THE AFTERMATH DEMARCATION OF THE 38THPARALLELJessica BlazasAllyson GrantMs. ManciniMarch 24th, 2011 1 “38th Parallel North” Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. 2010-2011. Web.
THESIS STATEMENT As a goal of the United Nations to keep the peace and to stop North Korea from invading South Korea, the UN entered a conflict that expanded into what they did not realize would be a problem to this day. 2
BRIEF HISTORYTHE 38TH PARALLEL Potsdam Conference, Germany, July 1945 Formation of the United Nations Discussed peace agreements following WWII At the Moscow Conference, the US, Britain, and the USSR discussed a five year trusteeship for Korea’s future. The three country leaders decided South Korea would be occupied by the US (democratic) and North Korea would be occupied by the Soviets (communist). 3
BRIEF HISTORYTHE INVASION In June 1950, North Korean troops, supplied by the USSR, invaded its South Korean neighbors. President Truman feared North Korea would take over and inspire other communist nations to invade neighboring non-communist nations (The Domino Theory). After the invasion, North Korean troops controlled much of the peninsula. South Korean troops were pushed into Pusan. 4
BRIEF HISTORYINCHON AND THE CHINESE INVASION General Douglas MacArthur drafted “Operation Chromite” A daring and controversial plan to invade the western port city, Inchon. The successful invasion allowed the US, UN, and South Korean troops to push North Korean troops close to the Yalu River and recapture the South Korean capital, Seoul. When the Chinese invaded at the Yalu River, there was a stalemate along the original 38th Parallel (July 1951-July 1953). 5
Operation Chromite:The Pusan Perimeter Inchon Invasion "American Experience . MacArthur . Korean Maps | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. 6
SIGNIFICANCETHE UNITED NATIONS The United Nations achieved its goal to make peace between feuding nations and stop the spread of communism. The National Security Council (NSC) was founded on the idea of “stopping Communism expansion by giving economic and military aid to various countries.” The United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) created treaties and agreements to stop and ban the use of nuclear weapons in the international community. 7
SIGNIFICANCETHE UNITED NATIONS: EGYPT AND LIBYA "Egypt Protests." LUNEBORGSTAR. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. 8
SIGNIFICANCENORTH VS. SOUTH KOREA ARMISTICE South Korean President, Syngman Rhee, refused to sign a peace treaty that did not reunite his home country. The agreement both countries signed is the only truce that impedes North Korea and South Korea (and the US) from entering another war. The agreement included a deferral to open hostilities, the fixed demarcation line (demilitarized zone) and to trade prisoners of war to their correct side. The 38th Parallel is a 2 ½ wide demilitarized zone that still divides the two countries. 9
SIGNIFICANCENORTH VS. SOUTHNorth Korea South Korea North Korea has remained South Korea has remained communist and is supported democratic by China and Russia. Elected presidents serve for Several sanctions have a set number of years been placed on North As an ally of the US, has Korea, especially by the US. opened trade. The government does not recognize the 38th Parallel Modernized the US’s as the border between the standards two countries. North Korea lacks modernization and innovation. 10
COMPARISONNorth Korea South KoreaAxe, David. "North Korea Preps Hovercraft Assault Force | "Programs Brochure Education Abroad." EducationDanger Room | Wired.com."Wired.com. 3 Feb. 2011. Web. Abroad. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. 22 Mar. 2011. 11
SIGNIFICANCETENSIONS Allied officers are still stationed in South Korea and patrol the 38th Parallel. On November 29th, 1987, two agents, acting on direct orders from Kim Jong-il, planted a bomb on a South Korean airliner (South Korean Air Flight 858). The explosion killed 115 passengers. 12
SIGNIFICANCETENSIONS On March 29th, 2010, South Korea blamed North Korea over a sinking of a warship. On November 23rd, 2010, North Korea launched an attack on South Korea, killing two soldiers. Both countries denied blame “Tuesday’s skirmish along the disputed frontier has raised tensions between the rivals to their highest level in more than a decade” (qtd. in “Yeonpyeong Charred”). 13
SIGNIFICANCETENSIONS In early February, North Korea discontinued peace and military talks with South Korea. The North Korean government accused South Korea of lacking serious intent to improve relations. South Korea told North Korea that both countries cannot have a high-level talk unless North Korea takes “sincere, responsible measures” over recent attacks. North Korea accused South Korea of walking out of the meeting after North Korea did not accept its demand. 14 Steve Herman | Seoul February. "North Korea Rules Out Further Military Talks With South | Asia | English." News | English. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.
CONCLUSION“AMERICA’S FORGOTTEN WAR” The Korean War may not be up to par with World War I, World War II, or the Vietnam War in the eyes of Americans, but the struggles that the soldiers had to overcome were no different than those in wars of other caliber. The American, British, French, Canadian, and Australian men and women gave their lives for others belonging to another nation, willingly, to better the South Koreans’ lives and to save them from communist dictatorship. It is sad to admit that many Americans do not know or care about the events that took place in Korea. Since the war was merely a shadow in the victory of WWII, Americans did not familiarize or engross themselves in the ideas of why America even went to war in the first place. After all, it is informally known as America’s Forgotten War. 15
16"Korean War Memorial." Washington State Department of General Administration. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.
SONGS “Suicide is Painless” by Johnny Mandel and Mike Altman “The Weapon of Prayer” by the Louvin Brothers 17
WORKS CITED “38th Parallel North.” Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. 2010-2011. Web. Axe, David. “North Korea Preps Hovercraft Assault Force | Danger Room | Wired.com.” Wired.com. Web. “Bombed Jet, Woman Gets Death Penalty.” Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada] 26 Apr. 1989: A8. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. Fitzgerald, Brian. The Korean War: Americas Forgotten War. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point, 2006. Print. Foster, Peter. “Korean Talks End in Deadlock with North.” Montreal Gazette - Breaking News, Quebec, Opinion, Multimedia & More. Web. “Korean War Memorial.” General Administration: State of Washington. 2006. Web. Paschall, Rod. Witness to War: Korea. New York, NY: Berkley Pub. Group, 1995. Print. Sang-Hun, Choe. “South Korea Publicly Blames the North for Ship’s Sinking.” The New York Times. 19 May 2010. Web. Smitha, Frank E. “The Korean War.” MacroHistory : World History. 2001- 18 2011. Web.
WORKS CITED CONT Summers, Harry G. Korean War Almanac. New York: Facts on File, 1990. Print. “UN Rights Council Recommends Suspending Libya, Orders Inquiry into Abuses.” Welcome to the United Nations: Its Your World. 25 Feb. 2011. Web. “United Nations Security Council.” Welcome to the United Nations: Its Your World. 2011. Web. “UNODA Nuclear Weapons Home Page.” Welcome to the United Nations: Its Your World. Web. “The World’s Most Complex Borders ~ North Korea/South Korea | Wide Angle | PBS.” PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. 26 July 2005. Web. “Yeonpyeong Charred, Desolate After N. Korea Attack : NPR.” NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. 25 Nov. 2010. Web. 19
IMAGES CITED “38th Parallel North” Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. 2010-2011. Web. Axe, David. "North Korea Preps Hovercraft Assault Force | Danger Room | Wired.com."Wired.com. 3 Feb. 2011. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. "Egypt Protests." LUNEBORGSTAR. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. "Korean War Memorial." Washington State Department of General Administration. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. "Programs Brochure Education Abroad." Education Abroad. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. Steve Herman | Seoul February. "North Korea Rules Out Further Military Talks With South | Asia | English." News | English. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. 20