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[Report] The State of Social Business 2013: The Maturing of Social Media into Social Business

Altimeter Group conducts regular social business surveys to learn how social media is evolving within enterprise organizations. Analysis of survey results between 2010-2013 reveal that social media is extending deeper into organizations and, at the same time, strategies are maturing. What was previously a series of initiatives driven by marketing and PR is now evolving into a social business movement that looks to scale and integrate social across the organization. The following report reveals how businesses are expanding social efforts and investments. As social approaches its first decade of enterprise integration, we still see experimentation in models and approach. There is no one way to become a social business. Instead, social businesses evolve through a series of stages that ultimately align social media strategies with business goals.

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The State of Social Business 2013:
The Maturing of Social Media
into Social Business
By Brian Solis and Charlene Li
With Jessica Groopman, Jaimy Szymanski, and Christine Tran
Based on results from Altimeter Group’s 2010-2013 annual
survey of social media strategists and executives
A State of the Industry Report
October 15, 2013
Altimeter Group conducts regular social business surveys to learn how
social media is evolving within enterprise organizations. While we’ve
included our Q4 2012 data in previous reports, we are now making
the survey results available to the public under a Creative Commons
License as part of our Open Research. Some figures in this report
also use survey results from 2010-2011 to provide year-over-year
comparisons. Where relevant, we include results from our latest survey
that was conducted in Q3 2013.
Analysis of our survey results reveal that social media is extending
deeper into organizations and, at the same time, strategies are
maturing. What was previously a series of initiatives driven by
marketing and PR is now evolving into a social business movement
that looks to scale and integrate social across the organization. The
following report reveals how businesses are expanding social efforts
and investments. As social approaches its first decade of enterprise
integration, we still see experimentation in models and approach.
There is no one way to become a social business. Instead, social
businesses evolve through a series of stages that ultimately align
social media strategies with business goals.
Our hope is that the data shared in this report provides some
perspective on where your company is today so that you can chart
your own course for social business evolution. Some ways to use the
data include:
1.	 Benchmark where you are compared to the various business
stages shared in this report.
2.	 Document existing challenges and opportunities that you will
need to address for your 2014 social business plan.
3.	 Determine how social strategies can better align with business
objectives and priorities.
4.	 Finally, follow along with Altimeter Group’s Seven Success Factors
of Social Business Strategy to expedite your transition from social
media to social business.
Executive Summary
6.	 Top priorities for social include scaling for engagement,
integrating data, and training/education around social.
7.	 Measuring the impact of social is maturing, with over half of
organizations able to track the impact of social on marketing
efforts.
8.	 Lack of employee training around social media policies remains
a significant risk area — only 18% of companies said that their
employees have a good or very good understanding of their
social media policies.
Highlights of Findings
1.	 In terms of social business maturity, most organizations are
“intermediate,” with only 17% who are truly strategic in the
execution of their social strategies.
2.	 The lack of clear leadership, organization, and strategy means
that many organizations experience some form of “social
anarchy,” of siloed, uncoordinated social efforts.
3.	 More companies are moving to the Multiple Hub and Spoke
model to organize their social business programs, up from 18% in
2010 using this model to 23.6% in 2013.
4.	 Most dedicated social media teams continue to report to
Marketing (40%) or Corporate Communications/PR (26%). But
now, 13 different departments around the organization are seeing
dedicated staff work on social initiatives.
5.	 Companies are committing more headcount to social media
across all sizes of companies. The biggest jump is for companies
with more than 100,000 employees, which now report an average
of 49 full-time employees (FTEs) supporting social media in the
organization, compared to 20 in 2010.
3
The State of Social Business: 2012 Benchmark Study
In our report, The Evolution of Social Business: Six Stages of Social Business Transformation,
we found that even though social media is making its way into more and more businesses,
companies that adopt it are not created equal when it comes to social media maturity.
Our research revealed a distinct gap between companies that execute social media
strategies and those that are truly a “social business.” A social business, as we defined
in the report, is the deep integration of social media and social methodologies into the
organization to drive business impact.
As companies mature in social, we identified a natural progression through six distinct
stages:
Stage 1: Planning — Listening and learning to ensure a strong foundation of strategy and
resource development, organizational alignment, and execution. Do not currently have a
significant presence in social media channels.
Stage 2: Presence — Staking claim and moving from planning to action, establishing a
formal and informed presence in social media.
Stage 3: Engagement — Making a commitment where social becomes critical to
relationship-building along the entire customer lifecycle.
Stage 4: Formalized — Organizing for scale in social deployment and engagement across
multiple departments, business units, and sub-brands.
Stage 5: Strategic — Becoming a social business; social initiatives are gaining visibility
through business impact. Social methodologies and technologies become integrated
across functions.
Stage 6: Converged — Business is social; social media strategies weave into the fabric
of an evolving organization driven by a vision of improving customer and employee
relationships and experiences.
We found that while most companies have an established presence, engage actively
with customers, or even have formalized programs, only 17% consider themselves at the
higher ends of social business maturity (see Figure 1).
Figure 1:
Most Enterprises Characterize Themselves as Intermediate in Social Business Maturity
Q. How would you characterize where your organization is in its social business evolution? (Q3 2013)
6%
25%
26% 26%
14%
3%
Stage 1
Planning
Stage 2
Presence
Stage 4
Formalized
Stage 5
Strategic
Stage 6
Converged
Stage 3
Engagement
4
27%
26%
20%
18%
9%
Distributed social media approach:
Where lines of business and business
functions independently manage and fund
social media strategies to create departmental
outcomes, i.e., sales, service, marketing, HR.
Holistic social media approach:
Where lines of business and business functions
operate against an enterprise-level vision and
strategy — they act independently, but in
a unified and complementary fashion.
Marketing/Communications multi-channel approach:
Where activity is based on a one-to-many
distribution, i.e., same content calendar
for every social network and
controlled centrally.
Marketing/Communications single-channel focus:
Creates individual content plans
for specific social sites and
channels like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn,
YouTube, blogs, etc.
Customer-service focus:
Emphasis is on listening
to customer conversations
and resolving
customer issues.
Social Media Programs Still Foster “Social Anarchy” Only Half of Executives Are Aligned with the Social Strategy
Social media programs often exist in siloes within the organization, creating a form of
“social anarchy” when leadership, strategy, and organization are not aligned. We found
that only 26% of companies approach social media holistically, operating against a
common enterprise vision (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: Few Companies Approach Social Media Holistically
Q. Which of the following statements best match your
organization’s definition of social strategy? (Q4 2012)
In addition, only 52% of executives are informed, engaged, and aligned with their
company’s social strategy (see Figure 3). This, of course, limits social media’s growth
path. We found, though, that executives who get on board with social do so because
strategies track toward tangible business objectives. This places organizations across
multiple stages, including Presence, Engagement, and Formalized in their social
business evolution.
Figure 3: Half of Executives Are Informed, Engaged, and Aligned with Social Strategy
Q. Below are number of statements that describe elements of a social strategy. Please indicate the
extent to which you agree that each statement describes your organizations. (Q4 2012)
65%
60%
61%
52%
52%
48%
34%
27%
Risk management around social media
is well understood by Legal/Compliance, and risk
mitigation/crisis management policies and
processes are in place throughout the organization.
Roles, responsibilities, and governance
of people directly and indirectly responsible for
the execution and support of social efforts are identified,
resourced, and in place throughout the organization.
Social strategy
is connected to
business goals and
outcomes.
A long-term vision for
how social media will improve
customer relationships
has been articulated.
Top executives are
informed, engaged, and
aligned with our
social strategy.
The social strategy includes a
detailed road map for what
it will do — and also not do — over
the next 1+ years.
Employees at all levels are aware and trained
on how to use (or not to use) social media
in both their jobs as well as personal lives
in ways that will positively impact the organization.
There are clear metrics used
throughout the organization
that associate social activities
with business outcomes.
5
Social Business Gains Traction Throughout the Organization Organizations Still Experiment with Several Models to Support Social Media
A key part of social business is how and where it lives in the organization. We found that
78% of companies have a dedicated social media team — with 22% having them at both
the corporate and division level (see Figure 4). Only 22% do not have a dedicated team
yet.
Figure 4: Three-Quarters of Companies Have a Dedicated Social Media Team
Q. Does your company have a dedicated social media team that serves the entire company or
division as a shared resource? (Q3 2013)
Organizations continue to use a variety of models to support social media programs. We
found that no one format is permanent or dominant. Many companies start with a model
that mirrors the culture of their company today. As programs develop, new models are
tested to expand social media across disciplines, departments, and lines of business.
Most companies continue to organize as Hub and Spoke (35%), but the biggest shift
was companies moving toward Multiple Hub and Spoke, increasing from 18% in 2010
to almost 24% in 2012 (see Figure 5). Multiple Hub and Spoke is gaining traction with
organizations that move along the stages of social media maturity as it brings disparate
groups together to solve for challenges that prevent social integration into everyday
workflow.
Figure 5: Companies Continue to Organize for Social Media as Hub and Spoke, with a
Shift Toward Multiple Hub and Spoke
14%
22%
Yes, at the
division level
22% Not yet
Yes, at the
corporate and
division level
42%Yes, at the
corporate level
2010
2012
10.8%
9.4%
28.8%
29.1%
41%
35.4%
18%
23.6%
1.4%
2.4%
Decentralized
No one department
manages or coordinates;
efforts bubble up from
the edges of the company.
Hub and Spoke
A cross-functional team
sits in a centralized position
and helps various nodes, such
as business units.
Holistic
Everyone in the company
uses social media safely
and consistently across
all organizations.
Centralized
One department
(like Corp Communications)
manages all social activities.
Multiple Hub and Spoke
(“Dandelion”)
Similar to Hub and Spoke but
applicable to multinational
companies where
“companies within companies”
act nearly autonomusly from each
other under a common brand.
6
7
Social Media Headcount Expanded Rapidly Marketing and Communications Become the Social Media Core
The number of full-time employees supporting social media is on the rise. Between 2010
and 2012, companies with over 5,000 employees have increased staffing for enterprise
social efforts (see Figure 6). Moreover, the number of people in specific social media
roles has also increased over time (see Figure 7).
Figure 6: Social Media Headcount Across the Organization Is Blooming
Q. Approximately how many full-time equivalent staff currently support social efforts
in your organization, for external and internal engagement?
Figure 7: The Core Social Media Team Increases in Size
Q. How many full-time or full-time equivalent employees make up this dedicated social media team?
(Answer for the team(s) you are most familiar with.)
By far, most core social media teams reside in Marketing or Corporate Communications
and PR, accounting for 66% of all businesses surveyed (see Figure 8). Social media is
also making headway as its own group, now matching core digital teams at 14%. As
social media becomes part of everyday engagement across the enterprise, the core
social media team will continue to grow as a critical enabler that helps the business
learn how to be social. With the expansion of social media across the enterprise,
businesses will move along the Formalized and Strategic stages of social business
evolution. This sets the stage for social media to operate in alignment with overall
business, lines of business, and functional goals.
Figure 8:
Core Social Media Teams Reside Largely in Marketing or Corporate Communications/PR
Q. In which department does your CORE social me team reside? (Q4 2012)
Marketing
Corporate Comm/PR
Social Media
Digital
Advertising
Customer Support
Executive
IT
Other
40%
26%
14%
14%
2%
2%
1%
1%
6%
Employees in Company Average # of Staff
2010 2012
1,000 to < 5,000
5,000 to < 10,000
10,000 to < 50,000
50,000 to < 100,000
More than 100,000
3.1
5.2
5.4
23.8
20.4
3.1
19.4
12.0
27.9
49.4
Role 2011 Average 2013 Average
Social Strategist
Business Unit Liaison
Content Strategist
Education/Training Manager
Community Manager
Web Developer
Social Media Manager
Social Analyst
Total
1.5
1.5
N/A
5
3
1.5
2
1
11
1.6
1.7
1.7
0.8
2.5
3.4
2.2
1.6
15.6
.
8
Social Media Expands into Social Business 2013 Viewed as the Year Where Social Scales and Integrates
While priorities such as metrics and training remain top priorities, new initiatives are
getting attention, such as scaling social programs, making sense of social data, and
integrating with digital and mobile efforts (see Figure 10). This is supported by related
objectives to develop internal education and training, up to 43%, and connect employees
with social tools, at 23%. Companies can’t scale social media across the enterprise with
a core team alone. As businesses move toward Formalized, Strategic, and Converged
stages, strategists learn that housing social in one group hinders growth, scale, and
internal distribution, leaving strategy development and execution in either the core
or among external agencies. To truly scale social throughout the enterprise takes
empowerment where it becomes a new instrument to achieve business goals.
Figure 10:
In 2013, Companies Prioritized Measurement, Training, and Scaling Programs
Q. In 2013, what are your top internal social media objectives?
In just a few years, dedicated employees have spread out beyond marketing and
communications to proliferate other key functions and lines of business. At least 13
different business units across the enterprise may deploy social media (see Figure
9). Most notably, customer support (40%) and digital (37%) have become part of the
everyday social mix. And while HR has traditionally used social for recruitment, social is
also now expanding to be used for employee engagement, development, and retention.
The number of social media practitioners is also increasing in areas where social hasn’t
infiltrated before. Product Development, Customer Experience (CX)/User Experience
(UX), Legal, and Research are among areas that are evolving into social business. As this
migration continues, the need for all groups to work together and in line with one overall
vision and philosophy will set the stage for a Converged social business.
Figure 9: At Least 13 Business Units Have Dedicated Social Media Staff
Q. In which of the following departments are there dedicated people
(can be less than one FTE) executing social? (Q4 2012)
Marketing
Corporate Comm/PR
Social Media
Digital
Product Department/R&D
Advertising
Customer/User Experience
Customer Support
Executive
Legal
IT
HR
Market Research
73%
66%
40%
37%
35%
29%
16%
16%
15%
14%
9%
8%
11%
48%
48%
43%
37%
40%
25%
33%
27%
23%
2012 2010
26%
15%
30%
15%
35%
15%
35%
13%
32%
7%
22%
Create metrics that demonstrate
the value of social media
Develop internal
education and training
Scale our
social programs
Connect social data to other enterprise data
sources to deliver actionable insight
Integrate social media
with digital and mobile
Connect employees
with social tools
Develop a
listening/monitoring solution
Determine an
organizational/governance model
Apply social insight to
the product roadmap
Get buy-in
from stakeholders
Create policies
and procedures
9
Social Strategies Focus on Content, Engagement, and Support
Outcomes and Measurement Favor Marketing and
Customer Experience Objectives
Given the deep learnings from five-plus years of experience, it’s little surprise that
respondents shared that they were able to see and measure positive outcomes for
marketing optimization, customer experience, and brand health social initiatives (see
Figure 12). In progress toward a fully Converged social business, customer experience
and brand health become critical KPIs as they are a social reflection of a company’s
brand promise, reputation, and engagement strategy.
Figure 12: Social Media Programs Demonstrate Positive Outcomes for Marketing
Optimization, Customer Experience, and Brand Health
Q. Which of the following outcomes can you atribute to your social business program
in the last 12 months? (Q3 2013)
Content marketing, engagement, listening, and providing direct customer support
became higher social priorities in 2013, with more than half naming content marketing
(see Figure 11). Content marketing as a key objective signifies that brands are looking at
social media as a means to tell stories, market, and create awareness, preference, and
even demand.
On the other hand, notable decreases in social commerce, advocacy, and collaboration
programs signify a need to prioritize objectives rather than spread investments, time,
and resources across too many initiatives.
Figure 11:
Top External Social Priorities Focus on Content, Engagement, Listening, and Support
Q. In 2013, what are your top three external social media objectives?
We have formalized metrics that show positive outcomes
We have not been able to tie this to positive outcomes
We have not formally measured this yet
53%
45%
45%
24%
19%
18% 29% 52%
37% 42%
35% 39%
26% 29%
23% 29%
23% 21%
Marketing Optimization:
Improvement in effectiveness
of marketing programs
Customer Experience:
Improvement in relationship with
customers, experience with brand
Brand Health:
Improvement in attitudes, conversation,
and behavior toward our brand
Innovation:
Increase in product R&D
and innovation
Operation Efficiency:
Reduction in company
expenses, e.g., customer service
Revenue Generation:
Increase in actual product
revenue, leads, conversions
57%
50%
43%
41%
38%
32%
16%
27%
25%
47%
16%
25%
14%
20%
13%
21%
9%
14%
9%
22%
2012 2010
Content
marketing
Developing ongoing dialog and
engagement with customers
Listening/learning
from customers
Providing direct customer support
through social channels
Developing an influencer relations
or ambassador program
Website
integration
Formalizing an
advocacy program
Collaboration with customers on
new products/services
Mobile/
Location
Enabling
peer-to-peer support
Social
commerce
10
Social Budgets Stayed Constant in 2013 Social Media Spending Focuses on Enabling a Social Business
Social media investments are distributed across all aspects of social business
enablement, with companies mostly planning to increase spending on social media
management systems (SMMS) to help scale engagement (see Figure 15). The second
area is spending on training and education as organizations seek to educate those
outside of the core social media teams on how to integrate social into everyday
processes.
Figure 15: In 2013, Nearly Half of Social Strategists Planned to Increase Spending on
Social Media Management Systems and Internal Training and Education
In 2013, there was little movement in social budgets from the previous year (see Figure
13). Nearly half of companies’ social budgets are less than $100K or between $100K to
$500K. Within those budgets, the highest technology spend was for listening/monitoring
platforms, followed closely by analytics and community platforms (see Figure 14).
Figure 13: Social Budgets Stayed Constant in 2013
Figure 14: Listening/Monitoring, Analytics, and Community Platforms Are the Biggest
Social Technology Spends in 2013
Listening/monitoring platforms $62,000
Analytics platforms $54,600
Community platforms $51,900
Social media management systems $34,700
Enterprise social networks $29,400
Social CRM $14,800
More than $5 million
2013 Projection
$100,000 to < $500,000
Less than $100,000
$500,000 to < $1 million
$1 million to < $5 million
2012
26%
34%
25%
23%
6%
4%
11%
9%
5%
5%
Social media management systems
(Hootsuite, Spredfast, Sprinklr)
Training and education
(workshop, conferences, webinars)
Custom technology development
or data integration services
Social app
development
Listening/monitoring platforms
(Radian6, Scout Labs, Crimson Hexagon, NetBase)
External agency to support engagement
(e.g., moderate Facebook page)
Analytics platforms
(Webtrends, Omniture, Coremetrics)
Community platforms
(Lithium, Jive, Get Satisfaction)
Blogger/Influencer networks
(Federated Media, NetShelter, BlogHer)
Enterprise social network
(Yammer, Chatter)
Social
CRM
47%
47%
45%
43%
43%
38%
37%
33%
25%
23%
22%
11
Social Media Risk Management Needs Improvement Social Media Education Is at Best Fair
Our survey revealed that employee knowledge of social media usage and company
policies is lacking across the board (see Figure 18). This ties back to the “social anarchy”
that’s brewing within the organization today. Only 18% of those surveyed believed that
employees have a good or very good understanding of social media and organizational
policies (see Figure 19).
Figure 18: Most Organizations Admit Employees Have Little Knowledge of Their Social
Media Policies
Q. What is the knowledge level of employees about social media usage and
the organizational social media policies? (Q4 2012)
Figure 19: Only a Third of Companies Have Formal Social Media Training
Q. Select the description that best fits your current social media education efforts: (Q3 2013)
While 65% of companies have risk mitigation/crisis management policies in place,
only 27% say that employees are properly trained on how to use (or not use) social
media (see Figure 16), risking social media violations or crises by employees. And while
most companies have internal social media policies, only half have consumer-facing
community policies in place that help set expectations (see Figure 17).
Figure 16: Most Companies Have Risk Mitigation and Crisis Management Processes
for Social Media, But Few Say Employees Are Properly Trained
Q. Which of the following outcomes can you attribute to your social business program
in the last 12 months? (Q4 2012)
Figure 17: Internal Social Media Policies Are Largely in Place, But Only Half of
Companies Have External, Customer-Facing Community Policies
Q. Which of the following social media policies does your organization currently have?
(Select as many as applicable) (Q4 2012)
65%
27%
Risk management around social media is well
understood by Legal/Compliance, and risk
mitigation/crisis management policies and
processes are in place throughout the organization.
Employees at all levels are aware and trained on
how to use (or not to use) social media in both their
jobs and personal lives in ways that will
positively impact the organization.
85%
75%
5%
52%
2%
Organizational
Social Media
Policy
Privacy
Policy
Not sure if we
have a social
media policy
None of
the above
Community
Policy
14%
4% 7%
30%
45%
Good
Very Good
Very Poor
Poor
Fair
22%
39% 38%
26%
12%
No program:
We have not
rolled out a program
Ad hoc:
We have
ad hoc education
In progress:
We are in the process of
formalizing education
of companies
Formalized:
We have formalized
and ongoing education
12
The data that appears in this report was also used in the following reports and books:
The Seven Success Factors of Social Business Strategy
by Charlene Li and Brian Solis, July 2013
The Evolution of Social Business: Six Stages of Social Business Transformation
by Charlene Li and Brian Solis, March 2013
A Framework for Social Analytics
by Susan Etlinger, August 2011
Related Altimeter Services
Social business champions need to take strategies to the next level. Altimeter has a suite
of solutions to help strategists guide organizations through an important series of steps
that lead to social business transformation.
Altimeter’s Social Business Strategy Suite is designed as a complete process, or it can
be implemented through a menu-driven approach to meet your specific needs.
Discovery:
•	 Social Readiness Roadmap
•	 Social Media Policy & Risk Assessment
•	 Opportunity Analysis
•	 Socialgraphics
Strategy Development:
•	 Social Business Vision
•	 Strategy Roadmap
•	 Metrics Development & Alignment
•	 Identify and Prioritize Initiatives
Organizational Development
•	 Governance & Organizational Structure
•	 Content Strategy Roadmap
•	 Social Data & Analytics Roadmap
•	 Training Program Roadmap
•	 Technology Assessments
The evolution of social business is constant. While models, budgets, and investments
will shift over time, the biggest impact of social media will be in the social contract
companies establish with customers and employees. Doing so allows companies to
think through the investment and the expected return for employees and customers so
they can introduce and grow mutually beneficial and productive social programs.
As a function of social business evolution, social becomes part of the DNA and culture
in organizational transformation. Everything begins with the articulation of a vision for
how social impacts customer and employee relationships and experiences. From there,
businesses can track investments in models, process, policies, collaboration, workflow,
and technology to effectively scale social throughout the organization while aligning with
a new or renewed vision and also business goals.
In the next two years, we expect social to become part of a bigger movement
where social joins web, mobile, and other digital initiatives to lead an integrated and
orchestrated transformation. Social becomes just one part of the overall approach to
successfully engage, learn from, and lead connected customers and employees. But it
is the evolution into a Social Business as outlined above where stakeholders learn what
it takes to adapt existing models, processes, and methodologies as part of an overall
change management initiative.
Methodology
Each year, Altimeter Group conducts an online survey of social media strategists and
executives. Survey results in this report are only from companies with more than 1000
employees for 2010-2012 and 500 employees for 2013.
Survey Date Number of Respondents
Q2 2010 140
Q2 2011 144
Q4 2012 130
Q3 2013 65
In Summary Related Reports
Brian Solis, Principal Analyst
Brian Solis (@briansolis) is a principal analyst at Altimeter
Group. He is also an award-winning author, prominent blogger,
and keynote speaker. Solis works with enterprise organizations
and technology vendors to research the state and direction of
markets, competitors, and customer behavior. Through the use
of proven frameworks and best practices, Solis analyzes trends,
opportunities, capabilities, and areas for improvement to align
new media initiatives with business priorities.
Altimeter Group provides research and advisory for companies challenged
by business disruptions, enabling them to pursue new opportunities and
business models. We share our independent research on business disruptions
via research reports, webinars, speeches, and more. We also offer advisory
services to business leaders who wish to explore the specific implications of
these disruptions within their organizations.
Contact us:
• 650.212.2272
• sales@altimetergroup.com
• altimetergroup.com
• @altimetergroup
Authors About Us
Charlene Li, Founder and Analyst
Charlene Li (@charleneli) is Founder of Altimeter Group and
author of the New York Times bestseller, Open Leadership.
She is also the co-author of the critically acclaimed bestselling
book, Groundswell, which was named one of the best business
books in 2008. She is one of the foremost experts on social
media and technologies and a consultant and independent
thought leader on leadership, strategies, social technology,
interactive media, and marketing.
Open Research
This independent research report was 100% funded by Altimeter Group. This report is published under the principle of Open Research and is intended to advance the industry at no cost. This report is
intended for you to read, utilize, and share with others; if you do so, please provide attribution to Altimeter Group.
Permissions
The Creative Commons License is Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0.
Disclosures
Your trust is important to us, and as such, we believe in being open and transparent about our financial relationships. With permission, we publish a list of our client base on our website. See our
website to learn more: http://www.altimetergroup.com/disclosure.
Disclaimer
ALTHOUGH THE INFORMATION AND DATA USED IN THIS REPORT HAVE BEEN PRODUCED AND PROCESSED FROM SOURCES BELIEVED TO BE RELIABLE, NO WARRANTY EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED IS MADE REGARDING THE COMPLETENESS, ACCURACY, ADEQUACY, OR USE OF THE INFORMATION. THE AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS OF THE INFORMATION AND DATA SHALL
HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ERRORS OR OMISSIONS CONTAINED HEREIN OR FOR INTERPRETATIONS THEREOF. REFERENCE HEREIN TO ANY SPECIFIC PRODUCT OR VENDOR BY TRADE NAME,
TRADEMARK, OR OTHERWISE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE OR IMPLY ITS ENDORSEMENT, RECOMMENDATION, OR FAVORING BY THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS AND SHALL NOT BE USED
FOR ADVERTISING OR PRODUCT ENDORSEMENT PURPOSES. THE OPINIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.

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[Report] The State of Social Business 2013: The Maturing of Social Media into Social Business

  • 1. The State of Social Business 2013: The Maturing of Social Media into Social Business By Brian Solis and Charlene Li With Jessica Groopman, Jaimy Szymanski, and Christine Tran Based on results from Altimeter Group’s 2010-2013 annual survey of social media strategists and executives A State of the Industry Report October 15, 2013
  • 2. Altimeter Group conducts regular social business surveys to learn how social media is evolving within enterprise organizations. While we’ve included our Q4 2012 data in previous reports, we are now making the survey results available to the public under a Creative Commons License as part of our Open Research. Some figures in this report also use survey results from 2010-2011 to provide year-over-year comparisons. Where relevant, we include results from our latest survey that was conducted in Q3 2013. Analysis of our survey results reveal that social media is extending deeper into organizations and, at the same time, strategies are maturing. What was previously a series of initiatives driven by marketing and PR is now evolving into a social business movement that looks to scale and integrate social across the organization. The following report reveals how businesses are expanding social efforts and investments. As social approaches its first decade of enterprise integration, we still see experimentation in models and approach. There is no one way to become a social business. Instead, social businesses evolve through a series of stages that ultimately align social media strategies with business goals. Our hope is that the data shared in this report provides some perspective on where your company is today so that you can chart your own course for social business evolution. Some ways to use the data include: 1. Benchmark where you are compared to the various business stages shared in this report. 2. Document existing challenges and opportunities that you will need to address for your 2014 social business plan. 3. Determine how social strategies can better align with business objectives and priorities. 4. Finally, follow along with Altimeter Group’s Seven Success Factors of Social Business Strategy to expedite your transition from social media to social business. Executive Summary
  • 3. 6. Top priorities for social include scaling for engagement, integrating data, and training/education around social. 7. Measuring the impact of social is maturing, with over half of organizations able to track the impact of social on marketing efforts. 8. Lack of employee training around social media policies remains a significant risk area — only 18% of companies said that their employees have a good or very good understanding of their social media policies. Highlights of Findings 1. In terms of social business maturity, most organizations are “intermediate,” with only 17% who are truly strategic in the execution of their social strategies. 2. The lack of clear leadership, organization, and strategy means that many organizations experience some form of “social anarchy,” of siloed, uncoordinated social efforts. 3. More companies are moving to the Multiple Hub and Spoke model to organize their social business programs, up from 18% in 2010 using this model to 23.6% in 2013. 4. Most dedicated social media teams continue to report to Marketing (40%) or Corporate Communications/PR (26%). But now, 13 different departments around the organization are seeing dedicated staff work on social initiatives. 5. Companies are committing more headcount to social media across all sizes of companies. The biggest jump is for companies with more than 100,000 employees, which now report an average of 49 full-time employees (FTEs) supporting social media in the organization, compared to 20 in 2010. 3
  • 4. The State of Social Business: 2012 Benchmark Study In our report, The Evolution of Social Business: Six Stages of Social Business Transformation, we found that even though social media is making its way into more and more businesses, companies that adopt it are not created equal when it comes to social media maturity. Our research revealed a distinct gap between companies that execute social media strategies and those that are truly a “social business.” A social business, as we defined in the report, is the deep integration of social media and social methodologies into the organization to drive business impact. As companies mature in social, we identified a natural progression through six distinct stages: Stage 1: Planning — Listening and learning to ensure a strong foundation of strategy and resource development, organizational alignment, and execution. Do not currently have a significant presence in social media channels. Stage 2: Presence — Staking claim and moving from planning to action, establishing a formal and informed presence in social media. Stage 3: Engagement — Making a commitment where social becomes critical to relationship-building along the entire customer lifecycle. Stage 4: Formalized — Organizing for scale in social deployment and engagement across multiple departments, business units, and sub-brands. Stage 5: Strategic — Becoming a social business; social initiatives are gaining visibility through business impact. Social methodologies and technologies become integrated across functions. Stage 6: Converged — Business is social; social media strategies weave into the fabric of an evolving organization driven by a vision of improving customer and employee relationships and experiences. We found that while most companies have an established presence, engage actively with customers, or even have formalized programs, only 17% consider themselves at the higher ends of social business maturity (see Figure 1). Figure 1: Most Enterprises Characterize Themselves as Intermediate in Social Business Maturity Q. How would you characterize where your organization is in its social business evolution? (Q3 2013) 6% 25% 26% 26% 14% 3% Stage 1 Planning Stage 2 Presence Stage 4 Formalized Stage 5 Strategic Stage 6 Converged Stage 3 Engagement 4
  • 5. 27% 26% 20% 18% 9% Distributed social media approach: Where lines of business and business functions independently manage and fund social media strategies to create departmental outcomes, i.e., sales, service, marketing, HR. Holistic social media approach: Where lines of business and business functions operate against an enterprise-level vision and strategy — they act independently, but in a unified and complementary fashion. Marketing/Communications multi-channel approach: Where activity is based on a one-to-many distribution, i.e., same content calendar for every social network and controlled centrally. Marketing/Communications single-channel focus: Creates individual content plans for specific social sites and channels like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, blogs, etc. Customer-service focus: Emphasis is on listening to customer conversations and resolving customer issues. Social Media Programs Still Foster “Social Anarchy” Only Half of Executives Are Aligned with the Social Strategy Social media programs often exist in siloes within the organization, creating a form of “social anarchy” when leadership, strategy, and organization are not aligned. We found that only 26% of companies approach social media holistically, operating against a common enterprise vision (see Figure 2). Figure 2: Few Companies Approach Social Media Holistically Q. Which of the following statements best match your organization’s definition of social strategy? (Q4 2012) In addition, only 52% of executives are informed, engaged, and aligned with their company’s social strategy (see Figure 3). This, of course, limits social media’s growth path. We found, though, that executives who get on board with social do so because strategies track toward tangible business objectives. This places organizations across multiple stages, including Presence, Engagement, and Formalized in their social business evolution. Figure 3: Half of Executives Are Informed, Engaged, and Aligned with Social Strategy Q. Below are number of statements that describe elements of a social strategy. Please indicate the extent to which you agree that each statement describes your organizations. (Q4 2012) 65% 60% 61% 52% 52% 48% 34% 27% Risk management around social media is well understood by Legal/Compliance, and risk mitigation/crisis management policies and processes are in place throughout the organization. Roles, responsibilities, and governance of people directly and indirectly responsible for the execution and support of social efforts are identified, resourced, and in place throughout the organization. Social strategy is connected to business goals and outcomes. A long-term vision for how social media will improve customer relationships has been articulated. Top executives are informed, engaged, and aligned with our social strategy. The social strategy includes a detailed road map for what it will do — and also not do — over the next 1+ years. Employees at all levels are aware and trained on how to use (or not to use) social media in both their jobs as well as personal lives in ways that will positively impact the organization. There are clear metrics used throughout the organization that associate social activities with business outcomes. 5
  • 6. Social Business Gains Traction Throughout the Organization Organizations Still Experiment with Several Models to Support Social Media A key part of social business is how and where it lives in the organization. We found that 78% of companies have a dedicated social media team — with 22% having them at both the corporate and division level (see Figure 4). Only 22% do not have a dedicated team yet. Figure 4: Three-Quarters of Companies Have a Dedicated Social Media Team Q. Does your company have a dedicated social media team that serves the entire company or division as a shared resource? (Q3 2013) Organizations continue to use a variety of models to support social media programs. We found that no one format is permanent or dominant. Many companies start with a model that mirrors the culture of their company today. As programs develop, new models are tested to expand social media across disciplines, departments, and lines of business. Most companies continue to organize as Hub and Spoke (35%), but the biggest shift was companies moving toward Multiple Hub and Spoke, increasing from 18% in 2010 to almost 24% in 2012 (see Figure 5). Multiple Hub and Spoke is gaining traction with organizations that move along the stages of social media maturity as it brings disparate groups together to solve for challenges that prevent social integration into everyday workflow. Figure 5: Companies Continue to Organize for Social Media as Hub and Spoke, with a Shift Toward Multiple Hub and Spoke 14% 22% Yes, at the division level 22% Not yet Yes, at the corporate and division level 42%Yes, at the corporate level 2010 2012 10.8% 9.4% 28.8% 29.1% 41% 35.4% 18% 23.6% 1.4% 2.4% Decentralized No one department manages or coordinates; efforts bubble up from the edges of the company. Hub and Spoke A cross-functional team sits in a centralized position and helps various nodes, such as business units. Holistic Everyone in the company uses social media safely and consistently across all organizations. Centralized One department (like Corp Communications) manages all social activities. Multiple Hub and Spoke (“Dandelion”) Similar to Hub and Spoke but applicable to multinational companies where “companies within companies” act nearly autonomusly from each other under a common brand. 6
  • 7. 7 Social Media Headcount Expanded Rapidly Marketing and Communications Become the Social Media Core The number of full-time employees supporting social media is on the rise. Between 2010 and 2012, companies with over 5,000 employees have increased staffing for enterprise social efforts (see Figure 6). Moreover, the number of people in specific social media roles has also increased over time (see Figure 7). Figure 6: Social Media Headcount Across the Organization Is Blooming Q. Approximately how many full-time equivalent staff currently support social efforts in your organization, for external and internal engagement? Figure 7: The Core Social Media Team Increases in Size Q. How many full-time or full-time equivalent employees make up this dedicated social media team? (Answer for the team(s) you are most familiar with.) By far, most core social media teams reside in Marketing or Corporate Communications and PR, accounting for 66% of all businesses surveyed (see Figure 8). Social media is also making headway as its own group, now matching core digital teams at 14%. As social media becomes part of everyday engagement across the enterprise, the core social media team will continue to grow as a critical enabler that helps the business learn how to be social. With the expansion of social media across the enterprise, businesses will move along the Formalized and Strategic stages of social business evolution. This sets the stage for social media to operate in alignment with overall business, lines of business, and functional goals. Figure 8: Core Social Media Teams Reside Largely in Marketing or Corporate Communications/PR Q. In which department does your CORE social me team reside? (Q4 2012) Marketing Corporate Comm/PR Social Media Digital Advertising Customer Support Executive IT Other 40% 26% 14% 14% 2% 2% 1% 1% 6% Employees in Company Average # of Staff 2010 2012 1,000 to < 5,000 5,000 to < 10,000 10,000 to < 50,000 50,000 to < 100,000 More than 100,000 3.1 5.2 5.4 23.8 20.4 3.1 19.4 12.0 27.9 49.4 Role 2011 Average 2013 Average Social Strategist Business Unit Liaison Content Strategist Education/Training Manager Community Manager Web Developer Social Media Manager Social Analyst Total 1.5 1.5 N/A 5 3 1.5 2 1 11 1.6 1.7 1.7 0.8 2.5 3.4 2.2 1.6 15.6 .
  • 8. 8 Social Media Expands into Social Business 2013 Viewed as the Year Where Social Scales and Integrates While priorities such as metrics and training remain top priorities, new initiatives are getting attention, such as scaling social programs, making sense of social data, and integrating with digital and mobile efforts (see Figure 10). This is supported by related objectives to develop internal education and training, up to 43%, and connect employees with social tools, at 23%. Companies can’t scale social media across the enterprise with a core team alone. As businesses move toward Formalized, Strategic, and Converged stages, strategists learn that housing social in one group hinders growth, scale, and internal distribution, leaving strategy development and execution in either the core or among external agencies. To truly scale social throughout the enterprise takes empowerment where it becomes a new instrument to achieve business goals. Figure 10: In 2013, Companies Prioritized Measurement, Training, and Scaling Programs Q. In 2013, what are your top internal social media objectives? In just a few years, dedicated employees have spread out beyond marketing and communications to proliferate other key functions and lines of business. At least 13 different business units across the enterprise may deploy social media (see Figure 9). Most notably, customer support (40%) and digital (37%) have become part of the everyday social mix. And while HR has traditionally used social for recruitment, social is also now expanding to be used for employee engagement, development, and retention. The number of social media practitioners is also increasing in areas where social hasn’t infiltrated before. Product Development, Customer Experience (CX)/User Experience (UX), Legal, and Research are among areas that are evolving into social business. As this migration continues, the need for all groups to work together and in line with one overall vision and philosophy will set the stage for a Converged social business. Figure 9: At Least 13 Business Units Have Dedicated Social Media Staff Q. In which of the following departments are there dedicated people (can be less than one FTE) executing social? (Q4 2012) Marketing Corporate Comm/PR Social Media Digital Product Department/R&D Advertising Customer/User Experience Customer Support Executive Legal IT HR Market Research 73% 66% 40% 37% 35% 29% 16% 16% 15% 14% 9% 8% 11% 48% 48% 43% 37% 40% 25% 33% 27% 23% 2012 2010 26% 15% 30% 15% 35% 15% 35% 13% 32% 7% 22% Create metrics that demonstrate the value of social media Develop internal education and training Scale our social programs Connect social data to other enterprise data sources to deliver actionable insight Integrate social media with digital and mobile Connect employees with social tools Develop a listening/monitoring solution Determine an organizational/governance model Apply social insight to the product roadmap Get buy-in from stakeholders Create policies and procedures
  • 9. 9 Social Strategies Focus on Content, Engagement, and Support Outcomes and Measurement Favor Marketing and Customer Experience Objectives Given the deep learnings from five-plus years of experience, it’s little surprise that respondents shared that they were able to see and measure positive outcomes for marketing optimization, customer experience, and brand health social initiatives (see Figure 12). In progress toward a fully Converged social business, customer experience and brand health become critical KPIs as they are a social reflection of a company’s brand promise, reputation, and engagement strategy. Figure 12: Social Media Programs Demonstrate Positive Outcomes for Marketing Optimization, Customer Experience, and Brand Health Q. Which of the following outcomes can you atribute to your social business program in the last 12 months? (Q3 2013) Content marketing, engagement, listening, and providing direct customer support became higher social priorities in 2013, with more than half naming content marketing (see Figure 11). Content marketing as a key objective signifies that brands are looking at social media as a means to tell stories, market, and create awareness, preference, and even demand. On the other hand, notable decreases in social commerce, advocacy, and collaboration programs signify a need to prioritize objectives rather than spread investments, time, and resources across too many initiatives. Figure 11: Top External Social Priorities Focus on Content, Engagement, Listening, and Support Q. In 2013, what are your top three external social media objectives? We have formalized metrics that show positive outcomes We have not been able to tie this to positive outcomes We have not formally measured this yet 53% 45% 45% 24% 19% 18% 29% 52% 37% 42% 35% 39% 26% 29% 23% 29% 23% 21% Marketing Optimization: Improvement in effectiveness of marketing programs Customer Experience: Improvement in relationship with customers, experience with brand Brand Health: Improvement in attitudes, conversation, and behavior toward our brand Innovation: Increase in product R&D and innovation Operation Efficiency: Reduction in company expenses, e.g., customer service Revenue Generation: Increase in actual product revenue, leads, conversions 57% 50% 43% 41% 38% 32% 16% 27% 25% 47% 16% 25% 14% 20% 13% 21% 9% 14% 9% 22% 2012 2010 Content marketing Developing ongoing dialog and engagement with customers Listening/learning from customers Providing direct customer support through social channels Developing an influencer relations or ambassador program Website integration Formalizing an advocacy program Collaboration with customers on new products/services Mobile/ Location Enabling peer-to-peer support Social commerce
  • 10. 10 Social Budgets Stayed Constant in 2013 Social Media Spending Focuses on Enabling a Social Business Social media investments are distributed across all aspects of social business enablement, with companies mostly planning to increase spending on social media management systems (SMMS) to help scale engagement (see Figure 15). The second area is spending on training and education as organizations seek to educate those outside of the core social media teams on how to integrate social into everyday processes. Figure 15: In 2013, Nearly Half of Social Strategists Planned to Increase Spending on Social Media Management Systems and Internal Training and Education In 2013, there was little movement in social budgets from the previous year (see Figure 13). Nearly half of companies’ social budgets are less than $100K or between $100K to $500K. Within those budgets, the highest technology spend was for listening/monitoring platforms, followed closely by analytics and community platforms (see Figure 14). Figure 13: Social Budgets Stayed Constant in 2013 Figure 14: Listening/Monitoring, Analytics, and Community Platforms Are the Biggest Social Technology Spends in 2013 Listening/monitoring platforms $62,000 Analytics platforms $54,600 Community platforms $51,900 Social media management systems $34,700 Enterprise social networks $29,400 Social CRM $14,800 More than $5 million 2013 Projection $100,000 to < $500,000 Less than $100,000 $500,000 to < $1 million $1 million to < $5 million 2012 26% 34% 25% 23% 6% 4% 11% 9% 5% 5% Social media management systems (Hootsuite, Spredfast, Sprinklr) Training and education (workshop, conferences, webinars) Custom technology development or data integration services Social app development Listening/monitoring platforms (Radian6, Scout Labs, Crimson Hexagon, NetBase) External agency to support engagement (e.g., moderate Facebook page) Analytics platforms (Webtrends, Omniture, Coremetrics) Community platforms (Lithium, Jive, Get Satisfaction) Blogger/Influencer networks (Federated Media, NetShelter, BlogHer) Enterprise social network (Yammer, Chatter) Social CRM 47% 47% 45% 43% 43% 38% 37% 33% 25% 23% 22%
  • 11. 11 Social Media Risk Management Needs Improvement Social Media Education Is at Best Fair Our survey revealed that employee knowledge of social media usage and company policies is lacking across the board (see Figure 18). This ties back to the “social anarchy” that’s brewing within the organization today. Only 18% of those surveyed believed that employees have a good or very good understanding of social media and organizational policies (see Figure 19). Figure 18: Most Organizations Admit Employees Have Little Knowledge of Their Social Media Policies Q. What is the knowledge level of employees about social media usage and the organizational social media policies? (Q4 2012) Figure 19: Only a Third of Companies Have Formal Social Media Training Q. Select the description that best fits your current social media education efforts: (Q3 2013) While 65% of companies have risk mitigation/crisis management policies in place, only 27% say that employees are properly trained on how to use (or not use) social media (see Figure 16), risking social media violations or crises by employees. And while most companies have internal social media policies, only half have consumer-facing community policies in place that help set expectations (see Figure 17). Figure 16: Most Companies Have Risk Mitigation and Crisis Management Processes for Social Media, But Few Say Employees Are Properly Trained Q. Which of the following outcomes can you attribute to your social business program in the last 12 months? (Q4 2012) Figure 17: Internal Social Media Policies Are Largely in Place, But Only Half of Companies Have External, Customer-Facing Community Policies Q. Which of the following social media policies does your organization currently have? (Select as many as applicable) (Q4 2012) 65% 27% Risk management around social media is well understood by Legal/Compliance, and risk mitigation/crisis management policies and processes are in place throughout the organization. Employees at all levels are aware and trained on how to use (or not to use) social media in both their jobs and personal lives in ways that will positively impact the organization. 85% 75% 5% 52% 2% Organizational Social Media Policy Privacy Policy Not sure if we have a social media policy None of the above Community Policy 14% 4% 7% 30% 45% Good Very Good Very Poor Poor Fair 22% 39% 38% 26% 12% No program: We have not rolled out a program Ad hoc: We have ad hoc education In progress: We are in the process of formalizing education of companies Formalized: We have formalized and ongoing education
  • 12. 12 The data that appears in this report was also used in the following reports and books: The Seven Success Factors of Social Business Strategy by Charlene Li and Brian Solis, July 2013 The Evolution of Social Business: Six Stages of Social Business Transformation by Charlene Li and Brian Solis, March 2013 A Framework for Social Analytics by Susan Etlinger, August 2011 Related Altimeter Services Social business champions need to take strategies to the next level. Altimeter has a suite of solutions to help strategists guide organizations through an important series of steps that lead to social business transformation. Altimeter’s Social Business Strategy Suite is designed as a complete process, or it can be implemented through a menu-driven approach to meet your specific needs. Discovery: • Social Readiness Roadmap • Social Media Policy & Risk Assessment • Opportunity Analysis • Socialgraphics Strategy Development: • Social Business Vision • Strategy Roadmap • Metrics Development & Alignment • Identify and Prioritize Initiatives Organizational Development • Governance & Organizational Structure • Content Strategy Roadmap • Social Data & Analytics Roadmap • Training Program Roadmap • Technology Assessments The evolution of social business is constant. While models, budgets, and investments will shift over time, the biggest impact of social media will be in the social contract companies establish with customers and employees. Doing so allows companies to think through the investment and the expected return for employees and customers so they can introduce and grow mutually beneficial and productive social programs. As a function of social business evolution, social becomes part of the DNA and culture in organizational transformation. Everything begins with the articulation of a vision for how social impacts customer and employee relationships and experiences. From there, businesses can track investments in models, process, policies, collaboration, workflow, and technology to effectively scale social throughout the organization while aligning with a new or renewed vision and also business goals. In the next two years, we expect social to become part of a bigger movement where social joins web, mobile, and other digital initiatives to lead an integrated and orchestrated transformation. Social becomes just one part of the overall approach to successfully engage, learn from, and lead connected customers and employees. But it is the evolution into a Social Business as outlined above where stakeholders learn what it takes to adapt existing models, processes, and methodologies as part of an overall change management initiative. Methodology Each year, Altimeter Group conducts an online survey of social media strategists and executives. Survey results in this report are only from companies with more than 1000 employees for 2010-2012 and 500 employees for 2013. Survey Date Number of Respondents Q2 2010 140 Q2 2011 144 Q4 2012 130 Q3 2013 65 In Summary Related Reports
  • 13. Brian Solis, Principal Analyst Brian Solis (@briansolis) is a principal analyst at Altimeter Group. He is also an award-winning author, prominent blogger, and keynote speaker. Solis works with enterprise organizations and technology vendors to research the state and direction of markets, competitors, and customer behavior. Through the use of proven frameworks and best practices, Solis analyzes trends, opportunities, capabilities, and areas for improvement to align new media initiatives with business priorities. Altimeter Group provides research and advisory for companies challenged by business disruptions, enabling them to pursue new opportunities and business models. We share our independent research on business disruptions via research reports, webinars, speeches, and more. We also offer advisory services to business leaders who wish to explore the specific implications of these disruptions within their organizations. Contact us: • 650.212.2272 • sales@altimetergroup.com • altimetergroup.com • @altimetergroup Authors About Us Charlene Li, Founder and Analyst Charlene Li (@charleneli) is Founder of Altimeter Group and author of the New York Times bestseller, Open Leadership. She is also the co-author of the critically acclaimed bestselling book, Groundswell, which was named one of the best business books in 2008. She is one of the foremost experts on social media and technologies and a consultant and independent thought leader on leadership, strategies, social technology, interactive media, and marketing. Open Research This independent research report was 100% funded by Altimeter Group. This report is published under the principle of Open Research and is intended to advance the industry at no cost. This report is intended for you to read, utilize, and share with others; if you do so, please provide attribution to Altimeter Group. Permissions The Creative Commons License is Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0. Disclosures Your trust is important to us, and as such, we believe in being open and transparent about our financial relationships. With permission, we publish a list of our client base on our website. See our website to learn more: http://www.altimetergroup.com/disclosure. Disclaimer ALTHOUGH THE INFORMATION AND DATA USED IN THIS REPORT HAVE BEEN PRODUCED AND PROCESSED FROM SOURCES BELIEVED TO BE RELIABLE, NO WARRANTY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED IS MADE REGARDING THE COMPLETENESS, ACCURACY, ADEQUACY, OR USE OF THE INFORMATION. THE AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS OF THE INFORMATION AND DATA SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY FOR ERRORS OR OMISSIONS CONTAINED HEREIN OR FOR INTERPRETATIONS THEREOF. REFERENCE HEREIN TO ANY SPECIFIC PRODUCT OR VENDOR BY TRADE NAME, TRADEMARK, OR OTHERWISE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE OR IMPLY ITS ENDORSEMENT, RECOMMENDATION, OR FAVORING BY THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS AND SHALL NOT BE USED FOR ADVERTISING OR PRODUCT ENDORSEMENT PURPOSES. THE OPINIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.