Introduction To India's Energy And Proposed Rural Solar-PV Electrification


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  • Thank you for your comments and apology for the delay in replying.
    I have visited different parts of the countryside in India and, as you said, yes, there is a severe power crisis there. The solution is to increase investments and speed up the process of the implementation of all the projects related to renewable energy. This can only be achieved by fighting bureaucracy and corruptions.
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  • Increasing power shortages in almost all the states in India is the big concerns nowadays. I think only except Gujarat, other states are facing the severe power crisis. I've done power deficit analysis for few states like Andhra Pradesh. Maharashtra and Gujarat for past 5 years and found Andhra Pradesh has the most severe electricity shortage. Please read more here and Renewable energy might be a solution for future
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Introduction To India's Energy And Proposed Rural Solar-PV Electrification

  1. 1. & Proposed Rural Solar-PV Electrification Dr. Najib Altawell [email_address] Center for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP) University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK 11 December 2011
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Future Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Image source: World Map Photo / Standard of living illustrated in the form of ‘Energy Ladder’ for rural India (Redrawn and edited from the source: Duflo, 2008) Crop waste and/or dung Wood Charcoal Kerosene Gas, LPG Electricity Income Cost, Cleanliness and Efficiency
  4. 4. Rural electrification is one of the main issues where additional momentum is needed to accelerate the process, as Kerosene is still being used for lighting as a result related to lack of electricity supply in many parts of rural India Cooking major source of energy (2004 – 2005) represented in the form of percentage usage for households in rural and urban India (Source: Sengupta R., 2008 )
  5. 5. India’s Energy Outlook India imports large part of its growing energy requirement from other parts of the world, despite the government’s heavy investment in oil and gas exploration to help in reducing the dependency on foreign energy sources (EIA, 2010)
  6. 6. Coal, Oil, Natural Gas and Nuclear Oil (billion Barrels) Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet) (Year 2009) (Year 2009) 5,625 37,960
  7. 7. Renewable Energy (RE) Sources* *MNES ‘Ministry of non-conventional energy sources’ (2010) Renewable Energy Scenario in India 22.10.2010
  8. 8. RE Energy For Rural Areas The overall renewable energy achievement for the countryside, the government of India has managed to meet only 1% of the actual energy need for the rural areas, obtained by the end of the tenth five year plan (Deshmukh A., 2009)
  9. 9. RE & The 11 th Five Year Plan <ul><li>Two new schemes related to the field </li></ul><ul><li>of renewable energy* </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Village Renewable Energy Programme (RVREP): </li></ul><ul><li>a. Village Energy Security Programme (VESP) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Remote Village Solar Lighting Programme (RVSLP) </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-Connected Village Renewable Energy Programme (GVREP): </li></ul><ul><li>a. Solar Thermal Systems </li></ul><ul><li>b. Biogas Plants </li></ul><ul><li>*(Baker & McKenzie, 2008) </li></ul>
  10. 10. RE Investment Incentives by the Indian Government range from grants, subsidy, policies support, framework for regulatory and legislative aspects, consultations and sources of finances, research and development, planning and resource assessments and help in upgrading existing energy generating technologies
  11. 11. India’s Solar Energy Challenges* Prices are still not within the reach of the low income families Low demand for solar systems Not enough awareness about solar systems and their benefits Lack of subsidy about the scheme in certain parts of the country Lack of knowledge about the climate changes/greenhouse effects Grid integration of rooftop energy systems issues still remain to be addressed Measurement of power and the frequency of supply are also in need for technical and regulatory solutions Solar technologies have poor efficiency in regard to their solar cells The estimation capacity of solar-PV in India is approximately 112 MW while grid connection from this output, reportedly, is only 2 MW
  12. 12. Electricity Electricity generation (2008) ~ 830 TWh + imported 9 TWh = 839 TWh consumed in one year by the whole country* Shortages *(IEA1, 2010)
  13. 13. Electricity Reforming the electricity sector The Electricity Regulatory Commission Act of 1998 and the Electricity Act of 2003 were introduced as part of the electricity market liberalisation to help in the electrification process, i.e. by 2007 complete village electrification and by 2012 household electrification*. *Andreas K., 2006
  14. 14. Electricity The Eastern and North Eastern part of India is the areas of the country where lack of electricity supply is more prominent in the countryside than elsewhere* * Andreas K., 2006
  15. 15. Electricity Redrawn and edited from Andreas K., 2006
  16. 16. Electricity There are 404 million people in India without access to electricity supply* There are around 855 million people still rely on the traditional use of biomass materials, as a way for cooking their food *IAE, 2010
  17. 17. Electricity Electricity & Sources of Energy Coal (78.5 GW) Gas (16.4 GW) Hydro (36.9 GW) * Oil Nuclear ** E lectricity from renewable sources is approximately 13.2 GW * Indian Wind Energy Outlook 2009, 2009. **de la Rue Can, et. al., 2009
  18. 18. Electricity India Ministry of power (MOP) projection for Electricity Requirement up to 2032* * Planning Commission of India, 2006
  19. 19. Electricity Future Electricity Growth & Output = 8.5% Forecast figures from the year 2011 to 2032 are relatively high, which raise the question about the energy sources of this additional larger volume of electricity generation and time scale predicted in achieving this development without the recourse for higher fossil fuels usage. If coal will be the main source of electricity generation by 2032, then the development and expansion of sustainable environmentally friendly fuels will be more of a theoretical approach rather than a practicality on the ground.
  20. 20. Electricity Rural Electricity Consumption & Tariff Domestic, Commercial, Industrial & Agricultural Supplied meter per kWh usage The agricultural usage do not have meter measurement for the amount of electricity that has been used, instead, there is a flat payment rate Domestic usage has been allocated lower charges than the rest of the consumers
  21. 21. <ul><li>*European PV Industry Association Report, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>*Image source: Wikipedia http:// </li></ul>Geographical ‘Solar’ Resources*
  22. 22. <ul><li>~ 10 million jobs could be created worldwide in solar power by 2030* </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 jobs in PV by 2020 in India** </li></ul><ul><li>*European PV Industry Association Report, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>**Dr. Bharat Bhargava, Director, Solar PV, MNRE at </li></ul>Solar-PV
  23. 23. <ul><li>Mid 70’s Solar-PV programme </li></ul><ul><li>Why Solar-PV for India? </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Street Lighting System </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Home Lighting System </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Lantern </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Photovoltaic Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Water Heating System </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Cookers </li></ul>Solar-PV
  24. 24. <ul><li>Government support for Solar-PV </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Government support Manufacturers/Customers* </li></ul><ul><li>First year of systems installation there is 100% depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>No excise duty (manufacturers) </li></ul><ul><li>Low import tariff (raw materials/components) </li></ul><ul><li>Soft loans (customers, intermediaries and manufacturers) </li></ul><ul><li>*Solar Photovoltaics in India </li></ul>Solar-PV
  25. 25. <ul><li>Government support for Solar-PV </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>PV Based Systems Total Installations* </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Street Lighting Systems 54,795 </li></ul><ul><li>Home Lighting Systems 434,692 </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Lanterns 697,419 </li></ul><ul><li>Solar PV pumps 7,148 </li></ul><ul><li>Solar PV Generation Plants 2.12 MWp (Megawatt Peak) </li></ul><ul><li>*MNRE Website Data, January 2009 </li></ul>Solar-PV
  26. 26. <ul><li>Government support for Solar-PV </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable resources account for 9% of India’s power generation capacity* </li></ul><ul><li>Wind energy more than 70% (9 GW) </li></ul><ul><li>Solar-PV with estimates of 100 MWp </li></ul><ul><li>Adani Bitta Solar Plant (Gujarat) 40 MW (December 2011)** </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhinagar Solar Plant 1 MW (January, 2011)*** </li></ul><ul><li>*India’s Solar-PV White Papers http:// </li></ul><ul><li>**Adani Power to start two solar projects. The Wall Street Journal (India). 2011-06-07 http :// </li></ul><ul><li>** http :// / </li></ul>Solar-PV
  27. 27. <ul><li>Government support for Solar-PV </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Land is a scarce resource </li></ul><ul><li>1 km2 for every 20–60 megawatts (MW) </li></ul><ul><li>Rooftop Systems Local Grid </li></ul><ul><li>7th place worldwide in PV cell production </li></ul><ul><li>9th place in solar thermal systems* </li></ul><ul><li>*Solar India 2007/08 </li></ul>Solar-PV & Land Issues
  28. 28. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Understanding India’s present energy needs/future development Renewable energy is one way of bridging the electricity gap Electricity from solar energy/Indian government Additional research in this field will be needed Solar-PV systems can reduce certain energy shortages in urban and rural areas of the country
  29. 29. Thank you for listening. [email_address]