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Ch01 introduction to_human_geography

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Intro to human geography - chapter 1- de blij

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Ch01 introduction to_human_geography

  1. 1. Introduction to Human Geography Chapter 1
  2. 2. What is Human Geography? Key Question:
  3. 3. Human Geography • The study of how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, region, and world.
  4. 4. Geographers use fieldwork to understand linkages among places and to see the complexities of issues Why do Kenyans grow tea and coffee instead of cash crops? What factors contribute to a country being “well fed?”
  5. 5. Globalization A set of processes that are: - increasing interactions - deepening relationships - heightening interdependence without regard to country borders. A set of outcomes that are: - unevenly distributed - varying across scales - differently manifested throughout the world.
  6. 6. Geographic changes in pictures Change over time….
  7. 7. What are Geographic Questions? Key Question:
  8. 8. Geographic inquiry focuses on the spatial: - the spatial arrangement of places and phenomena (human and physical). - how are things organized on Earth? - how do they appear on the landscape? -Why are some things found in certain places and not in others? -How do characteristics of a certain place shape what happens? -To what extent do things in one place influence those in other places? - THE “WHY OF WHERE” AND “SO WHAT” Look for patterns….
  9. 9. Map # 1 Top Ten (hint: resources)
  10. 10. Map 2 Top Ten (hint: retail)
  11. 11. Map 3 Technology
  12. 12. Map 4 Top Ten (hint: recreation)
  13. 13. Map 5 Top Ten (hint: recreation/sport)
  14. 14. Map 6 Population
  15. 15. Map 7 Population
  16. 16. Map 8 (hint: public education punishment)
  17. 17. Map 9 (hint: defeated proposed US Constitutional Amendment)
  18. 18. Map 10 Hint: Measuring Up
  19. 19. Map 11 Top Ten (hint: music)
  20. 20. Map 12 Technology
  21. 21. Alaska: 0 Hawaii: 0 4 4 15 1 1 DC: 2 3 7 1 16 21 5 1 26 2 1 2 4 2 5 5 7 7 4 3 24 2 7 4 5 8 2 5 2 9 5 Bavaria: 1 Canada: 2 Guatemala: 1 Honduras: 1 Italy: 1 Mexico: 1 Norway: 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Map 13: Professional Sports (Hint: NFL)
  22. 22. Map 1 Ten Nation-States with the cheapest price per gallon of gasoline
  23. 23. Map 2 Top Ten States with the Most WalMarts per 1, 000, 000 people
  24. 24. Map 3 Internet Connections in 1969
  25. 25. Map 4 Top Ten States with the Most Ski Resorts
  26. 26. Map 5 Top Ten States with the Most Hunters (based on days used for hunting)
  27. 27. Map 6 Population
  28. 28. Map 7 Population: One Billion People Living in Each Color
  29. 29. Map 8 States Where Spanking Is Still Legal in Public Schools
  30. 30. Map 9 States That Did Not Ratify the Equal Rights Amendment
  31. 31. Map 10 Countries That Do Not Use the Metric System
  32. 32. Map 11 Top Ten States with the Highest percentage of Country Music Radio Stations
  33. 33. Map 12 Countries with Internet Restrictions
  34. 34. Alaska: 0 Hawaii: 0 4 4 15 1 1 DC: 2 3 7 1 16 21 5 1 26 2 1 2 4 2 5 5 7 7 4 3 24 2 7 4 5 8 2 5 2 9 5 Bavaria: 1 Canada: 2 Guatemala: 1 Honduras: 1 Italy: 1 Mexico: 1 Norway: 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 Map 13 Number of players (per state) in the Pro Football Hall of Fame
  35. 35. • How did Doctor Snow use spatial distribution to solve a Cholera outbreak in the Soho District of London in 1854?
  36. 36. Maps, maps, maps 8/28/14 • Medical Geography & Audio Clip • 5 Themes of Geography • Perceptions of places we’ve never been • Changing landscapes • Work on Guided notes or vocab
  37. 37. Medical Geography Cholera: •An ancient disease associated with diarrhea and dehydration •Was confined to India until 1816 •Spread to China, Japan, East Africa, and Mediterranean Europe in the first of several pandemics: worldwide outbreaks •Second pandemic: 1826–1837: North America •Third pandemic: 1842–1862: England and North America •Recent epidemics – 1991 in Peru,2006 – Angola, 2010 in West Africa & Haiti
  38. 38. Spatial distribution What processes create and sustain the pattern of a distribution? Map of Cholera Victims in London’s Soho District in 1854. The patterns of victim’s homes and water pump locations helped uncover the source of the disease. Salmonella Outbreaks 8/28/14
  39. 39. Thursday, September 3, 2015 Agenda: Notes on 5 themes and types of maps Create autobiographical mental map
  40. 40. Five Themes of Geography • Location- position of things and how it affects what happens and why – Location theory • Why are villages, towns and cities spaced the way they are? • What factors would you consider when deciding where to put an 8 screen movie theatre in your town? • Human-Environment – interactions – Map of FL – Army Corps of Engineers alteration of Everglades and Kissimmee river
  41. 41. • Region – concentration of features or phenonmena • Place- special characteristics and meaning of places – Sense of Place – meaning, emotion, important events, labeling w/ certain character – Perceptions of Place – never been but through books, movies, stories & pictures – If you could move to any place in the U.S., Where would you go, why?
  42. 42. Where Pennsylvanian students prefer to live Where Californian students prefer to live Perception of Place
  43. 43. • Movement – mobility of people, goods & ideas – Spatial interaction between places depends on: • Distance • Accessibility • Transportation & communication
  44. 44. • Landscape – cultural landscape -visible imprint of human activity on the landscape – Sequent occupancy – cultural succession and its lasting imprint • When do major changes occur? – After war, invention, depression, foreign occupance
  45. 45. Cultural Landscape The visible human imprint on the landscape. Religion and cremation practices diffuse with Hindu migrants from India to Kenya.
  46. 46. Sequent Occupance Layers of imprints in a cultural landscape that reflect years of differing human activity. Athens, Greece ancient Agora surrounded by modern buildings
  47. 47. Sequent Occupance Dar es Salaam, Tanzania African, Arab, German, British, and Indian layers to the city. Apartment in Mumbai, India Apartment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  48. 48. Chapter 1 Quiz #2 1. A computer scientist, an engineer and a geographer walk into a bar…other than having a drink, what are they doing there? Describe in detail. 2. Describe the different scales maps can be drawn using. Why is it important to recognize scale when studying mapped data?
  49. 49. Why do Geographers use Maps, and What do Maps Tell Us? Key Question:
  50. 50. Two Types of Maps: Reference Maps - Show locations of places and geographic features - Absolute locations What are reference maps used for? Thematic Maps - Tell a story about the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution, or its movement. - Relative locations – a place in relation to other human and physical features What are thematic maps used for?
  51. 51. Reference Map
  52. 52. Thematic Map What story about median income in the Washington, DC area is this map telling?
  53. 53. Mental Maps: maps we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have heard of. Mental Maps demonstrate what is important or memorable to each person and their activity space Activity Spaces: the places we travel to routinely in our rounds of daily activity. How are activity spaces and mental maps related?
  54. 54. Geographic Information System: a collection of computer hardware and software that permits storage and analysis of layers of spatial data.
  55. 55. Remote Sensing: a method of collecting data by instruments that are physically distant from the area of study (satellite, airplanes, weather balloons)
  56. 56. Why are Geographers Concerned with Scale and Connectedness? Key Question:
  57. 57. Scale Scale is the territorial extent of something. The observations we make and the context we see vary across scales, such as: - local - regional - national - global
  58. 58. Scale
  59. 59. Scale is a powerful concept because: - Processes operating at different scales influence one another. - What is occurring across scales provides context for us to understand a phenomenon. - People can use scale politically to change who is involved or how an issue is perceived. - e.g. Zapatistas rescale their movement - e.g. laws jump scales, ignoring cultural differences
  60. 60. Regions Formal region: defined by a commonality, typically a cultural linkage or a physical characteristic. e.g. German speaking region of Europe Functional region: defined by a set of social, political, or economic activities or the interactions that occur within it. e.g. an urban area
  61. 61. Regions Perceptual Region: ideas in our minds, based on accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that define an area of “sameness” or “connectedness.” e.g. the South the Mid-Atlantic the Middle East
  62. 62. • Lets do a Perceptual map of the United States using certain words:
  63. 63. Thursday, September 3, 2015 Agenda: •Turn in Mental Maps •Notes on Diffusion •TED talks “Social Networks predicts Epidemics” – Summary Sheet •Diffusion Practice Announcements: •Unit 1 Study Guide – will get tomorrow •Vocab, Study Guide due and Test on Thursday
  64. 64. Culture Culture is an all-encompassing term that identifies not only the whole tangible lifestyle of peoples, but also their prevailing values and beliefs. - cultural trait - cultural complex (combination of traits) - cultural hearth (birthplace of trait)
  65. 65. Connectedness Diffusion: the process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other areas. What slows/prevents diffusion? - time-distance decay - cultural barriers
  66. 66. Connectedness through Diffusion •Expansion diffusion: when an innovation or idea develops in a hearth and remains strong there while also spreading outward. •Contagious diffusion: a form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals and places are affected. Ex: new lingo © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Diffusion
  67. 67. • Hierarchical diffusion – the spread of ideas to those who are susceptible to (or adopting) what is being diffused. Ex: Crocs footwear. • Stimulus diffusion: When part of an idea is adopted by a receiving population © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Diffusion
  68. 68. Stimulus Diffusion Because Hindus believe cows are holy, cows often roam the streets in villages and towns. The McDonalds restaurants in India feature veggie burgers.
  69. 69. Types of Diffusion • Relocation diffusion – movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant locale. Photo credit: A.B. MurphyPhoto credit: H.J. de Blij Kenya Paris, France
  70. 70. nicholas_christakis_how_social_networks_predict_epidemics
  71. 71. Thursday, September 3, 2015 • Notes on Human-Environmental Interaction • Rain of Terror Activity – 2-3 people in a group – presentations first thing tomorrow. Reminders: • Vocab, Study Guide and Unit 1 Test on Thursday
  72. 72. Geographic Concepts Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions.
  73. 73. Old Approaches to Human-Environment Questions: • Environmental Determinism (has been rejected by almost all geographers) – Environment dictates human behavior • Possibilism (less accepted today) natural environment limits the range of choices of lifestyle
  74. 74. • Cultural ecology: concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to and alteration of environment • Political ecology: concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political economic arrangements and understandings © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. New Approach
  75. 75. 21st Century Human – Environment Interaction Ultimately, today… Humans have the means and technology to alter the environment much more than the environment can alter human behavior.
  76. 76. Chapter 1 Quiz #3 What factors can slow down the diffusion of a cultural trait? Explain in detail.
  77. 77. Culture Culture is an all-encompassing term that identifies not only the whole tangible lifestyle of peoples, but also their prevailing values and beliefs. - cultural trait - cultural complex (combination of traits) - cultural hearth (birthplace of trait)
  78. 78. Connectedness Diffusion: the process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other areas. What slows/prevents diffusion? - time-distance decay - cultural barriers
  79. 79. Types of Diffusion • Expansion Diffusion – idea or innovation spreads outward from the hearth •Contagious – spreads adjacently •Hierarchical – spreads to most linked people or places first. •Stimulus – idea promotes a local experiment or change in the way people do things.
  80. 80. Stimulus Diffusion Because Hindus believe cows are holy, cows often roam the streets in villages and towns. The McDonalds restaurants in India feature veggie burgers.
  81. 81. Types of Diffusion • Relocation diffusion – movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant locale. Photo credit: A.B. MurphyPhoto credit: H.J. de Blij Kenya Paris, France
  82. 82. Thursday, September 3, 2015 • Notes on Human-Environmental Interaction • Rain of Terror Activity – 3-4 people in a group – presentations first thing tomorrow. Reminders: • Vocab, Study Guide and Unit 1 Test on Thursday
  83. 83. Old Approaches to Human-Environment Questions: • Environmental Determinism (has been rejected by almost all geographers) – Environment dictates human behavior • Possibilism (less accepted today) natural environment limits the range of choices of lifestyle
  84. 84. • Cultural ecology: concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to and alteration of environment • Political ecology: concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political economic arrangements and understandings © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. New Approach
  85. 85. 21st Century Human – Environment Interaction Ultimately, today… Humans have the means and technology to alter the environment much more than the environment can alter human behavior.
  86. 86. Group Numbers • Group # 1 – Numbers 1-4 • Group # 2 – Numbers 5-8 • Group # 3 – Numbers 9-12 • Group # 4 – Numbers 13-15 • Group # 5 – Numbers 16-19 • Group # 6 – Numbers 20-22 • Group # 7 – Numbers 23-26 • Group # 8 – Numbers 27-30 • Group # 9 – Numbers 31-34

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