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3. baroque period

Music of the Baroque Period MUSIC 9 Lesson

1 of 51
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Part III
The Baroque
Period
(1600-1750)
Presentation developed by:
Robert Elliott
Tennessee State University
Edited by:
Al-lyn Vocal
La Salle University
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Time-Line
Shakespeare: Hamlet-1600
Cervantes: Don Quixote-1605
Jamestown founded-1607
Galileo: Earth orbits Sun-1610
King James Bible-1611
Newton: Principia Mathematica-1687
Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass.-1692
Defoe: Robinson Crusoe-1719
Swift: Gulliver’s Travels-1726
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
The Baroque Style
Time of flamboyant lifestyle
Baroque style “fills the space”
Visual Art
– Implies motion
– Busy
- Note pictures p. 96
- Note pictures p. 95
- Compare sculpture w/ p. 65
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
The Baroque Style
Architecture
– Elaborate
- Note picture p. 97
Change in approach to science
– Experiment-based, not just observation
– Inventions and improvements result
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Baroque Music
Period begins with rise of Opera
– Opera: a play with speaking parts sung
Period ends with death of J. S. Bach
The two giants: Bach & Handel
Other important composer:
–Antonio Vivaldi
An Appreciation
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill
Period divided into 3 phases:
– Early: 1600-1640
- Rise of opera
- Text with extreme emotion
- Homophonic to project words
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3. baroque period

  • 1. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Part III The Baroque Period (1600-1750) Presentation developed by: Robert Elliott Tennessee State University Edited by: Al-lyn Vocal La Salle University
  • 2. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Time-Line Shakespeare: Hamlet-1600 Cervantes: Don Quixote-1605 Jamestown founded-1607 Galileo: Earth orbits Sun-1610 King James Bible-1611 Newton: Principia Mathematica-1687 Witchcraft trials in Salem, Mass.-1692 Defoe: Robinson Crusoe-1719 Swift: Gulliver’s Travels-1726
  • 3. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Baroque Style Time of flamboyant lifestyle Baroque style “fills the space” Visual Art – Implies motion – Busy - Note pictures p. 96 - Note pictures p. 95 - Compare sculpture w/ p. 65
  • 4. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Baroque Style Architecture – Elaborate - Note picture p. 97 Change in approach to science – Experiment-based, not just observation – Inventions and improvements result
  • 5. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Baroque Music Period begins with rise of Opera – Opera: a play with speaking parts sung Period ends with death of J. S. Bach The two giants: Bach & Handel Other important composer: –Antonio Vivaldi
  • 6. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Period divided into 3 phases: – Early: 1600-1640 - Rise of opera - Text with extreme emotion - Homophonic to project words
  • 7. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Period divided into 3 phases: – Early: 1600-1640 – Middle: 1640-1680 - New musical style spreads from Italy throughout Europe - Use of the church modes gives way to major and minor scales - Rise of importance of instrumental music
  • 8. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Period divided into 3 phases: – Early: 1600-1640 – Middle: 1640-1680 – Late: 1680-1750 - Instrumental music becomes as important as vocal music - Elaborate polyphony dominates - Most Baroque music we hear comes from the Late Baroque
  • 9. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Unity of Mood Characteristics of Baroque Music – Expresses one mood per piece Rhythm – Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout
  • 10. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Melody - Continuous expanding of melodic sequence Dynamics – Opening melody heard again and again – Volumes constant with abrupt changes Texture – Late Baroque mostly polyphonic – Extensive use of imitation
  • 11. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chords and the Basso Continuo – Emphasis on way chords follow each other - Bass part considered foundation of the harmony – Basso Continuo: bass part with numbers to represent chord tones - Similar to modern jazz & pop “fake book” notation Words and Music – Text painting/word painting continues – Words frequently emphasized by extension through many rapid notes
  • 12. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Based on violin family of instruments The Baroque Orchestra Small by modern standards Varying instrumentation – Combinations of strings, woodwinds, brass, & percussion (tympani) Nucleus was basso continuo unit Composers specified instrumentation – Timbre was subordinate to melody, rhythm, & harmony
  • 13. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Instrumental music frequently made up of contrasting movements Baroque Forms – Movement: —a piece complete in itself —also part of a larger whole – Performed with pause between movements – Unity of mood within individual movements – Movements often contrast with each other
  • 14. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Common basic forms: - A B A – Ternary – Binary - A B - A A B - A B B - A A B B
  • 15. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Music in Baroque Society Music written to order – New music, not old-fashioned, was desired Courts: – Music and musical resources indicated affluence Court Music Director – Good prestige, pay, and other benefits - Still considered a skilled servant
  • 16. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Some aristocrats were musicians Church music was very elaborate – Most people heard music only in church Some, though few, public opera houses Music careers taught by apprenticeship – Orphanages taught music as a trade
  • 17. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Concerto Grosso and Ritornello Form Concerto Grosso – For small group of soloists and orchestra – Multi-movement work – Usually 3 movements - Fast - Slow (usually quieter) - Fast (sometimes dance-like)
  • 18. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Ritornello – Frequently used in 1st & last movements of concerto grosso – Theme repeatedly presented in fragments – Contrast between solo sections and tutti
  • 19. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Brandenberg Concerto No. 5 in D major First movement Johann Sebastian Bach Listening Outline p. 107 Brief Set, CD 1:63 For string orchestra and group of soloists Soloists: flute, violin, and harpsichord Ritornello form
  • 20. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Fugue Polyphonic composition Written for groups of voices or instruments Subject – Main theme – Presented initially in imitation – Each voice enters after previous voice has completed presenting the subject Subject~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Subject~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Subject~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Subject~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  • 21. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Organ Fugue in G minor (Little Fugue) Johann Sebastian Bach Listening Outline p. 111 Brief Set, CD 1:68 Note individual voice entry on same melody (subject) Subject appears throughout Lowest notes played on pedals with feet
  • 22. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Elements of Opera Drama sung to orchestral accompaniment Text in opera is called libretto – Music is written by a composer – Libretto is written by a librettist Opera can be serious, comic, or both
  • 23. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill – Recitative: presents plot material Two primary types of solo songs: Other types of songs in opera: - Allows for conversation between characters - Three or more singers make up an ensemble – Duet – Trio – Quartet – Aria: expresses emotion—usually a “show-off” vehicle for the singer – Quintet, etc.
  • 24. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chorus: groups of actors playing crowd parts The prompter and the prompter’s box – Translation of text and effects upon text painting Modern questions concerning text in opera The orchestra pit Preludes: Instrumentals that open opera acts – Supertitles—projection of text above the stage
  • 25. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Opera in the Baroque Era Result of musical discussions of the Camerata in Florence 1st known opera: Euridice (Peri-1600) Orfeo (Monteverdi-1607) – 1st large scale (great) opera
  • 26. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Rise of virtuoso singer 1st public opera house 1637 in Venice Opera composed for court ceremonies – Display of magnificence and grandeur – Patrons compared to ancient heroes Secco vs accompanied recitative – Chief was castrato Da capo aria: A B A(embellished)
  • 27. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Ground Bass Repeated musical idea in bass Also called basso ostinato – Variation form - Melodies above bass change
  • 28. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Dido’s Lament from Dido and Aeneas (1689) Henry Purcell Vocal Music Guide p. 123 Brief Set, CD 1:72 Listen for: Secco recitative followed by aria Aria makes use of ground bass Chromatically descending bass used to indicate grief
  • 29. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Baroque Sonata Instrumental work Multi-movement piece for one to eight instruments – Trio sonata - Three melodic lines: basso continuo and two above - Written as three parts, but performed by four players Sonata da chiesa—church sonata (dignified) Sonata du camera—chamber sonata (more dance- like, intended for court performance)
  • 30. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Antonio Vivaldi Late Baroque Italian composer Il prete rosso (the red priest) Taught music at girls orphanage in Venice – Girls performed at mass hidden behind screen Wrote sacred & secular vocal & instrumental music Famous as a virtuoso violinist & composer – Best known for concerti grossi & solo concertos for violin - Solo concerto: piece for single soloist & orchestra
  • 31. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening La Primavera (Spring), Op. 8, No. 1, from The Four Seasons (1725) Antonio Vivaldi PerformancePerformance Profile: JeanneProfile: Jeanne Lamon-violinist/Lamon-violinist/ conductorconductor Listen forListen for interpretationinterpretation ofof tempo, rhythm,tempo, rhythm, and dynamics, useand dynamics, use of decorativeof decorative tones, and attempttones, and attempt to keep a familiarto keep a familiar piece “fresh.”piece “fresh.” 1st Movement: Allegro Listening Outline: p. 128 Brief Set, CD 2:1 Concerto for violin and string orchestra Note: Polyphonic texture & ritornello form Baroque program music Descriptive effects (e.g., bird songs)
  • 32. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening 2nd Movement: Largo e pianissimo sempre (very slow and very soft throughout) Listening Guide: p. 129 Brief Set, CD 2:6 Concerto for violin and string orchestra Note: Orchestra reduced to only violins and violas Descriptive effects (violas: “dog barking”) PerformancePerformance Profile: JeanneProfile: Jeanne Lamon-violinist/Lamon-violinist/ conductorconductor Listen forListen for interpretationinterpretation ofof tempo, rhythm,tempo, rhythm, and dynamics, useand dynamics, use of decorativeof decorative tones, and attempttones, and attempt to keep a familiarto keep a familiar piece “fresh.”piece “fresh.” La Primavera (Spring), Op. 8, No. 1, from The Four Seasons (1725) Antonio Vivaldi
  • 33. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening 3rd Movement: Danza pastorale (Pastoral Dance) Listening Guide: p. 131 Brief Set, CD 2:7 Concerto for violin and string orchestra Note: Ritornello form alternates solo and tutti sections Descriptive effects (sustained notes in low strings to imitate bagpipes) PerformancePerformance Profile: JeanneProfile: Jeanne Lamon-violinist/Lamon-violinist/ conductorconductor Listen forListen for interpretationinterpretation ofof tempo, rhythm,tempo, rhythm, and dynamics, useand dynamics, use of decorativeof decorative tones, and attempttones, and attempt to keep a familiarto keep a familiar piece “fresh.”piece “fresh.” La Primavera (Spring), Op. 8, No. 1, from The Four Seasons (1725) Antonio Vivaldi
  • 34. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Johann Sebastian Bach German, late Baroque composer Organist and violinist Large family – Deeply religious (Lutheran) – Worked in sacred and secular positions - Weimar, Cothen, Leipzig
  • 35. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Known during lifetime as keyboardist, not composer – Master of improvisation Almost unknown outside Germany Baroque style going out of fashion during his lifetime – Bach’s music fell from use following his death
  • 36. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Bach’s Music Wrote in every form except opera – Compositions recognized for technical mastery - Highpoint of polyphony combined w/ harmony - All music majors study Bach’s compositions His extensive instrumental works indicate the new importance of instrumental music Wrote music exploring musical concepts – Art of the Fugue demonstrates potential of this form – Six suites for solo cello demonstrates cello techniques – Well-Tempered Clavier explores new method of tuning
  • 37. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Baroque Suite Instrumental, multi-movement work Written for listening, but based upon dance Movements usually in binary form—AABB Often began with a non-dance overture – French overture—2 sections Forerunner of forms used in the next period - 1st slow, dignified - 2nd faster, often beginning as a fugue
  • 38. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Suite No. 3 in D Major (1729-1731) Johann Sebastian Bach Listening Guide: p. 135 2nd movement: Air Basic Set, CD 2:33 4th movement: Bourree Basic Set, CD 2:35 (Brief Set, CD 2:10) 5th movement: Gigue Basic Set, CD 2:37 Listen for: Extensive polyphony Contrast of dance forms & tempo in various movements
  • 39. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Chorale and Church Cantata Lutheran church service was social event of the week – Lasted 4 hours with 1 hour sermon – Music was major part of worship service – Congregation participated in singing chorales
  • 40. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chorale: hymn tune w/ German text Cantata – Multi-movement church work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra – Vernacular religious text – Resembled opera in its use of choruses, recitatives, arias, and duets
  • 41. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme (Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731) Johann Sebastian Bach Based upon a chorale tune that was then over 130 years old Listening Guide: p. 137 Brief Set, CD 2:45 Listen for: Vernacular (German) text A A B form
  • 42. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme (Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731) Johann Sebastian Bach 1st movement: Chorus and Orchestra Listening Guides: p. 138 Basic Set, CD 2:39 Listen for: Vernacular (German) text Chorale tune basis Polyphonic Ritornello form
  • 43. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme (Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731) Johann Sebastian Bach 4th movement: Tenor Chorale Vocal Music Guide: p. 141 Basic Set, CD 2:39 (Brief Set, CD 2:12) Listen for: Scored for tenors, violins/violas in unison, and basso continuo Chorale tune basis Ritornello form
  • 44. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening Cantata No. 140: Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme (Awake, A Voice Is Calling Us-1731) Johann Sebastian Bach 7th movement: Chorale Vocal Music Guide: p. 142 Basic Set, CD 2:45 (Brief Set, CD 2:15) Listen for: Chorale tune basis Homophonic, instruments double voices Simple/tuneful—congregation could join in
  • 45. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Oratorio Like opera: – Large-scale work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra – Contains arias, recitatives, ensembles Unlike opera: Not intended for religious services – No acting, scenery, or costumes – Based upon biblical stories – Commonly performed today in both churches and concert halls
  • 46. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill George Frederic Handel Born in Germany—same year as Bach Studied music in Germany, then to Italy to study opera, finally England to work – Buried in Westminster Abbey – Became England’s most important composer – Not from musical family - Father wanted him to be a lawyer – Wrote many operas in London – Had own opera company - Worked as composer, performer, & impresario
  • 47. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Handel’s Music Wrote in every Baroque form – Bulk of his work in oratorios and operas - Favored Old Testament stories as topics for oratorios His music has more changes in texture than Bach’s Extensive use of changing moods – Shifts between major and minor keys – His arias showcase virtuoso singers’ abilities
  • 48. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill The Messiah (1741) George Frederic Handel 2½ hours of music written over a period of 24 days Premiered to wide acclaim during a trip to Ireland Poorly received in England until a performance to benefit an orphanage Topic: prophesies about Christ, his birth, and death Text drawn from Biblical passages
  • 49. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening The Messiah (1741) George Frederic Handel Every Valley Shall Be Exalted Aria for tenor, strings, and basso continuo Vocal Music Guide: p. 146 Brief Set, CD 2:10 Listen for: Opens and closes with string ritornello Extensive text painting
  • 50. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening The Messiah (1741) George Frederic Handel For unto Us a Child is Born Chorus, strings, and basso continuo Listening Guide: p. 147 Basic Set, CD 2:51 Listen for: Joyful musical mood Subdued dynamics until forte outburst Extensive text painting
  • 51. An Appreciation © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Listening The Messiah (1741) George Frederic Handel Hallelujah Chorus Vocal Music Guide: p. 148 Brief Set, CD 2:11 Listen for: Mixture of monophonic, polyphonic, homophonic textures Words and phrases repeat over and over