Church and State. </li></ul><ul><li>The partisans of the separation won by only one vote: that of Pablo Tecson. </li></ul><ul><li>The provision of the subject of the state religion  was then  amended to read: </li></ul><ul><li>Article 5. The State recognizes the freedom and equality of religions, as well as the separation of the Church and State. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>A few other amendments were inserted in the draft constitution before it was sent to Aguinaldo for approval. On January 21, 1899, Aguinaldo promulgated what is now known as the Malolos Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>The protracted discussions that characterized the Congress sessions on the subject of whether or not Church and State should be united showed: </li></ul><ul><li>Filipinos as a people, though up in arms against Catholic Spain, were not anti-Catholic but merely anti-clerical, and second, </li></ul><ul><li>many of the delegates learned from the bitter lesson of the Philippine history in voting against the union of Church and State which, under Spain, was the fundamental basis of Spanish colonial system. </li></ul><ul><li>That decision became the cornerstone of Philippine democracy and showed not only the nationalism and democratic orientation of those who voted for the separation of Church and State, but also  their keen sense of history. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>The Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>- The Malolos Constitution: </li></ul><ul><li>important Filipino document ever produced by the people's representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>anchored in democratic traditions that ultimately had their roots on American soil. </li></ul><ul><li>created a Filipino State whose government was &quot;popular, representative and responsible&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>three distinct branches: the executive, the legislative and the judicial.  </li></ul><ul><li>specifically provided for safeguards against abuses and individual rights not only of the Filipinos, but also the aliens.    </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The legislative powers were exercised by the Assembly of Representatives composed of delegates elected according to law. </li></ul><ul><li>To make the function of Congress constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>sit as a law-making body when Congress was not in session </li></ul><ul><li>The Assembly elected the President of the Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cabinet, composed of the Secretaries of different departments of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>administration of justice was vested in the Supreme Court  </li></ul><ul><li>inferior courts to be established according to law. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was elected by the Assembly with the concurrence of the President and the Cabinet. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>The Malolos Constitution is unique for three reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>because of the provisions making the Assembly or the legislative branch superior to either the executive or the judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>because it provided for a Permanent Commission to sit as a legislative body when the Assembly was not in session </li></ul><ul><li>because it established a unicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Calderon feared the predominance of the ignorant military elements which were solidly behind Aguinaldo </li></ul><ul><li>Calderon made provision for the creation of a Permanent Commission, composed of Assembly delegates, which would sit as a legislative body when the Assembly was not in session. </li></ul><ul><li>By this method, the executive could not usurp the powers that could make him powerful enough to institute an &quot;oligarchy of ignoramuses.&quot; </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>The Philippine Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Owing to the objections of Mabini to some provisions of the constitution, Aguinaldo did not immediately promulgate it. The Congress leaders compromised with Mabini by agreeing to insert amendments to satisfy the President's closest adviser. On January 21,1899,Aguinaldo finally promulgated the Constitution. Earlier on January 2. he formulated his Cabinet as follows: Apolinario Mabini - President of the Cabinet and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Teodoro Sandico - Secretary of the Interior  Baldomero Aguinaldo - Secretary of War Mariano Trias - Secretary of finance Gracio Gonzaga - Secretary of Welfare, including Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerence </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Revolutionary Periodicals The revolutionary Government founded its official organ El Heraldo de la Revolucion, whose first number came out on September 29, 1898. Its name was subsequently changed to Heraldo Filipino, then to Indice Oficial, and finally to Graceta de Filipinas, whose last number came out on October 14,1899.These newspaper published the official texts of the decrees of the governmentand, of course, some news items and tagalong poems, all nationalistic in content. Most famous of these periodicals was La Independencia,edited and partly owned by General Antonio Luna.Its first number came out on September 3, 1898. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Some Great Filipino writers in Spanish and their Pennames: </li></ul><ul><li>Cecilio Apostol(Catullo) Jose Palma Rafael Palma(Dapit Hapon) Fernando Ma. Guerrero(Fulvio Gil) Epifanio de Los Santos(G. Solon) Jose G. Abreu (Kaibigan) Mariano V. Del Rosario (Tito-Tato) Salvador V. Del Rosario (Juan Tagalo) Rosa Sevilla Florentina Arellano </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Other nationalistic newspaper were La Republica Filipina, founded in Mandaluyong by Pedro A. Paterno, whose first number came out on September 15,1898, La Libertad, which came out in June 20, 1898 under the editorship of Clemente Jose Zulueta; Ang Kaibigan nang Bayan (The People’s Friend), Malolos, 1898; Columnas Volantes(Fly Sheets), Lipa,Batangas,1899;La Federacion, Kabatuan, Iloilo,1899; La Revolucion, Jaro, Iloilo,1898; Patria, Jaro, Iloilo 1899;La Oportunidad, Tagbilaran, Bohol,1899 and few others. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>January 23,1899 - Phillipine Republic's Inauguration at Malolos Aguinaldo took his oath of the officer after having been informed that he had been proclaimed President of the Republic.The Malolos Constitution was read article by article, and the army took its oath of loyalty before the president. A review of troops and procession followed. Aguinaldo issued a decree granting pardon to all Spanish prisoners of war who were not members of the Spanish regular army and at the same time, granting the Spaniards and other aliens the right to engage in business within the limits of the Repubilc. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>in a country like the Philippines a bicameral legislature might only need to delay in administrative  efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>that there were not enough competent Filipinos to fill the seats of a bicameral legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution as whole is a monument to the capacity of the Filipinos to chart their own course along democratic lines. </li></ul><ul><li>In a period of storm and stress, it symbolized the ideals of people who had emerged from the Dark Ages into the light of Reason. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>The educational problem merited the attention of the Filipino leaders. Owing to the destruction of many schools and to the peace and order condition, all the schools were closed for the time being. The Revolutionary Government took steps to open classes as soon as circumstances permitted. On August 29, 1898, the Secretary of the Interior ordered the provincial governors to re-establish the schools that had been abandoned before. To continue giving instruction to the people, Aguinaldo included in the budget for 1899 an item for public instruction amounting to P35,000. On October 24, a decree was issued outlining the curriculum of the Burgos Institute. Higher education was provided for when, in a decree of October 19, 1898, Aguinaldo created the Literary University of the Philippines . The first appointed president of the University was Dr. Joaquin Gonzalez . He was succeeded by Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero, who delivered the commencement address on September 29, 1899. The University did not live long, for the conflict with the Americans led its faculty and students to disperse. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Diplomatic Activities </li></ul><ul><li>In order to persuade the foreign Powers to recognize Philippine independence, Aguinaldo created diplomatic positions abroad. The first step taken was the promulgation of decrees creating committees abroad for the purpose of carrying on propaganda activities for the Revolutionary Government. On June 24 and August 10, 1898, Aguinaldo issued two decrees providing for the establishment of the Hong Kong Junta whose members were to represent the Philippines in different countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently, the diplomatic agents were appointed: </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li> Felipe Agoncillo for the </li></ul><ul><li>United States… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mariano Ponce & Faustino Lichauco for </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antonio Regidor for </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Juan Luna and for </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro Roxas </li></ul><ul><li>And Eriberto Zarcal for Australia. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>In France, the Paris Committee was established by the prominent Filipino residents of the city, and in Spain, the Madrid Committee, namely, to work for the recognition of Philippine independence by the foreign Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Agoncillo, accompanied by his secretary Sixto Lopez, went to the United States to work for American recognition of Philippine independence, but his attempts to secure an official audience with President McKinley failed. He sailed to Europe to appeal to the American Peace Commissions to give the Filipinos a chance to be heard on a question that deeply affected their future, but in this too, he failed. He returned to Washington to fight the ratification of the Treaty of Paris by Senate, but the Filipino – American hostilities forced him to flee for his life. He returned to Paris and there continued his patriotic, if futile, activities. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>TREATY OF PARIS </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol of Peace(August 12, 1898) - Signed by 5 American commissioners and 5 Spanish commissioners were appointed to meet in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Commissioners ( Cushman Davis, William P. Frye, Whitelaw Reid, George Gray, and William R. Day.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Commissioners (Chairman Eugenio Montero Rios, Bueneventura Abarzuza, Jose de Garnica, Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa Urrutia, General Rafael Cerero) </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>The Peace Commission (October - December 1898) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed about the legal points but both sides refused to give in. The American commissioners served an ultimatum on the Spanish commissioners who believed that the Americans should be gracious and gallant in their hour of victory. </li></ul><ul><li>Having being instructed, the American commissioners demanded the cession of the entire Philippines to the United States, were not in a mood to humor their Spanish counterparts and insisted on their main demand. Helpless, The Spanish Commissioners finally agreed. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>The Treaty of Paris was Signed on December 10, 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>It provided that Spain would cede the Philippines to the United States in return for 20,000,000 USD from United States for the improvements made in the colony. Which, the United States, agreed to give the Spaniards the right to commodites to the Philippines for 10 years on the same terms as those of the United States. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Ratification of the Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Paris did not go into effect until after the American Senate has ratified it. </li></ul><ul><li>The proponents of of ratification did not command a majority in the Senate. They believe that the treaty was unfair to the Filipinos. </li></ul><ul><li>February 4, 1899 - The unfortunate rupture of Filipino-American hostilities led many opponents of ratification to vote affirmatively. </li></ul><ul><li>February 6, 1899 - The treaty was ratified by 2/3 majority. </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>American Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>After the ratification, the American propaganda made it appear that the Filipinos fired the first shots that led to the Filipino-American Hostilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, the American senators voted for the belief that the Filipinos caused the Rupture of Filipino-American relations. </li></ul><ul><li>It directed mainly by the instruments of imperialists, won and thereafter the Philippines became a territory of the United States  </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Cushman Davis George Gray </li></ul><ul><li>William Day </li></ul><ul><li>William Frye </li></ul>

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