Ergonomics Training


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  • Slide Show Notes Welcome to the training session on ergonomics in industrial work areas. This session will look at some of the basic principles of ergonomics so that you can use a commonsense approach to working safely. In particular, the information presented here will focus on musculoskeletal disorders, or MSDs, and how ergonomics helps prevent them.
  • Ergonomics Training

    1. 1. Ergonomics Industrial
    2. 2. Session Objectives <ul><li>You will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the principles of ergonomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What Is Ergonomics? <ul><ul><li>Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe work practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPE </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) Injuries <ul><ul><li>1.8 million MSD injuries each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600,000 MSD injuries require time away from work </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Regulation Of Ergonomics <ul><ul><li>General Duty Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to unregulated hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to keep a hazard-free workplace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard recognized by employer or employer’s industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard could cause death or serious harm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method exists to correct the hazard </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. MSD-Type Injuries Repetitive Motion 63% Repetitive Placing, Grasping, or Moving Objects 20% Repetitive Use of Tools 8% Typing or Key Entry 9%
    7. 7. Characteristics of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Occur from a single event or many small injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take weeks, months, or years to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after injury has occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing causes may occur at home and at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. General Signs of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Less strength for gripping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less range of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of muscle function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to do everyday tasks </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. MSD Symptoms <ul><ul><li>Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulders— pain, stiffness, loss of mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow and knee joints— pain, swelling, stiffness, soreness </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. MSD Symptoms (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Hands and wrists— swelling, numbness, loss of strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers— jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbs— pain at the base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feet and toes— numbness, tingling, stiffness, burning sensation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Outward Signs of MSDs <ul><ul><li>Swelling or inflammation of joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorously shaking hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massaging hands, wrists, or arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cradling arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff back </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Common MSDs <ul><ul><li>Carpal tunnel syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low back pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger finger </li></ul></ul>Image Credit: Cal OSH & NIOSH
    13. 13. Common MSDs (cont.) <ul><ul><li>De Quervain’s disease—forceful grip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpet layer’s knee—contact trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotator cuff tendinitis— repetitive motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herniated disk— bending and twisting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-arm vibration syndrome </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Act on the Signs of MSD <ul><li>Act immediately: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek medical attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early treatment and intervention can prevent permanent injury </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. What Do You Think? <ul><li>What do you think is causing this employee’s pain? </li></ul><ul><li>How can this be improved? </li></ul>Employee experiences severe back pain often.
    16. 16. What Is Causing the Pain? <ul><li>Possibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive lifting of heavy objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisting while lifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor lifting techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting above shoulders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single lifting injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor conditioning </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What Can Be Done? <ul><ul><li>Use lifting aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t twist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift using your legs, not your back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a stool or stepladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t overdo it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your back in shape </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Check Your Knowledge <ul><li>Loss of muscle function </li></ul>Which of these are MSD symptoms? Racing heart Pain Numbness Tingling          Dizziness Excessive cough Stiffness Swelling of joints
    19. 19. MSDs—Any Questions? <ul><ul><li>Do you understand what MSDs are and the signs and symptoms of MSDs? </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Risk Factors That Lead to MSDs <ul><ul><li>Repetitive motions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful exertions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward postures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact stress (pressure points) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrations </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Risk Factor— Repetitive Motion <ul><ul><li>Stress on muscles and tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration and speed of repetitious movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of muscles involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising and lowering the arm over and over again </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Forceful Exertions <ul><ul><li>Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of grip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type and duration of the task </li></ul></ul></ul>Image Credit: OSHA
    23. 23. Awkward Postures <ul><ul><li>Stress on muscles and tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force the body must maintain to hold the position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holding fixed positions (static loading) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Contact Stress <ul><ul><li>Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grip strength required </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Vibration <ul><ul><li>Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged grip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools without vibration dampening device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor power tool maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. MSDs Related To Risk Factors <ul><li>De Quervain’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger finger </li></ul><ul><li>Rotator cuff syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic outlet syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-arm vibration syndrome </li></ul>Repetition Posture Forceful Grip Contact Stress Prolonged Vibration
    27. 27. Can You Identify The Risk Factors?
    28. 28. Can You Identify The Risk Factors? (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Repetitive motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting or reaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>awkward position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>excessive weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arms raised </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MSDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torn tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back pain </li></ul></ul>Risk Factors
    29. 29. MSD Risk Factors— Any Questions? <ul><ul><li>Do you understand MSD risk factors and hazards? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Ergonomics Management <ul><ul><li>Job assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSD reporting and response system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Identifying and Controlling MSD Hazards <ul><ul><li>Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devise a control strategy with your input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement control measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Control Methods <ul><ul><li>Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. How to Protect Yourself <ul><ul><li>Change positions often; take stretch breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain neutral posture whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use material-handling aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report MSD symptoms </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. MSD Prevention and Control—Any Questions? <ul><ul><li>Do you think you understand what you need to know about the methods to manage, prevent, and control MSDs? </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Recognize MSD signs and symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand MSD hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take steps to control MSD hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in the Ergonomics Program </li></ul></ul>