Weld Distortion Optimisation using HyperStudy

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Distortion induced in parts due to the cooling of welds complicates automated manufacturing lines in the automotive industry. The resulting deformation leads to additional investment such as end of line machining to correct affected assemblies. Utilising optimisation software a welding pattern can be found which retains the intended performance of a part while reducing the distortion induced from welding. Weld locations may be optimised alongside welding sequence to allow process requirements to be considered within the early design stage. This leads to high performance, low distortion assemblies which can ultimately be manufactured at the lowest possible cost.

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Weld Distortion Optimisation using HyperStudy

  1. 1. 25/06/14 European Altair Technology Conference Munich 2014 Weld Distortion Optimisation
  2. 2. ©2012 GESTAMP 1 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation • Zidane Tahir : Design Analyst – Gestamp Chassis • Inverse Identification in weld Distortion using HyperStudy • Weld Distortion Optimisation using HyperStudy Introduction
  3. 3. NORTH AMERICA 8 Production Plants SOUTH AMERICA 10 Production Plants EUROPE 60 Production Plants RUSSIA 3 Production Plants ASIA 15 Production Plants A GLOBAL COMPANY ©2012 GESTAMP 2 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Gestamp Chassis
  4. 4. ©2012 GESTAMP 3 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Gestamp Chassis
  5. 5. ©2012 GESTAMP 4 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld Distortion is the physical warping of a part, induced by the heating and subsequent cooling caused by the welding process. TSB Project No. TP/TP/DSM/6/1/16131 – 2010 Roger O’Brien Macro section of butt weld, (shown in Figure 6.1.17) in 2.5mm thick Xf350 material, weld produced using LSND process
  6. 6. ©2012 GESTAMP 5 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld Distortion
  7. 7. ©2012 GESTAMP 6 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation WELD DISTORTION ANALYSIS AND CORRELATION Inverse Identification using HyperStudy
  8. 8. ©2012 GESTAMP 7 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld Distortion Analysis – Modelling Method and inverse identification 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡 = 𝑙0 𝛼1∆𝑇 𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑑_𝑠𝑒𝑡 + 𝑙0 𝛼1 𝜷∆𝑇 𝑎𝑑𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡_𝑠𝑒𝑡 Weld_set Adjacent_set β is the temperature diffusion factor in adjacent elements affected by heating β is identified using inverse method implemented in HyperStudy 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝛽 min 1 2 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝐹𝐸𝐴 − 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡 𝑇𝐸𝑆𝑇 1 2 The advantage of this method is to avoid thermal transient time consuming calculation
  9. 9. ©2012 GESTAMP 8 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld Distortion Analysis – Correlation Optimum β= 0.57 Dist = 8.08 mm Sequential Quadratic Programming has been used successfully to obtain the optimum
  10. 10. ©2012 GESTAMP 9 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation “REDUCE THE DISTORTION OF A PART WITHOUT ADDING COST OR SIGNIFICANTLY ALTERING PERFORMANCE.”
  11. 11. ©2012 GESTAMP 10 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld Optimisation (Stiffness/Durability) Fully Welded Remove weld causing significant distortion Weld Removal Optimisation Weld Sequence Optimisation Manage distortion through additional process and design features Reduce weld and meet structural constraints (hope for reduced distortion) Arbitrary removal based on reducing magnitude of distortion Optimum solution Combine removal and sequence First true optimisation based on distortion Fine tuning of sequence to further reduce distortion Weld Distortion Optimisation Evolution
  12. 12. ©2012 GESTAMP 11 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation • Front Subframe tower case study • Towers susceptible to distortion due to their geometry • Tolerance regained by having “float” designed into the components • Objective – reduce distortion without changing geometry. Case Study
  13. 13. ©2012 GESTAMP 12 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation WELD REMOVAL OPTMISATION
  14. 14. ©2012 GESTAMP 13 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation • Topology Optimisation Identified critical welds for stiffness/durability performance (Optistruct). • Weld lengths are split to 30mm sections and given generic group names (Weld01, Weld02, etc) using automated scripting in HyperMesh Weld Removal Optimisation • For this study we have 30 weld sections • 10 critical sections identified by Optistruct • 20 design variables
  15. 15. ©2012 GESTAMP 14 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Key Objective Values ExtractionJob Queue Create ABAQUS Deck Generate Welding List (ON/OFF) Generate Deck Geometry Optimisation Algorithm Material + Base Geometry etc. Full Weld Model Run ABAQUS Deck Results Cluster Initial Conditions (ALL WELDS ON) PROCESS IS GENERIC Hyperstudy SciLab Optimal Solution! Weld Removal Optimisation – Process Flow
  16. 16. ©2012 GESTAMP 15 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Case Study
  17. 17. ©2012 GESTAMP 16 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld removal optimisation – Major iteration 1
  18. 18. ©2012 GESTAMP 17 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld removal optimisation – Major iteration 2
  19. 19. ©2012 GESTAMP 18 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld removal optimisation – Major iteration 3
  20. 20. ©2012 GESTAMP 19 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld removal optimisation – Major iteration 4
  21. 21. ©2012 GESTAMP 20 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld removal optimisation – Major iteration 5
  22. 22. ©2012 GESTAMP 21 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation 3,00E-01 4,00E-01 5,00E-01 6,00E-01 7,00E-01 8,00E-01 9,00E-01 1,00E+00 0,036 0,0362 0,0364 0,0366 0,0368 0,037 InducedDistortion(mm) Tower Displacement Under Loading (mmkN-1) Tower Case Study Pareto Frontier Design iterations Pareto front Pareto Frontier
  23. 23. ©2012 GESTAMP 22 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation WELD SEQUENCE
  24. 24. ©2012 GESTAMP 23 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Key Objective Values Extraction Job Queue Create ABAQUS Deck Utilising *modelchange Generate Weld Sequence Discrete Variables Generate Deck Geometry Optimisation Algorithm Material + Base Geometry etc. Full Weld Model Run ABAQUS Deck Results Cluster PROCESS IS GENERIC HyperstudySciLab Optimal Solution! Generate Welding Sequence Initial Conditions (PROCESS ORDER) Weld Sequence Optimisation – Process Flow
  25. 25. ©2012 GESTAMP 24 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld sequence optimisation – Major iteration 1
  26. 26. ©2012 GESTAMP 25 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld sequence optimisation – Major iteration 2
  27. 27. ©2012 GESTAMP 26 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld sequence optimisation – Major iteration 3
  28. 28. ©2012 GESTAMP 27 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld sequence optimisation – Major iteration 4
  29. 29. ©2012 GESTAMP 28 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld sequence optimisation – Major iteration 5
  30. 30. ©2012 GESTAMP 29 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Weld sequence optimisation – Major iteration 6
  31. 31. ©2012 GESTAMP 30 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation OPTIMAL RESULTS
  32. 32. ©2012 GESTAMP 31 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation ORIGINAL DESIGN OPTIMISED DESIGN Case Study- Results
  33. 33. ©2012 GESTAMP 32 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation Original design Weld Removal Optimised design Weld Sequence Optimised design Value Reduction Value Reduction Weld distortion (mm) objective 1.24 0.54 56% 0.09 93% Stiffness (MNmm-1) constraint target (27.4) 30.1 27.4 0 27.4 0 Max Stress (MPa) Constraint target (280MPa) 280 234 16% 234 16% Weld length (mm) output 870 650 25% 650 25% Total Robot head movement (mm) output 1290 1140 12% 2490 +93% Case Study- Results
  34. 34. ©2012 GESTAMP 33 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation CONCLUSIONS
  35. 35. ©2012 GESTAMP 34 Altair Technology Conference 2014– Weld Distortion Optimisation • HyperStudy can be used to effectively reduce weld distortion. • Sequence algorithm generation to be enhanced to avoid repeatable sequences • Gradient based optimisation techniques apply well to weld removal problems however their applicability in weld sequencing problems is limited where global search algorithms are more effective. • The platform developed is generic and applicable to any weld distortion project without any adaptation. • HyperStudy allows a flexible, multi-platform approach for optimisation management and is a good tool for solving this optimisation problem. Conclusions
  36. 36. ©2012 GESTAMP AUTOMOCIÓN

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