.Electrity INDEX.How does an electric power plant works?.Types of electric power plantsNuclear powers plantsThermal powers plantsHydroelectric power plantsWind powers plantsSolar powers plantsGeothermal power plantsBiomass Thermal power plants
MORE INDEXOcean power plantsEnvironment impactsStage of energy consumptionExtraction of natural resourcesTransport fuelsEnergy generationFinal useWaste treatmentSome solution for environment problemsCan wind energy produce fresh water?
ElectricityIt is the flow or movement of electrons though a material.It is the most used energy in our society, because it can be transformed easily and it can be transporyed long distances.
How does an electric power plant works?In a generating plant,the energy of different fuels is converted into another form of energy. This occurs in a turbine-alternator system. The fan-like blades turn with the help of energy inside the turbine. The shaft turn with the blades.This caused a magnetic field that makes generator to move and this produce electricity. Electricity cannot be stored,it must be transported to consumption centres
Types of Electric Power PlantsNon-conventional Conventional Nuclear Power Wind farms Plants Solar power Plants Fossil fuel Geothermal power thermal power plants Plants Biomass thermal Hydroelectric power plants Power Plants Ocean power plants
Nuclear power plantEnergy is produce from a nuclear fission.When a radioactive mineral breaks down produce heat, this ocurr in the reactor.Then in the pipes the high pressure steam that was produced move a turbine and a generator.This produce electricity.The most used energy mineral is uranium. Advantage: the produce a lot of energy.Disvantage: an accident can be very dangerous for environment
Advantage: Disvantage:the produce a lot of energy. an accident can be very dangerous for environmentThey dont generate polluting and society. gases to the atmosphere as fossils fuels The waste generate cant be eliminated
Thermal power plantFuels(coal,fuel oil...)are burn in the boiler, these produce heat than converts the water into high pressure steam.This make turn a turbine that is connecte to a generator,it produce electricity.
Advantages: Disdvantages:Fuels are cheap It produce pollutant smokes and fumes.They require less space than other Huge requirement of waterWaste" heat might be used for district heating, or an industrial Efficiency of thermal plant is quite process less
Combines cycle power plantElectricity is roduced by the burn of a mixture of air and gas.That, in a boiler, transform into high pressure gas that move aaturbine and a generator. The combustion gases are transported toanother boiler where the heat of the gas is used to heat water.That is a second cycle.This type of power plant produce more electricuty and performs better than the other ones that have only one cycle.
Hydroelectric power plantsThey use the force of the water. The force of gravity and the height of the flow of water helps the move of the bladews of the turbine to turn quicklier by kinetic energy There are 2000 hydroelectric powerplants in the USA. This makes USA one of the biggest producers of Hydraulic energy.
Gravity-driven hydraulic power plants: Water used follows thecourse okf a river. Water is not reuse.Pump-driven hydraulic power plants: water descent to anotherreservoir in a lower heigh. Tha water stored on it is pumped to the highestlevel again. Water is reuse
Wind Power PlantsWind power plants usethe force of the wind formove the blades whichtourn a generatour atthe top a the mills. It isone of the bestalternatives to fossilfuels because windenergy is clean andrenewable.
Wind farmsTheyre groups of wind turbines together. Thay can beOnshore : Theyre on the landOffshore : Theyre on the sea near coast. Europe is leader of this type of wind energy.
Solar Power PlantsThey can be:Photovoltaic power plants : They use sun energy to produce electricity. They can be also named as Solar cells. Theyre made of semiconductive materials and the energy provided is produced by a group of Solar Cells connected together. They need large places full of Solar Cells. There are also Smaller power plants called Isolated wich are used for domestic production.
Photo-thermal power plants:Use the heat of the sun for heating water that produce steam that turn a rotor in a generator. They use Heliostats ( strange type of mirror that reflect the sunlight and concentrate it at one point)
Geothermal Power PlantsThey use the subsoil heat founded at deep leevls of the earth crust. This heat reach the surface in the form of steam, hot water or gases They can be: Directly: That use the stracted heat directly Indirectly: Use the heat for production of electricity.
Biomass Thermal Power PlantsThey produce energy from the burning of organic compounds such as urba, agricultural and food wastes.This occurs in Biomas Power Plants, where fuels are burned to produce energy that heat water which produce steam that move a generator.
Ocean Power PLantsThey use the force of sea to move a turbine and a generator which produce electricity. They use:Energy from tidesEnergy from wavesTheyre not very usual because their production is low
Environmental impact assessmentIs the evalution of the possible negative or positive impact that theelectric power plants can made in the environment.Environmentalimpact:The diferences forms of electric power plants,madeenvariomental impacts, in their building and operating. .
The impact of each electric power plantName of the power Environmental impactplant.FOSSIL FUEL THERMAL POWER PLANT: The air is pollute because the combustion.The cooling system release warm water.The extraction and production of the coal, oil and natural gas can produce dust, noise,hydrocarbon emissions, solid and liquid waste, blowouts, leaks.NUCLEAR: The waste that are produce are non recycable, it only can be use once.The radiation contamination pollute the plants, the water and the animalsHydroelectric: Produce a lot of carbon dioxide , methane and gases of greenhouse effect.Seasonal changes in water level produces a continuous supply of material decomposition.The environment change.Wind power Cause a visual impact, because always there are a lot of wind turbines.Also cause a sound impact,because there are not insulations.But there are not polllution.Solar: It can produce pollution if contact with the environment.It need large areas.It can produce changes in the flora and in the fauna. During the manufacture of the materials used for solar panels and solar cells (steel, copper and aluminum,that are often used as raw material) produces pollution.Biomass Produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and in some cases oxides of sulfer, when biomass it burns.If we use a lot of biomass can affect the greenhouse effects.Ocean power: There are not visual impact.Only there are impact when it is building.Affect to the animals, that some of them were killed.
Stage of the energy consumption1.EXTRACTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES 2. FUEL TRANSPORT
Extraction of energy resourcesThe deforestation of the areas where the resources are is ocurr,this causes serious consequences to the environment.Also this causes that the resources are running out.Pollute the air and the water by the machines and techniques that are use to the extraction.The changes in the fauna and in the flora.Can be environment damage cause by accident.Uranium mining leads to radioactive dust releases, mine water seepage, protection of workers from radioactivity, and the disposal of a large quantity of mine waste containing a low level of radioactivity.Coal mining, particularly surface mining, has both long-term and short-term effects on land...
Fuel TransportIs transport in oil pipelines and oil tankers. 1.Oil pipelines can cause damage in the environment by nature or human error.This lead a spill.If there are a leak or a break can damage the soil and the water.Some agricultural activities will be affect.Can cause the disappearance of the plants in a forest...They can change the marina environment, if they are building near the coast. 2.If Oil tankers spill afect directy to the soil,water,air and flora and fauna. The sand of the beaches is very difficult to clean,is neccesary years to clean all, this leave the soil unusable.The water has less oxygen,organic and inorganic material and it has more salinity.The flora and fauna cant live in the sea or ocean and began to die.
Electricity GenerationConventional thermal power plants produce different problems: When they burns the carbon we transform into carbon dioxide, that it stays in the atmosphere ,this increase the greenhouse effect and the global warming. They also emit sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide that contribute to the acid rain and the smog.They damage a lot the environment. The animals and plants of the marine ecosystem are affected by the warm water used in the cooling system that is expelled to the oceans, rivers andseas.
Hydroelectric power plants: They needs water reservoirs , and this change the water circle of the rivers.Sometimes flood large land areas. They block the fish routes, and destroy river ecosystems.Nuclear thermal power plant: The release of the nuclear wastes is very difficult and dangerous because they are radioactive. Accidents in nuclear power plants have a high risk of environmental contamination Nuclear accidents can cause large amounts of radioactive contamination, many deaths, and leave the near land unusable for the next century
Final Use:The fuels that we use in some of our daily needsproduce gases that pollute the air, for example thevehicles.All the electricity that we use before causeenvironmental impacts during it extraction,transportation and generation.We have to thing aboutit.
Waste TreamentWaste and their consequences from the thermal power plant can be reduce if we: Use carbon with low sulphur to reduce the acid rain that is produce bay this element Maintain and increase the forests that act as a sink of the carbon dioxide. Install special filters to the canonades of the power plant to catch some pollutants gases for example : sulphur and nitrogen oxide..
Nuclear power plant waste : Is stored in steel drums,it must be close very well to prevent leaks , it is buried underground in specialized sites Also in ocean trenches can be store,but have the risk of the material leaking because the steel drums corroding
Some solution for enviromental problems Effiency: ● We have tu reduce the energy that we consume,use for example electric car, of use products that have low fuels. ● The goverment has to worry about the pollution problems, have to implant environment laws, and have to punish the people dont carry out them .Energy savings:Adopt our live to reduce the comsuption of all forms of energy, and habits that are moreenvironmentally.Examples: ● Use transport that pollute less( public or bicycles) ● Turn off the electrical appliances when we stop use. ● Dont open the window if the heating is set. ● Try to save water ● .Dont turn on the light if it is day.Replaces the normal bulbs for low consumption bulbs.Energy diversificationThe fundamental thing is to use renewable energy suchas:wind,solar,biomass,ocean,hydroelectric,because the non-renewable such as fuelsare more expensive and will end.And use to produce electricity alternative powerplants.The goverments also help to aim this objective
Can wind energy produce fresh water? Yes.A French eneering discovered a formto do this.Eole water is working now in aprototype.Firts the energy is produce like the normalswind turbines, the kinetic energy of the windmove the blades of a rotor that is on a top of atower.Then an air blower sucked airthought a nose that is in the turbine.Aelectric cooling compressor extracts thehumidity of the air that it condensed and it iscollected.The water collect is carry throughstainless steel pipes to a tank in theturbine.Finally the water that was obtain isfiltered and purified,then is ready for useand consume.