From CAD to manufacturing: an optimization procedure applied in the design of a motorcycle wheel rim

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From CAD to manufacturing: an optimization procedure applied in the design of a motorcycle wheel rim

  1. 1. “From CAD to manufacturing: an optimization procedure applied in the design of a motorcycle wheel rim””Authors:Sandra Baldini - Daniele Ardiri (Piaggio S.p.A.)Leonardo Bertini – Francesco Frendo (DMNP Engineering -University of Pisa)Bonn, Germany 7-9 November 2011
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction Aims of the work Optimization Problem Optimization Results Fem Re-analysis Radial Impact Conclusion Acknowledgements
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The activity is resulting from the cooperation between Piaggio&C SpA and Mechanical Engineering Dept. of Pisa University. It has been carried out within the framework of the MUSS research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development under the call «Industria 2015 – Mobilità Sostenibile» (2010-2013). The MUSS project (Safe and Sustainable Urban Mobility) is aimed at: • Making powered-two wheelers vehicle more environmental-friendly • Spreading their use as effective alternative to cars
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION The Topics: engines improvement, research on alternative fuels and new powertrains, improvements of vehicles (weight reduction, comfort, safety), new prototypes … Structural optimisation in order to evaluate the actual possibilities in reducing the mass of structural parts This work has been developed by means of the following commercial software Optistruct and Radioss, included in the suite Hyperworks v. 11 produced by Altair Engineering
  5. 5. AIMS OF THE WORK Aim of this work is to develop an optimization procedure in order to reduce the weight of scooter components. The focus of this project has been the weight reduction of an aluminium wheel by means of a topologic analysis The topologic optimization result has been elaborated by Piaggio Designers in order to realize the CAD model used for following structural validation The CAD model has been tested according to the radial impact standard in an esplicit FEM simulation ‘URTO RADIALE’ as well as according to bending and torsion alternating load
  6. 6. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM Reference Model The reference model for the analysis has been the New Beverly 300 cc (Front Wheel) The rim and the hub of the wheel are interface region that are not included in the optimization process. The volume included within the two parts is design space of the optimization Design Region DESIGN SPACE NO DESIGN SPACE
  7. 7. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM Objective: • Minimum“compliance” Design Constraints: • Maximum Von Mises Stress < 72 MPa corrisponding to the fatigue limit (0,3*sR ) of this material for 10^7 cycles • % of mass reduction: 75 %
  8. 8. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM Manufacturing Constraint: • Minimum rib thickness: 6 mm • Structure with polar simmetry (3, 4, 5, 6 spokes) Geometric Constraints:• Rotating Bending Fatigue Test: the wheel must withstand 50000 cycles with an alternating bending load.
  9. 9. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM Geometric Constraints:• Alternating Torsion Fatigue Test: the wheel must withstand 10^6 cycles of alternated torsion load Loads and constraints used in the analysis
  10. 10. OPTIMIZATION RESULTSOptimization results achievedwith 3,4,5 and 6 spokes
  11. 11. OPTIMIZATION RESULTSThe solution with 6 spokes hasbeen designed by Piaggio R&Dand a CAD Model has beenrealized
  12. 12. OPTIMIZATION RESULTS  Initial Weight= 5,7 Kg D Weight = 11%  Final Weight = 5,1 Kg
  13. 13. FEM RE-ANALYSISThe CAD model has been validated according to the alternated torsion and bending load standard The maximum stress for the alternated bending is 85 MPa acceptable for the required fatigue life (172 MPa )
  14. 14. FEM RE-ANALYSIS In the alternated torsion test the maximum Von Mises Stress achieved has been 67 MPa again acceptable for the required fatigue life (123 Mpa) .
  15. 15. RADIAL IMPACT  Radial impact test: aim of this test is to validate the strength and air thight capacity of the wheel after an impact with a given obstacle.
  16. 16. RADIAL IMPACT m=200 Kg vel= A m/sec BC used in the analysis
  17. 17. RADIAL IMPACT
  18. 18. RADIAL IMPACT In the radial impact test the maximum Von Mises Stress achieved has been ≈180 MPa again acceptable with respect to the sy of this material
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONS The activity is resulting from the cooperation between Piaggio&C SpA and Mechanical Engineering Dept. of Pisa University. Aim of this work is to develop an optimization procedure in order to reduce the weight of scooter components. The focus of this project has been the weight reduction of an aluminium wheel by means of a topologic analysis The CAD model has been tested according to the radial impact standard in an esplicit FEM simulation ‘URTO RADIALE’ as well as according to bending and torsion alternating load
  20. 20. ACKNOLEDGEMENTS Thank you all for the attention

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