X-Ray Radiation Safety

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Please enjoy our X-Ray Safety Presentation by Peter Wright, CEO of Alternate Systems. For the full presentation & certification process please call us at 972.964.3124.

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  • LD 50/60 is dose at which 50% of exposed population will die within 60 days\n
  • LD 50/60 is dose at which 50% of exposed population will die within 60 days\n
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  • X-Ray Radiation Safety

    1. 1. X-Ray Radiation Safety Presented by Peter Wright
    2. 2. Training & Certification Available• To receive the full presentation and certification at your workplace please call Alternate Systems at 972.964.3124 or email us at pwwright@alternatesystems.com
    3. 3. Overview
    4. 4. Overview• Types of Radiation
    5. 5. Overview• Types of Radiation• How X-Rays are generated
    6. 6. Overview• Types of Radiation• How X-Rays are generated• Potential Health Effects
    7. 7. Overview• Types of Radiation• How X-Rays are generated• Potential Health Effects• ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable
    8. 8. Radiation Regulations
    9. 9. Radiation Regulations• 10CFR 20: Title 10 (Energy), Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 addresses general standards for radiation protection
    10. 10. Radiation Regulations• 10CFR 20: Title 10 (Energy), Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 addresses general standards for radiation protection• Texas AdministrativeCode §289.228 addresses safety requirements for analytical and other industrial radiation machines
    11. 11. Model of the Atom Bohr Model of the Atom: Protons are positively charged, neutrons have no charge, and electrons are negatively charged.
    12. 12. X-Ray Production
    13. 13. X-Ray Production X-rays are generated when electrons move to lower energy levels
    14. 14. X-Ray Tube
    15. 15. Radiation
    16. 16. Radiation• Radiationis energy transmitted through space in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles:
    17. 17. Background Radiation
    18. 18. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources:
    19. 19. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth
    20. 20. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth • Radioactive gas from the earth
    21. 21. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth • Radioactive gas from the earth • Cosmic rays from outer space
    22. 22. Background Radiation• We are all exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources: • Radioactive substances in the earth • Radioactive gas from the earth • Cosmic rays from outer space • Trace amounts of radioactivity in the body
    23. 23. Mechanisms of Damage
    24. 24. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure:
    25. 25. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals
    26. 26. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals • Break chemical bonds
    27. 27. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals • Break chemical bonds • Produce new chemical bonds and cross-linkage
    28. 28. Mechanisms of Damage• Injury to living tissue results from transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure: • Produce free radicals • Break chemical bonds • Produce new chemical bonds and cross-linkage • Damage molecules that regulate vital cell processes, i.e., DNA, RNA, proteins
    29. 29. Mechanisms of Damage
    30. 30. Prompt Effects of Radiation
    31. 31. Prompt Effects of Radiation
    32. 32. Prompt Effects of Radiation EFFECT DOSE Blood Count Changes 50 rem Vomiting (threshold) 100 rem Mortality (threshold) 150 rem LD 50/60 (minimal care) 320-360 rem LD 50/60 (support care) 480-540 rem 100% Mortality(best care) 800 rem
    33. 33. Delayed Effects of Radiation
    34. 34. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear
    35. 35. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose:
    36. 36. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose: • Leukemia
    37. 37. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose: • Leukemia • Multiple Myeloma
    38. 38. Delayed Effects of Radiation• Cataracts are induced when a dose exceeding approximately 200-300 rem is delivered to the lens of the eye and may take months or years to appear• Cancer can be induced with radiation dose: • Leukemia • Multiple Myeloma • Breast, Lung, and Skin Cancer
    39. 39. Genetic Effects
    40. 40. Genetic Effects• There is no direct evidence of radiation-induced genetic effects in humans, even at high doses
    41. 41. Minimal Threat Devices
    42. 42. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device
    43. 43. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device• Safety devices are employed to prevent exposure
    44. 44. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device• Safety devices are employed to prevent exposure• Radiation at the device is the same as background radiation
    45. 45. Minimal Threat Devices• Radiation is contained inside the device• Safety devices are employed to prevent exposure• Radiation at the device is the same as background radiation• Safety checks are made regularly
    46. 46. ALARA
    47. 47. ALARA• As Low As Reasonably Achievable
    48. 48. ALARA• As Low As Reasonably Achievable• If any radiation levels above background radiation are observed, appropriate steps are taken to reduce radiation
    49. 49. Summary
    50. 50. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards
    51. 51. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards• X-rays are a form of energy like light, only invisible
    52. 52. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards• X-rays are a form of energy like light, only invisible• X-rays are generated when electrons change energy levels in an atom
    53. 53. Summary• Radiation is regulated because of health hazards• X-rays are a form of energy like light, only invisible• X-rays are generated when electrons change energy levels in an atom• Health hazards include burns and cancer
    54. 54. Finally
    55. 55. Finally• Protect yourself:
    56. 56. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features
    57. 57. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage
    58. 58. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage • Insure that only authorized users operate the device
    59. 59. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage • Insure that only authorized users operate the device • Insure that you and those around you are protected from exposure
    60. 60. Finally• Protect yourself: • Observe unit for functioning safety features • Notifythe RSO of any changes in operating characteristics or damage • Insure that only authorized users operate the device • Insure that you and those around you are protected from exposure • Be Aware!
    61. 61. Thank you Peter W. Wright Alternate Systems 972.964.3124 pwwright@alternatesystems.com Texas Bureau of Radiation Control Registration R17795 ANSI/NCSL Z540 / ISO 10012ISO/IEC 17025:2005 / ISO 9001:2008

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