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DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 1 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
1.0 Experiment outcomes
At the end of the lab session students should be able:
i) To define the properties of oil, water and detergent.
ii) To investigate the fluid properties of the mixtures of oil, water and detergent in a beaker.
2.0 Theory
Fluid properties are intimately related to fluid behavior. It is obvious that different fluids can have
grossly different characteristics.For example, gases are light and compressible, whereasliquids are
heavy and relatively incompressible.
To quantify the fluid behavior differences certain fluid properties are used. The fluid properties are
mass density, specific weight, specific gravity and specific volume.
Mass density,  is defined as the mass per unit volume (SI unit, kg/m3
)
v
volume
m
mass
,
,


Specific weight, is defined as the weight per unit volume. (SI unit, N/m3
)
g

  (where g=9.81m/sec2
)
Specific gravity, s or relative density is the ratio of the weight of the substance to the weight of an
equal volume of water at 4C.
water
ce
subs
s

 tan
 or
water
ce
subs
s

 tan

Specific volume , v is defined as the reciprocal of mass density. It is used to mean volume per
unit mass. (SI units,m3
/kg)

1

v
m
mass
v
volume
v
,
,

DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 2 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
3.0 Apparatus/Equipments
i) Beaker
ii) Weight Scale
iii) Stop watch
Figure 1: Beaker and Weight Scale
Figure 2: Stopwatch
Weightscale
Beaker
Liquid
DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 3 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
4.0 Safety Precautions
i) When transferring a liquid to a beaker, the container or bottle should be held at eye level.
Pour the liquid slowly, until the correct volume has been transferred.
ii) When pouring a liquid from a bottle or container into a beaker, hold it tightly.
iii) Check the weight scale before start. The scale pan should be empty and clean, and all
masses (or dials) should be set on zero. Objects to be placed directly on the scale pan must
be clean, dry, and at room temperature.
iv) The weight scale is a precision instrument that must be handled with care. To avoid
damaging it, always be sure that the scale is in an arrested position when objects are placed
on or removed from the pan. Always turn all dials slowly.
v) If a liquid spill on or near the weight scale, clean it up immediately.
vi) Never attempt to measure an object with a mass greater than the maximum capacity of the
weight scale.
vii) Return all the masses to zero, and make sure the weight scale pan is clean.
viii) Do not attempt to use the weight scale until instructor has demonstrated the proper
technique.
DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 4 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
5.0 Procedures
i) Measure 25ml of oil, 100ml of water and 25ml of detergent before find their weight
respectively using weight scale.
ii) Calculate mass density of oil, water and detergent.
iii) Pour those three fluids into a beaker.
iv) Wait for 10 minutes before make the discussion and conclusions.
6.0 Result/Data
No. Liquid Volume
(m3
)
Mass
(kg)
Weight
(N)
Mass
Density
(kg/m3
)
Specific
Weight
(N/m3
)
Specific
Gravity
Specific
Volume
(m3
/kg)
1. Water
2. Oil
3. Detergent
DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 5 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
7.0 Analysis
ITEM SAMPLE OF CALCULATION
Volume
ml m3
Mass
g Kg
Weight
DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 6 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
ITEM SAMPLE OF CALCULATION
Mass density
Specificweight
Specificgravity
DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 7 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
ITEM SAMPLE OF CALCULATION
Specificvolume
8.0 Discussion
i) As the volume of the liquid increase,what will happen to the mass?
ii) As the volume of the liquid increase,what will happen to the mass density?
iii) Base on your observations, did the three liquids mix together or separate into layer?
DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical)
EXPERIMENT : E1
TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES
DURATION : 2 HOURS
PAGE : 8 0F
Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014
9.0 Conclusion
(Your conclusion should be related to your practical and theoretical understanding on the related
topic).
10.0 Recommendation
11.0 References
i) Cengel, Y. A. and Cimbala, J. M., (2005). Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Application.
International Edition, McGraw-Hill, Singapore
ii) Fakhru’l –Razi Ahmadun, Chuah Teong Guan, Mohd Halim Shah Ismail). Safety:Principles
& Practices in the Laboratory,UPM Press (2005)

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Pt1 fluid properties

  • 1. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 1 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 1.0 Experiment outcomes At the end of the lab session students should be able: i) To define the properties of oil, water and detergent. ii) To investigate the fluid properties of the mixtures of oil, water and detergent in a beaker. 2.0 Theory Fluid properties are intimately related to fluid behavior. It is obvious that different fluids can have grossly different characteristics.For example, gases are light and compressible, whereasliquids are heavy and relatively incompressible. To quantify the fluid behavior differences certain fluid properties are used. The fluid properties are mass density, specific weight, specific gravity and specific volume. Mass density,  is defined as the mass per unit volume (SI unit, kg/m3 ) v volume m mass , ,   Specific weight, is defined as the weight per unit volume. (SI unit, N/m3 ) g    (where g=9.81m/sec2 ) Specific gravity, s or relative density is the ratio of the weight of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4C. water ce subs s   tan  or water ce subs s   tan  Specific volume , v is defined as the reciprocal of mass density. It is used to mean volume per unit mass. (SI units,m3 /kg)  1  v m mass v volume v , , 
  • 2. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 2 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 3.0 Apparatus/Equipments i) Beaker ii) Weight Scale iii) Stop watch Figure 1: Beaker and Weight Scale Figure 2: Stopwatch Weightscale Beaker Liquid
  • 3. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 3 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 4.0 Safety Precautions i) When transferring a liquid to a beaker, the container or bottle should be held at eye level. Pour the liquid slowly, until the correct volume has been transferred. ii) When pouring a liquid from a bottle or container into a beaker, hold it tightly. iii) Check the weight scale before start. The scale pan should be empty and clean, and all masses (or dials) should be set on zero. Objects to be placed directly on the scale pan must be clean, dry, and at room temperature. iv) The weight scale is a precision instrument that must be handled with care. To avoid damaging it, always be sure that the scale is in an arrested position when objects are placed on or removed from the pan. Always turn all dials slowly. v) If a liquid spill on or near the weight scale, clean it up immediately. vi) Never attempt to measure an object with a mass greater than the maximum capacity of the weight scale. vii) Return all the masses to zero, and make sure the weight scale pan is clean. viii) Do not attempt to use the weight scale until instructor has demonstrated the proper technique.
  • 4. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 4 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 5.0 Procedures i) Measure 25ml of oil, 100ml of water and 25ml of detergent before find their weight respectively using weight scale. ii) Calculate mass density of oil, water and detergent. iii) Pour those three fluids into a beaker. iv) Wait for 10 minutes before make the discussion and conclusions. 6.0 Result/Data No. Liquid Volume (m3 ) Mass (kg) Weight (N) Mass Density (kg/m3 ) Specific Weight (N/m3 ) Specific Gravity Specific Volume (m3 /kg) 1. Water 2. Oil 3. Detergent
  • 5. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 5 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 7.0 Analysis ITEM SAMPLE OF CALCULATION Volume ml m3 Mass g Kg Weight
  • 6. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 6 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 ITEM SAMPLE OF CALCULATION Mass density Specificweight Specificgravity
  • 7. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 7 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 ITEM SAMPLE OF CALCULATION Specificvolume 8.0 Discussion i) As the volume of the liquid increase,what will happen to the mass? ii) As the volume of the liquid increase,what will happen to the mass density? iii) Base on your observations, did the three liquids mix together or separate into layer?
  • 8. DJJ20073 – Fluid Mechanics (Practical) EXPERIMENT : E1 TITLE : FLUID AND PROPERTIES DURATION : 2 HOURS PAGE : 8 0F Version : 090514_1.0 _Effective:June2014 9.0 Conclusion (Your conclusion should be related to your practical and theoretical understanding on the related topic). 10.0 Recommendation 11.0 References i) Cengel, Y. A. and Cimbala, J. M., (2005). Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Application. International Edition, McGraw-Hill, Singapore ii) Fakhru’l –Razi Ahmadun, Chuah Teong Guan, Mohd Halim Shah Ismail). Safety:Principles & Practices in the Laboratory,UPM Press (2005)