The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has defined the requirements for aircraft seat certification concerning the emergency landing dynamic conditions for different categories of airplanes and rotorcrafts. This regulation is primarily focused on backward and forward facing seats.
In order to make the certification tests, the aircraft manufacturers use Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD), representative of the human body. Numerical modelling tools such as finite elements models are now used to facilitate the evaluation of aircrafts seating systems (AC 20-146 2003). In that case, numerical ATD are used. However, they are not as biofidelic as human numerical model. The benefits of human body models in term of realistic behavior, injuries prediction or specific organs studies are important.
In 2006, the European Commission, with many partners from the automotive industry, sponsored the creation of the Human Model for Safety 2 (HUMOS 2), a human finite element model. This model has been then adapted to be used in aircraft crash scenario (Njilie 2012), leading to the HUMOS2 AERO model. It has been validated in FAA fontal and vertical load cases conditions.
However, in the field of business jets, side-facing seats are quite popular. The risk of injury is totally different between side facing and forward facing seats (Philippens 2011). As a consequence, there is need to understand more precisely the human behavior in these specific conditions of impact during survivable emergency landing.
The purpose of this study was to adapt and improve the HUMOS2 AERO model to side facing tests conditions and to investigate the injury mechanism. The other objective was to compare the response of the human model to the ES2-re model, a side impact ATD.