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4. classical period5th ed

Music 9 Lesson

1 of 41
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Part IV
The Classical
Period
(1750-1820)
Presentation developed by:
Robert Elliott
Tennessee State University
Edited by:
Al-lyn Vocal
La Salle University
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Time-Line
Seven Years’ War-1756-1763
Louis XVI in France-1774-1792
American Declaration of Independence-1776
French Revolution-1789
Napoleon: first French consul-1799
Napoleonic Wars-1803-1815
Goethe: Faust-1808
Austin: Pride and Prejudice-1813
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
The Classical Era
Scientific advances changed world view
– Faith in the power of reason
– Undermining of traditional authority
Visual Art
– Moved away from ornate
Baroque style
- Social organization
- Religious establishment
– Age of Enlightenment
– Rise of the middle class worker
Fragonard: The Lover Crowned
©GeoffreyClements/Corbis
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Chapter 1: The Classical Style
Transition to Period: ~1730-1770
C.P.E. and J.C. Bach—early pioneers
Music and visual arts stress balance and structure
Three main composers:
– Joseph Haydn
– Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
– Ludwig van Beethoven
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Characteristics of The Classical Style
Contrast of Mood
– Contrast both between and within movements
Flexibility of rhythm
– Multiple rhythmic patterns in a piece
Texture
– Mostly homophonic, but with frequent shifts
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Melody
Dynamics
– Tuneful, easy to sing, folk/popular-based
– Emotions expressed in shades of dynamics
End of the Basso Continuo
- Use of gradual dynamic changes
- Related to development of the piano
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4. classical period5th ed

  • 1. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Part IV The Classical Period (1750-1820) Presentation developed by: Robert Elliott Tennessee State University Edited by: Al-lyn Vocal La Salle University
  • 2. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Time-Line Seven Years’ War-1756-1763 Louis XVI in France-1774-1792 American Declaration of Independence-1776 French Revolution-1789 Napoleon: first French consul-1799 Napoleonic Wars-1803-1815 Goethe: Faust-1808 Austin: Pride and Prejudice-1813
  • 3. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Classical Era Scientific advances changed world view – Faith in the power of reason – Undermining of traditional authority Visual Art – Moved away from ornate Baroque style - Social organization - Religious establishment – Age of Enlightenment – Rise of the middle class worker Fragonard: The Lover Crowned ©GeoffreyClements/Corbis
  • 4. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 1: The Classical Style Transition to Period: ~1730-1770 C.P.E. and J.C. Bach—early pioneers Music and visual arts stress balance and structure Three main composers: – Joseph Haydn – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Ludwig van Beethoven
  • 5. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Characteristics of The Classical Style Contrast of Mood – Contrast both between and within movements Flexibility of rhythm – Multiple rhythmic patterns in a piece Texture – Mostly homophonic, but with frequent shifts
  • 6. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Melody Dynamics – Tuneful, easy to sing, folk/popular-based – Emotions expressed in shades of dynamics End of the Basso Continuo - Use of gradual dynamic changes - Related to development of the piano
  • 7. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Classical Orchestra Standardization of instrumentation Increase in size of orchestra – Still smaller than that of today Composers made use of various timbres available – Instruments not treated as all equal, as in the Baroque – Melodies move around between instruments
  • 8. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Classical Forms Instrumental works usually in multi-movement form Frequently four movements – 1st—Fast – 2nd—Slow Multi-movement works for instrumental groups: – Symphony—for orchestra – String quartet—2 violins, viola, & cello – Sonata—usually for one or two instruments – 3rd—Dance-related – 4th—Fast
  • 9. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 2: Composer, Patron, and Public in the Classical Period Changing society affected musicians – Breakdown of the patronage system - Haydn: worked 30 years for aristocratic family - Mozart: began at court, broke away, died broke - Beethoven: successful as independent musician – Rise of the public (consumer-driven) system - Related to decline of aristocracy and rise of democracy
  • 10. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Prospering middle class wanted aristocratic pleasures (theatre, literature, music) – Public, ticket buying concerts became common Middle class children received music lessons Serious compositions flavored by folk and popular music – Rise of instrument manufacture industry – Composers wrote playable music that would sell
  • 11. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Vienna Became the musical capitol of Europe Musicians came to study and seek recognition Aristocrats wintering there would bring their orchestras Musicians, including Mozart and Beethoven, frequently played gigs in wealthy homes Many musicians also worked in serenading street bands
  • 12. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 3: Sonata Form Opening movements frequently use sonata form Also called sonata-allegro form – Sonata form refers to a single movement – A Sonata is an entire multi-movement work One of, if not the, most common Classical forms – Form continues up to, and including, the 20th Century – Common in symphony, sonata, and string quartet This form also common in 2nd and 4th movements
  • 13. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill – Exposition (A) Sonata form is ternary (A B A)—3 main sections – Development (B) – Recapitulation (A) – Often concludes with a “tag” or tail—Coda - Initial statement of 1st and 2nd themes - Entire section usually repeated - Tension building section - Themes broken into fragments—motives - Resolution of tension - Re-statement of first and second themes
  • 14. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart First movement Listening Outline: p. 166 Brief Set, CD 2:23 Listen for: Sonata Form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda
  • 15. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 4: Theme and Variations Single part form—no large contrasting “B” section Basic idea presented, then repeated over and over – Each repeat alters (varies) the musical idea – ( A A’ A” A”’…) – Variations may alter melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, or all of these – Each variation is about the same length as the original idea
  • 16. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Symphony No. 94 in G Major, 1791 (Surprise Symphony) Franz Joseph Haydn Second Movement Listening Outline: p. 168 Brief Set, CD 2:32 Listen for: Theme and Variations form “Surprise” chord near beginning
  • 17. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 5: Minuet and Trio Ternary form based upon stately court dance of the Baroque Each ternary part is itself ternary: Return of the Minuet is usually marked on the music as da capo Minuet Trio Minuet ||: a :||: b a’ :||: c :||: d c’ :|| a b a’ || A B A
  • 18. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525 (1787) (A Little Night Music) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Third Movement Listening Outline: p. 171 Brief Set, CD 2:38 Listen for: Minuet and Trio form Minuet Trio Minuet A B A ||: a :||: b a’ :||: c :||: d c’ :|| a b a’ ||
  • 19. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 6: Rondo Features a main theme that keeps coming back Main theme section alternates with other contrasting sections - Note the similarity to modern pop-music form Common rondo patterns: – A B A C A (small rondo) – A B A C A B A (large rondo) Sometimes combined with sonata form to create the hybrid sonata-rondo form – Sonata-rondo is a rondo with a development section
  • 20. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800) Ludwig van Beethoven Fourth movement: Rondo (Allegro) Listening Outline: p. 173 Brief Set, CD 2:41 Listen for: Rondo form (large rondo) A B A C A B A
  • 21. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 7: The Classical Symphony Extended, ambitious work lasting for 20-45 minutes Multi-movement instrumental work – 1st movement: Fast—frequently Sonata form Themes in one movement rarely appear in another movement – 2nd movement: Slow—often Sonata form, sometimes Theme and Variations – 3rd movement: Dance—usually Minuet and Trio or scherzo (a fast dance-like) form – 4th movement: Fast—frequently Sonata or Rondo form
  • 22. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 8: The Classical Concerto Work for instrumental soloist and orchestra lasting 20-45 minutes Usually three movements: – Fast—Slow—Fast (no Minuet movement) Contrasts soloist’s abilities with power and timbres of orchestra
  • 23. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Opens in sonata form with a double exposition Break near end of first and sometimes last movement called cadenza – Solo break where orchestra stops and waits – Originally improvised, Classical composers seldom notated cadenzas – Orchestra plays first exposition, soloist the second
  • 24. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 9: Classical Chamber Music Intended for performance in a room, not a concert hall – One player to a part – Often intended for amateur performers Small group of 4-9 instrumentalists
  • 25. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill – Sonata for violin and piano Most important setting is string quartet – 2 violins, viola, cello Other popular settings: - Usually: Fast—Slow—Dance—Fast – Piano trio (violin, cello, and piano) – String quintet (2 violins, 2 violas, cello) – Four movements
  • 26. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 10: Joseph Haydn 1732-1809—early and mid-Classical Period Austrian composer (long life) Talent recognized early – Age 8—sent to Vienna to be a choir boy – Dismissed from school—voice changed – Worked in Vienna and continued studies
  • 27. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Esterhazy family’s composer for 30 years Made concert trips to London – Employment status as skilled servant Prolific composer – Became famous in Europe at this time – Moved to Vienna at Prince’s death
  • 28. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Haydn’s Music Pioneer in development of Classical forms Made use of folk music in serious compositions Extensive output in other forms: – Piano sonatas – Piano trios – Both Mozart and Beethoven influenced by Haydn 104 symphonies, 68 string quartets – Possibly invented the string quartet form – Divertimentos – Concertos – Operas – Masses
  • 29. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Trumpet Concerto in E Flat Major (1796) Joseph Haydn Third movement Listening Guide: p. 178 Basic Set, CD 3:44 Note: Virtuoso trumpet part for soloist Combination of sonata-allegro and rondo forms called sonata-rondo
  • 30. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 11: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 (mid-Classical composer) – Austrian – Child prodigy – Son of a professional musician - Leopold Mozart, violin, worked for Archbishop of Salzburg
  • 31. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Final piece was a Requiem that was finished by one of his students Very prolific, note short life span—35 years Wrote in all Classical genres At 25—freelance musician in Vienna – Partly due to winning the Emperor’s favor – Initially successful, then novelty wore off
  • 32. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Mozart’s Music Masterpieces in all musical forms of his time Compositions sound effortless – Symphonies, concertos, chamber music, and operas Avoided stereotype characters in his operas – Composed with extreme rapidity - Almost like taking dictation – Created opera figures who think and feel
  • 33. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Don Giovanni (1787) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Act I: Introduction Vocal Music Guide: p. 183 Brief Set, CD 3:1 Don Giovanni has slipped into the room of Donna Anna. Leporello worriedly waits outside. Donna Anna is not happy to see Don Giovanni. Her father, the Commandant, catches him. They fight a duel and the Commandant is killed.
  • 34. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Don Giovanni (1787) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Leporello’s catalog aria (Madamina) Vocal Music Guide: p. 187 Basic Set, CD 3:55 Donna Elvira, an earlier conquest of Don Giovanni’s, tries to see him again. Leporello intercepts her and attempts to discourage her by reading a list, or catalog, of the women Don Giovanni has been with.
  • 35. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 (1788) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mvt. 1—Molto allegro Listening Outline: p. 166 Brief Set, CD 2:23 Mvt. 2—Andante Listening Guide: p. 188 Basic Set, CD 3:10 Mvt. 3—Menuetto (Allegretto) Listening Guide: p. 189 Basic Set, CD 3:13 Mvt. 4—Allegro assai (very fast) Listening Guide: p. 189 Basic Set, CD 3:16
  • 36. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major, K. 488 (1786) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart First movement Listening Outline: p. 191 Brief Set, CD 3:5 Listen for: Sonata form Cadenza near end of movement (one of few notated by Mozart) Performance Profile: Murray Perahia,Performance Profile: Murray Perahia, pianist/conductorpianist/conductor Listen for performer’sListen for performer’s interpretationinterpretation thatthat attempts to make the piece “…soundattempts to make the piece “…sound spontaneous, so that it never soundsspontaneous, so that it never sounds mechanical.”mechanical.”
  • 37. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 12: Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827—late Classical, German Son of a professional musician Financially successful as freelance musician Believed in period’s societal changes – Father, Johann, was a singer and abusive alcoholic – Forced the boy to study music (wanted $)
  • 38. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Wrote final pieces while totally deaf Died in Vienna – 20,000 people attended funeral Wrote in all Classical genres – 9 symphonies – 16 string quartets – 5 concertos – 1 opera – Many sonatas and other works
  • 39. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Beethoven’s Music Worked, sometimes for years, on a single piece Wrote in the Classical forms – Carried musical sketchbooks with him jotting down ideas Bridged gap between Classical and Romantic – Gave them new power and intensity – Also increased range of pitch Used dramatic dynamic contrasts Expanded Development and Coda sections of sonata form
  • 40. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathetique, 1798) Ludwig van Beethoven First movement (Grave-solemn, slow intro.) Listening Guide: p. 198 Basic Set, CD 4:8 Note: Extreme dynamic contrasts and accents Unexpected pauses More use of dissonance than previous composers
  • 41. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (1808) Ludwig van Beethoven Mvt. 1—Allegro con brio Listening Outline: p. 201 Brief Set, CD 2:45 Mvt. 2—Andante con moto Listening Outline: p. 204 Brief Set, CD 2:53 Mvt. 3—Allegro (scherzo) Listening Guide: p. 205 Brief Set, CD 2:59 Mvt. 4—Allegro Listening Guide: p. 206 Brief Set, CD 2:63