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  • Der Cerebralcortex , der ungefähr 40 Prozent des Gehirngewichtes ausmacht besteht aus etwa 20 Billionen Neuronen. Die ersten Neuronen entwickeln sich ungefähr 30 Tage nach der Befruchtung, wenn der Embryo – kommagroß (4mm) – noch keine Augen oder gar Beine und Arme besitzt. The beginnings of the thinking brain News 28 June 2006 Oxford researchers have identified the very first neurons in the human cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that sets us apart from all other animals. Dr Irina Bystron and colleagues from the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics at the University of Oxford, together with Professor Pasko Rakic, a leading neuroscientist at Yale University, describe for the first time in Nature Neuroscience the very earliest nerve cells in the part of the developing human brain that becomes the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is largely responsible for human cognition, playing an essential role in perception, memory, thought, language, mental ability, intellect and consciousness. It is also responsible for our voluntary actions. As adults our cerebral cortex accounts for 40 per cent of the brain’s weight and is composed of about 20 billion neurons. The new findings show that its first neurons are in place much earlier than previously thought – approximately 31 days after fertilization, when the entire embryo is only about 4 mm long and shaped a bit like a comma, before the development of arms, legs or eyes. The team used cutting-edge techniques, including technologies that allowed them to study which genes are turned on in individual cells. These methods enabled them to identify the first neurons, which they call ‘predecessor’ cells. Predecessor cells are unusual in many respects. Unlike normal nerve cells, they do not have fibres connecting to other neurons. They do, however, have very long thick processes, or ‘tails’, one stretching out in front of the cell body, the other trailing behind. Analysis of the skeleton of these cells suggests that they move upwards in the surface of the developing brain and enter the future cortex. Their processes form a vast network, and the researchers speculate that this web of processes might be used to guide the migration and development of later cells. Professor Colin Blakemore, one of the authors on the paper, said: ‘We suspect that these early cells have a special role in development, setting the scene for and controlling neurons that are generated later, and dying when their job is done.’ Unravelling the early development of the cerebral cortex may help in understanding the many developmental disorders of higher brain function, such as autism, schizophrenia, childhood epilepsy, developmental dyslexia and mental retardation. It might also provide the key to a question that has puzzled evolutionary biologists, namely how the cerebral hemispheres of our hominid ancestors expanded massively, starting about five million years ago. Despite only a 1 per cent genetic difference between humans and gorillas, the human cerebral cortex is four times larger, and our ability to think, understand and to develop culture is dramatically different. It is possible that understanding the way the cerebral cortex develops, and how its development differs from that of other animals, might help explain what happened to give us such clever brains. The researchers are particularly interested in the fact that predecessor cells have never been described in other animals. ‘A re-examination of early brain development in other species is urgently needed to determine whether predecessor cells are really unique to the human brain,’ said Dr Bystron. To see the article, visit the website http:// / neuro /
  • Hintergrund unter D: Bilder/Hintergründe/ Web
  • KreativitäT

    1. 1. KREATIVITÄT <ul><li>“ There is no doubt that creativity is the most important human resource of all. Without creativity, there would be no progress, and we would be forever repeating the same patterns.” </li></ul><ul><li>Eduardo De Bono </li></ul>
    2. 2. Kreativität – Keine Definition Kreativ sein bedeutet: „Nicht träge sein!“
    3. 3. Kreativität – (K)eine Definition <ul><li>Kreativität ist eine spezielle Form der Erschöpfung!? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Kreativität – eine Definition ? <ul><li>Eine Kreation ist immer etwas Besonderes! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Kreativität – Meine Definition <ul><li>Wer kreativ ist, der hat Power </li></ul><ul><li>in den Genen... </li></ul><ul><li>und Feuer im Po... </li></ul>
    6. 6. Krativität... <ul><li> Originelles Denken </li></ul><ul><li> Schöpferkraft </li></ul><ul><li> Verknüpfung </li></ul><ul><li> produktion </li></ul><ul><li> Innovation </li></ul>
    7. 7. wir denken im Gehirn <ul><li>“ Creative thinking is not a talent, it is a skill that can be learnt. It empowers people by adding strength to their natural abilities which improves teamwork, productivity and where appropriate profits.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Edward De Bono </li></ul>
    8. 8. rechte und linke Gehirnhälfte <ul><li>zufällig </li></ul><ul><li>intuitiv </li></ul><ul><li>verbindend </li></ul><ul><li>subjektiv </li></ul><ul><li>schaut auf das Ganze </li></ul><ul><li>logisch </li></ul><ul><li>folgerichtig </li></ul><ul><li>vernünftig </li></ul><ul><li>analytisch </li></ul><ul><li>objektiv </li></ul><ul><li>schaut auf Einzelheiten </li></ul>Rechts Links
    9. 9. Selbstorganisation <ul><li>Die unterschiedlichen eingehenden Reize werden einer sinnhaften Bedeutung zugeführt </li></ul>
    10. 10. Selbstmaximierung <ul><li>Der Entwurf von Mustern beherrscht alle ebenen der Reizaufnahme und bietet in der Vernetzung die grundlage für die Deutung neuer Inputs. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Vertikal Thinking <ul><li>logisch, linear, analytisch </li></ul><ul><li>„ Wenn du 18 bist, dann kannst du deinen Führerschein machen. Mit dem ersten selbstverdienten Geld kaufst du dir dann einen Wagen, mit dem du nach Paris fahren kannst.“ </li></ul>
    12. 12. Lateral Thinking <ul><li>kreativ, flexibel, unpopulär </li></ul><ul><li>„ Mit achtzehn kann ich reisen und die Welt erobern. Dort lerne ich Dinge, die mir Freude bereiten. Ich verdiene Geld und werde den Führerschein machen können.“ </li></ul>
    13. 13. Denken im Vergleich <ul><li>probabilistisch </li></ul><ul><li>nicht vorhersagbar (chaotisch) </li></ul><ul><li>auf ein bestimmtes Ergebnis hin ausgelegt </li></ul><ul><li>vorhersagbar </li></ul>Ergebnisse <ul><li>versucht etablierten Etiketten, Mustern und Klassifizierungen zu entfliehen </li></ul><ul><li>bewahrt, etikettiert, benennt, kategorisiert und klassifiziert aus der vergangenen Erfahrung </li></ul>Gebrauch von Mustern <ul><li>generativ </li></ul><ul><li>sucht zusätzliche Möglichkeiten </li></ul><ul><li>muss nicht zwingend richtig sein, um fortfahren zu können </li></ul><ul><li>erforscht ungewöhnliche Wege </li></ul><ul><li>selektiv </li></ul><ul><li>nach vorne zusammenlaufend </li></ul><ul><li>akzeptable Lösung </li></ul><ul><li>Gebrauch negativer Einheiten </li></ul><ul><li>bestimmter Weg </li></ul><ul><li>folgt dem einfachsten Weg </li></ul>Prozess <ul><li>provokativ </li></ul><ul><li>nicht sequentiell </li></ul><ul><li>nicht logisch </li></ul><ul><li>Analytisch </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentielll </li></ul><ul><li>Logisch </li></ul>Basis Lateral Thinking Vertical Thinking
    14. 14. Techniken des Lateral Thinking UNO <ul><li>Freie Assoziation: </li></ul><ul><li>Zufälliges in Beziehung setzen von Ideen, um Beziehungen zu entdecken, die zuvor nicht bekannt waren oder als nicht brauchbar erachtet wurden (z.B. Apfel und PC) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Techniken des lateral thinking two <ul><li>Gegenteil : Verneinung oder Umkehr einer zentralen Idee oder ihrer Auswirkungen, um neue Perspektiven bereitstellen zu können (z.B. ein Hase, der einen Magier aus dem Hut zieht) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Techniken des lateral thinking Trois <ul><li>Distortion : exaggeration of specific features of known situations to provide new approaches or to clarify the influences of those features; e.g., make the bridge one hundred miles long. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Techniken des lateral Thinking <ul><li>Literalizing : association of an abstract, figurative word or phrase with its literal meaning—taking it at its &quot;verbal face value&quot;; e.g., design a clock that tells time by means of a recorded message. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Techniken des lateral thinking cinco <ul><li>Factoring : dissolution of inhibiting patterns by breaking them down into their component parts for re-patterning; e.g. determining the smallest step involved in writing a book. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Lateral und vertikal <ul><li>“ When you face fast-changing trends, fierce competition, and the need to work miracles despite tight budgets - you need lateral thinking.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Edward De Bono </li></ul>