Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities

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Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. Energy Efficiency:Challenges and Opportunities David Auston Executive Director, Institute for Energy Efficiency University of California Santa Barbara Leading Global Energy Solutions
  2. 2. The Energy Crisis – An Overview Leading Global Energy Solutions
  3. 3. Energy Efficiency– 5 Dimensions Economic: Our current use of energy is highly inefficient --- less than half does useful work! Environment: Greenhouse gases from fossil fuels are changing the earth’s climate. Resources: In a few hundreds years we are depleting natural resources that took millions of years to form. Security: Our dependence on imported oil and gas from politically unstable regions poses major security risks. Health: Burning fossil fuels is a major source of respiratory illness. 3 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  4. 4. Evolution of Energy Consumption Technological Era Industrial Era FoodAdvanced Agriculture Home and Commerce Industry and Primitive Agriculture Agriculture Hunting Source: “The Flow of Energy in an Industrial Society”, Earl Cook, Scientific American 1971 Primitive 0 50 100 150 200 250 x1000 kCal per Day Leading Global Energy Solutions
  5. 5. 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 1635 1655 1675 1695 1715 1735 1755 1775 1795 1815 1835 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1949 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981Leading Global Energy Solutions 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 U.S. Historical Energy Consumption 1995 1997 1999 2001 Coal Wood Nuclear Petroleum Natural Gas Hydroelectric
  6. 6. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Leading Global Energy Solutions
  7. 7. Global Temperature & CO2Source: World Bank: “Development and Climate Change Report”, 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  8. 8. Per Capita Emissions vs Population Source: World Bank: “Development and Climate Change Report”, 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  9. 9. CO2 Emissions Per Capita by State• Electricity • Industrial • Transport • Commercial • Residential Leading Global Energy Solutions
  10. 10. Location, Type, and Size of U.S. Power PlantsSource: Benchmarking Air Emissions,M. J. Bradley & Assoc. 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  11. 11. Global Oil Reserves, 2004 Source: World Resources Institute Leading Global Energy Solutions
  12. 12. World Coal Reserves % Share of World Coal Reserves Bulgaria Pakistan Turkey Indonesia Canada Germany Brazil Poland South Africa Australia India China RussiaUnited States 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 12 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  13. 13. Pollutants from Fossil FuelsPollutant Natural Gas Oil CoalCarbon Dioxide 117,000 164,000 208,000Carbon Monoxide 40 33 208Nitrogen Oxides 92 448 457Sulfur Dioxide 1 1,122 2,591Particulates 7 84 2,744Mercury 0.000 0.007 0.016Source: DOE Energy Information Administration 13 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  14. 14. U. S. Energy Consumption 2007 (quads)Source: Over View & Summary, America’s Energy Future, NAS 2010 (Based on LLNL Data)
  15. 15. Global Access to Energy Leading Global Energy Solutions
  16. 16. Global Access to Energy 1.4 billion people have no access to electricity, and they are most in rural areas. 3 billion people continue to rely on solid fuels (traditional biomass and coal) for cooking and heating – at very high cost to productivity and health.Source: “ENERGY POVERTY: How to make modernenergy access universal?”, International Energy Agency 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  17. 17. Center for Energy Efficient Materials An Energy Frontier Research Center of the 17Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences
  18. 18. Number and share of population relying on biomass for cooking, 2009 Source: “ENERGY POVERTY: How to make modern energy access universal?”, International Energy Agency 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  19. 19. Premature annual deaths fromhousehold air pollution and other diseases Leading Global Energy Solutions
  20. 20. Solar Powered Energy Efficiency Institute for Reading Light Solar Powered Reading Light Leading Global Energy Solutions
  21. 21. Distributed through Churches 18)Ghana Ghana Rollout (July in Leading Global Energy Solutions
  22. 22. Communicating Energy Efficiency to the Public Leading Global Energy Solutions
  23. 23. Public Priorities – U.S. 2010Source: Pew Foundation Leading Global Energy Solutions
  24. 24. Should Economy or the Environment have Priority? Source: Gallup 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  25. 25. Public Support for Mitigation (U.S) Leading GlobalSource: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change; NAS 2010 Energy Solutions
  26. 26. Investment by Country & Sector 2009 ($B) Source: “Who’s Winning the Clean Energy Solutions Foundation 2010. Leading Global Energy Race”, Pew
  27. 27. U.S. Industrial R&D Spending as % Sales Leading Global Energy Solutions
  28. 28. U.S. Federal Budget 2010 ($Billions)
  29. 29. Federal Subsidies (2002-2008)Source:EnvironmentalLaw Institute2010 29 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  30. 30. Low Cost Efficient Renewable Energy Leading Global Energy Solutions
  31. 31. Cost of Electricity, U.S. (2007)Source: Overview & Summary,America’s Energy Future, NAS 2010 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  32. 32. DOE $1 per Watt PV GoalsPhotovoltaic at $1/watt (installed):By 2017, demonstration of all key componentsand installation methods in systems at least 5MW in size and initialproduction orders madeTarget could be met with systems installed on the ground or onbuildingsEarth-abundant materials and recyclable componentsMeets all applicable safety and environmental standards Leading Global Energy Solutions
  33. 33. Worldwide Solar Pv is Growing Rapidly Leading Global Energy Solutions
  34. 34. PV Module Costs Falling, but Slowly Leading Global Energy Solutions
  35. 35. Multi-junction Solar Cells Leading Global Energy Solutions
  36. 36. Alan Heeger – Nobel Laureate 2000Jan 4 2010 36 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  37. 37. Concepts and Opportunities 37 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  38. 38. 38Leading Global Energy Solutions
  39. 39. 39Leading Global Energy Solutions
  40. 40. Konarka Plastic Ribbon Solar CellJan 4 2010 40 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  41. 41. Solar BikiniJan 4 2010 41 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  42. 42. Window/Solar CellsJan 4 2010 42 Leading Global Energy Solutions
  43. 43. "Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents, it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit theEarth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children.” Native American Proverb Leading Global Energy Solutions
  44. 44. Science and Technology for a Sustainable Energy Future UC Santa Barbara 44

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