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Dr. Ralph Stenger
Adam Opel AG
Electric Vehicles
Rising Energy Demand Worldwide
 Today: 900 million vehicles worldwide
 98% fossil fuels
 2020: 1.1 billion vehicles
The Petroleum Age
“Like a Candle in the Night”
Year500 1000 1500 2000 25000
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Millionbarrelsperday
Uncertainty about availability
(cost: 4,300 B€)
Future Petroleum Demand
Economics Will Drive Customer Behavior
Unconventio...
Electrification of
propulsion system
Opel’s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy
Improve
vehicle
fuel economy
and emiss...
 Mild Hybrids
Hybrid-System
 Full Hybrids
2-Mode Hybrid System
 Plug-in Hybrids (PHEV)
Modified 2-Mode Hybrid
System
 ...
Electric Mobility Wish List: Vision Or Illusion?
Public Perception According to Market Research
 > 300 km
 Reliable & pr...
46 L
43 kg
System
Diesel
Fuel
33 kg
37 L
670 L
830 kg
System
Cell
540 kg
360 L
Lithium ion battery
100 kWh electrical ener...
Light load
Drive cycle
Dutycycle
Continuous (highway)Stop-and-go (city)
High load
The Application Map
Our Answer to Concur...
Electric Propulsion System Development
1966 GM Electrovan 2000 Opel HydroGen1 2007 Opel HydroGen4
1972 Lunar Roving Vehicl...
Battery Electric Vehicle
Limited Range
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Limited Performance in EV-Mode
Extended-Range Elect...
Range and Cost
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Range/km0
Cost
500
Range and Recharging Time
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Range/km0
Rechargingtime
500
The same is valid for mass and v...
80% of daily driving
50 km or less
Typical Daily Mileage
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
0-1 2-4 5-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 > 100 km
So...
Full usability:
Performance and refueling
like conventional vehicles
40–80 km
Battery-electric driving
Opel Ampera
A Fully...
Opel Ampera Propulsion System
Engine generator Lithium-ion battery
Electric drive unit Charge port
Opel Ampera Battery
 Li-ion technology
 Pouch cells
 Liquid cooling
 360 V nominal voltage
 180 kg system weight
Opel Ampera
Battery Pack Tray
Cast Magnesium
Design
• Meets stiffness & load transfer targets
• 40 % lower in mass than fi...
Opel Ampera Drive System
On-axis electric drive
 Two electric motors
Traction: 111 kW, 370 Nm
Generator: 54 kW
 One plan...
Opel Ampera Drive System
1.4L DOHC I-4 engine
 Power: 63 kW @ 4800 rpm
 Max. engine speed: 4800 rpm
 Displacement: 1.4 ...
Opel Ampera Electric Drive System
Four different operating modes:
 Electric driving
– low speed (1-motor)
 Electric driv...
ParkingCharge Mode
Electric on-board charger
from grid power
Electric Vehicle Mode
(Engine off)
= Charge Depletion
Parking...
Ampera Electric Drive System
C
3
C
1
C
2
Electric Driving (Low Speed)
Electric energy flow
Mechanical energy flow
No energ...
Electric energy flow
Mechanical energy flow
No energy flow
Clutch open
Clutch closedPower electronics
Electric engine
Plan...
High-voltage
battery
C
3
C
1
C
2
Ampera Electric Drive System
Charging
Electric energy flow
Mechanical energy flow
No ener...
Important: Independence from
Specific Infrastructure Solutions
 Recharging of Ampera possible
at European power outlet
(s...
Opel Ampera Electric Drive System
Four different operating modes:
 Electric driving
– low speed (1-motor)
 Electric driv...
ParkingCharge Mode
Electric on-board charger
from grid power
Extended Range Mode
(Engine-Generator on)
= Charge Sustaining...
C
3
C
1
C
2
Ampera Electric Drive System
Extended-Range Driving (Low Speed)
Power electronics
Electric engine
Planetary ge...
C
3
C
1
C
2
Ampera Electric Drive System
Extended-Range Driving (High Speed)
Electric energy flow
Mechanical energy flow
N...
High-voltage
battery
C
3
C
1
C
2
Ampera Electric Drive System
Charging
Electric energy flow
Mechanical energy flow
No ener...
Ampera Electric Drive System
Animation
C
3
C
1
C
2
Ampera Electric Drive System
Regenerative Braking
Electric energy flow
Mechanical energy flow
No energy flow
C...
Electric energy
GasolineElec. energy
Daily driving distance 60 km
Daily driving distance 60 km
Ampera (E-REV): Master Engi...
Reliability in Daily Use
EV Range: A “Reliable Uncertainty”
-5
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Ambient temperature / °C
Percent...
Spirited Gas-Free Performance
 111 kW of power
 370 Nm of torque
 160 km/h top speed
 0-100 km/h in about 9 seconds
Opel Ampera – Making EVs Relevant
 Large volume production solution
 Capable of being first and only vehicle
 Independe...
Opel Ampera
A Real Volume Product – Not a Demo Vehicle
Opel Ampera
Program Timeline – Chevrolet Volt & Opel Ampera
12 Sept
2011
SORP
Add
picture
On time!
On time!
On time!
EDV
M...
Opel Ampera
Architecture Concept
• Carryover vs. New Components
• Material Breakdown
• Structural Performance
• Mass Consi...
Opel Ampera
Architecture Concept
Ampera Lower Structure is based on a global compact
5-door hatchback design, revised as f...
Opel Ampera
Architecture Concept
Mild /
Low Carbon
Bake Hardenable
High Strength Low Alloy
Dual Phase
Martensite
Press Har...
Opel Ampera
Passive Safety Concept
Side Impact Structural Elements
Front & Rear Crash Structural
Elements
Opel Ampera
Architecture ConceptCrashworthiness
Performance
Illustration of Ampera
load paths
Side impact
Front
impact
Fro...
Opel Ampera
Architecture Concept
64 km/h IIHS Front Offset
Deformable Barrier
56 km/h Front NCAP
Barrier
Physical TestCAE ...
Opel Ampera
Passive Safety Concept
Euro NCAP – 40% Overlap Front Offset Deformable Barrier – 64.37 km/h
Battery
Pack
Tray
...
Opel Ampera
Passive Safety Concept
Physical Test
CAE Model
80 km/h Rear Offset Deformable Barrier
Front &
Rear Crash
Opel Ampera
Architecture Concept
CAE accurately
predicts physical test
CAE Model Physical Test
50 kph IIHS Side
Impact Def...
Opel Ampera
Architecture ConceptCAE Model Physical Test
62 kph Crabbed
Deformable Barrier
32 kph Oblique Pole
Impact
Test
Opel Ampera
Architecture ConceptCAE Model Physical TestTest
Roof Strength
CAE accurately
predicts physical test
Opel Ampera
Aerodynamic Improvement Concept
Under-Floor
Modifications
3 aero
panels
1 aero
panel
• Appreciable drag
reduct...
Light load
Drive cycle
Dutycycle
Continuous (highway)Stop-and-go (city)
High load
Application MapThanks for your Attention
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Electro Mobility with Batteries and Fuel Cells

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Electro Mobility with Batteries and Fuel Cells

  1. 1. Dr. Ralph Stenger Adam Opel AG Electric Vehicles
  2. 2. Rising Energy Demand Worldwide  Today: 900 million vehicles worldwide  98% fossil fuels  2020: 1.1 billion vehicles
  3. 3. The Petroleum Age “Like a Candle in the Night” Year500 1000 1500 2000 25000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Millionbarrelsperday
  4. 4. Uncertainty about availability (cost: 4,300 B€) Future Petroleum Demand Economics Will Drive Customer Behavior Unconventional oil Source: World Energy Outlook International Energy Agency, 2010 Millionbarrelsperday 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Natural gas liquids Crude oil: fields yet to be found Crude oil: fields yet to be developed Crude oil: currently producing fields 1990 2000 2010 2020 2035 Year1995 2005 2015 2025 2030  Between 2007 & 2030 64 mb/d of cross capacity needs to be install  Six times the current capacity of Saudi Arabia  This will cause cost significant increases for fuel and consequently for transportation
  5. 5. Electrification of propulsion system Opel’s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy Improve vehicle fuel economy and emissions Displace petroleum Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles Battery electric vehicles/E-REV Hybrid electric vehicles (including plug-in HEV) IC engine and transmission improvements Energy Diversity Petroleum Alternative fuels (CNG, LPG) Electricity Hydrogen
  6. 6.  Mild Hybrids Hybrid-System  Full Hybrids 2-Mode Hybrid System  Plug-in Hybrids (PHEV) Modified 2-Mode Hybrid System  Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) Voltec System  Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)  Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) Petroleum and Biofuels Electricity and Hydrogen Mild Hybrid Full Hybrid PHEV E-REV BEV FCEV Vehicle Electrification Mechanical with electric assist Electric with mechanical assist All electric
  7. 7. Electric Mobility Wish List: Vision Or Illusion? Public Perception According to Market Research  > 300 km  Reliable & predictable  In less than 30 min.  At household electricity price  Everywhere and wireless  On-cost per vehicle < 5,000 €  Negligible operation cost  Like a “real” car?  Comfort, safety, capacity  Fun to drive
  8. 8. 46 L 43 kg System Diesel Fuel 33 kg 37 L 670 L 830 kg System Cell 540 kg 360 L Lithium ion battery 100 kWh electrical energy 260 L 125 kg System Fuel 6 kg 170 L Compressed hydrogen 700 bar 6 kg H2 = 200 kWh chemical energy On-Board Energy Storage Weight and Volume of Energy Storage System for 500 km Range
  9. 9. Light load Drive cycle Dutycycle Continuous (highway)Stop-and-go (city) High load The Application Map Our Answer to Concurrent Development Targets Urbanization shifts market demand
  10. 10. Electric Propulsion System Development 1966 GM Electrovan 2000 Opel HydroGen1 2007 Opel HydroGen4 1972 Lunar Roving Vehicle 1990 Opel Impuls 1996-1999 GM EV1 2010 Chevrolet Volt 2011 Opel Ampera Space technology  Low performance  Huge systems  Lack of suitable materials E-hype & ZEV mandate  Limited range  Long recharging time  Range anxiety E-hype & Li-ion batteries New materials for FC membranes  Poor battery life  Too expensive
  11. 11. Battery Electric Vehicle Limited Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Limited Performance in EV-Mode Extended-Range Electric Vehicle Full Performance in EV-Mode Battery Electric Vehicle Limited Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Limited Performance in EV-Mode E-REV as a New Propulsion Category
  12. 12. Range and Cost 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Range/km0 Cost 500
  13. 13. Range and Recharging Time 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Range/km0 Rechargingtime 500 The same is valid for mass and volume
  14. 14. 80% of daily driving 50 km or less Typical Daily Mileage 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0-1 2-4 5-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 > 100 km Source: Mobilität in Deutschland, 2002
  15. 15. Full usability: Performance and refueling like conventional vehicles 40–80 km Battery-electric driving Opel Ampera A Fully Capable Electric Vehicle
  16. 16. Opel Ampera Propulsion System Engine generator Lithium-ion battery Electric drive unit Charge port
  17. 17. Opel Ampera Battery  Li-ion technology  Pouch cells  Liquid cooling  360 V nominal voltage  180 kg system weight
  18. 18. Opel Ampera Battery Pack Tray Cast Magnesium Design • Meets stiffness & load transfer targets • 40 % lower in mass than final steel design • No changes to body interfaces Top side Under side Cell module attachment features Side impact load transfer ribs Magnesium Aluminum
  19. 19. Opel Ampera Drive System On-axis electric drive  Two electric motors Traction: 111 kW, 370 Nm Generator: 54 kW  One planetary gear  Geared final drive  Three clutches Clutches Generator Final drive gearing Traction motor Planetary gear set Axle differential
  20. 20. Opel Ampera Drive System 1.4L DOHC I-4 engine  Power: 63 kW @ 4800 rpm  Max. engine speed: 4800 rpm  Displacement: 1.4 L  Compression ratio: 10.5 : 1
  21. 21. Opel Ampera Electric Drive System Four different operating modes:  Electric driving – low speed (1-motor)  Electric driving – high speed (2-motor)  Extended-range driving – low speed (1-motor series)  Extended-range driving – high speed (2-motor combined) Operation strategy:  Maximum battery-electric range (electric driving)  Maximum efficiency
  22. 22. ParkingCharge Mode Electric on-board charger from grid power Electric Vehicle Mode (Engine off) = Charge Depletion Parking StateofCharge Time 100 % Regen Braking Opel Ampera Electric Drive System
  23. 23. Ampera Electric Drive System C 3 C 1 C 2 Electric Driving (Low Speed) Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closed High-voltage battery Power electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator Engine
  24. 24. Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closedPower electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator C 3 C 1 C 2Engine Ampera Electric Drive System Electric Driving (High Speed) High-voltage battery
  25. 25. High-voltage battery C 3 C 1 C 2 Ampera Electric Drive System Charging Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closedPower electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator Engine
  26. 26. Important: Independence from Specific Infrastructure Solutions  Recharging of Ampera possible at European power outlet (standard household installation)  Recharging at home or workplace Will account for more than 85% of all charging events in the future 
  27. 27. Opel Ampera Electric Drive System Four different operating modes:  Electric driving – low speed (1-motor)  Electric driving – high speed (2-motor)  Extended-range driving – low speed (1-motor series)  Extended-range driving – high speed (2-motor combined) Operation strategy:  Maximum battery-electric range (electric driving)  Maximum efficiency
  28. 28. ParkingCharge Mode Electric on-board charger from grid power Extended Range Mode (Engine-Generator on) = Charge Sustaining Electric Vehicle Mode (Engine off) = Charge Depletion Parking StateofCharge Time 100 % Regen Braking Engine will be off at certain times Opel Ampera Electric Drive System
  29. 29. C 3 C 1 C 2 Ampera Electric Drive System Extended-Range Driving (Low Speed) Power electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator Engine Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closed High-voltage battery
  30. 30. C 3 C 1 C 2 Ampera Electric Drive System Extended-Range Driving (High Speed) Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closedPower electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator Engine High-voltage battery
  31. 31. High-voltage battery C 3 C 1 C 2 Ampera Electric Drive System Charging Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closedPower electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator Engine
  32. 32. Ampera Electric Drive System Animation
  33. 33. C 3 C 1 C 2 Ampera Electric Drive System Regenerative Braking Electric energy flow Mechanical energy flow No energy flow Clutch open Clutch closedPower electronics Electric engine Planetary gearbox Engine generator Engine High-voltage battery
  34. 34. Electric energy GasolineElec. energy Daily driving distance 60 km Daily driving distance 60 km Ampera (E-REV): Master Engine = Electric Motor Plug in Hybrids (PHEV): Master Engine = Combustion Engine Gasoline Long distance Long distance PowerPower Opel Ampera vs PHEV Propulsion System. What’s the Main Engine?
  35. 35. Reliability in Daily Use
  36. 36. EV Range: A “Reliable Uncertainty” -5 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Ambient temperature / °C Percentageofmaximumelectricrange Eco drive style no HVAC Normal drive style no HVAC Normal drive style with HVAC EV’s comfort range Significant range impact of  Drive cycle  Ambient temperature  Cabin comfort
  37. 37. Spirited Gas-Free Performance  111 kW of power  370 Nm of torque  160 km/h top speed  0-100 km/h in about 9 seconds
  38. 38. Opel Ampera – Making EVs Relevant  Large volume production solution  Capable of being first and only vehicle  Independent of public charging infrastructure  Predictable performance  Fun-to-drive  Affordable  Safe
  39. 39. Opel Ampera A Real Volume Product – Not a Demo Vehicle
  40. 40. Opel Ampera Program Timeline – Chevrolet Volt & Opel Ampera 12 Sept 2011 SORP Add picture On time! On time! On time! EDV Mule PPV MVBs Pre-Prod On time! On time! 2007 2008 2010 20122011
  41. 41. Opel Ampera Architecture Concept • Carryover vs. New Components • Material Breakdown • Structural Performance • Mass Considerations • Aero • Battery Pack Tray
  42. 42. Opel Ampera Architecture Concept Ampera Lower Structure is based on a global compact 5-door hatchback design, revised as follows:  to accommodate T-shaped battery pack  to package unique components  to interface with revised interior  for crashworthiness performance  for structural performance  for aerodynamic improvement
  43. 43. Opel Ampera Architecture Concept Mild / Low Carbon Bake Hardenable High Strength Low Alloy Dual Phase Martensite Press Hardened / Hot Stamped
  44. 44. Opel Ampera Passive Safety Concept Side Impact Structural Elements Front & Rear Crash Structural Elements
  45. 45. Opel Ampera Architecture ConceptCrashworthiness Performance Illustration of Ampera load paths Side impact Front impact Front & Rear Crash Side Impact
  46. 46. Opel Ampera Architecture Concept 64 km/h IIHS Front Offset Deformable Barrier 56 km/h Front NCAP Barrier Physical TestCAE ModelTest Front Impact Crashworthiness
  47. 47. Opel Ampera Passive Safety Concept Euro NCAP – 40% Overlap Front Offset Deformable Barrier – 64.37 km/h Battery Pack Tray Front & Rear Crash
  48. 48. Opel Ampera Passive Safety Concept Physical Test CAE Model 80 km/h Rear Offset Deformable Barrier Front & Rear Crash
  49. 49. Opel Ampera Architecture Concept CAE accurately predicts physical test CAE Model Physical Test 50 kph IIHS Side Impact Deformable Barrier Test
  50. 50. Opel Ampera Architecture ConceptCAE Model Physical Test 62 kph Crabbed Deformable Barrier 32 kph Oblique Pole Impact Test
  51. 51. Opel Ampera Architecture ConceptCAE Model Physical TestTest Roof Strength CAE accurately predicts physical test
  52. 52. Opel Ampera Aerodynamic Improvement Concept Under-Floor Modifications 3 aero panels 1 aero panel • Appreciable drag reduction • Minimized mass
  53. 53. Light load Drive cycle Dutycycle Continuous (highway)Stop-and-go (city) High load Application MapThanks for your Attention

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