*Includes Bullying, Horseplay, Harassment & “Slagging”**Noise, vibration & ionising or other radiations
Health & safety training
Health & Safety Training
Allen Business Consultancy
Safety, Health & Welfare at Work Act 2005
The 2005 Act sets out:
• The requirements for the control of safety &
health at work
• The management, organisation and systems of
work necessary to achieve goals
• The responsibilities & roles of employers, self-
employed, employees & others
• The enforcement procedures needed to
ensure that the goals are met
• Managing & conducting all work activities so as
to ensure the SHW of people at work (including
the prevention of improper conduct or behaviour
likely to put employees at risk*)
• Designing & maintaining a safe place of work that
has safe access & egress, and uses plant &
equipment that is safe and without risk to health
• Prevention of risks from the use of any article or
substance or from exposure to physical agents**
5 steps to a safer workplace
• Step 1: Identify the hazards
• Step 2: Assess the risks
• Step 3: Select the control measures
• Step 4: Write the safety statement
• Step 5: Record & review
1. Identify the hazards
• Definition: “A hazard is anything with the
potential to cause harm”
• To manage H & S successfully, employers and
employed persons should know what hazards
are in the workplace.
– In your groups, identify & list as many workplace
hazards as you can............
1. Slips, trips & falls
2. Falls of persons from a height
3. Falls of material from a height
4. Manual handling of loads
5. Handling of plant & machinery (exposure to
dangerous moving parts
6. Mechanical handling
7. Movement of vehicles & Site Transport
8. Fire & Explosion
9. Use of hazardous substances (toxic / corrosive)
10. Use of Compressed air
1. Exposure to harmful levels of noise
2. Exposure to radiation
3. Hazards associated with electricity
4. Exposure to harmful vibration
5. Entry into confined spaces
6. Unsuitable light levels in the workroom
7. Inadequate thermal environment (too hot / cold)
8. Work with Visual Display Screens
9. Human factors (violence to staff, stress & bullying)
Step 2: Assess the risk
• Having identified the hazards it is now
necessary to assess the risks (The likelihood of
the harm occurring and the severity of the
consequences if it does)
• Categorizing the risk (eg HIGH risk of injury
from manual handling, LOW risk of exposure
to chemicals) allows you to prioritise the
measures to ensure safety.
Step 2: Assess the risk
The risk assessment must:
1. Address any significant hazards
2. Apply to all aspects of work, and
3. Cover non-routine as well as routine
operations (e.g. occasional maintenance
Step 3: Select the control measures
You must now select the appropriate control
measures to eliminate the hazards and, where
that cannot be done, to reduce the risks.
When following this process, you must take
account of the General Principles of
Prevention as set out in Section 3 of the SHW
at Work Act 2005.
General Principals of Prevention:
1. The avoidance of risks
2. Evaluation of unavoidable risks
3. The combating of risks at source
4. The adaption of work to the
individual, especially as regards the design of
places of work, with a view, in particular, to
alleviating monotonous work and work at a
predetermined work rate and to reducing the
effect of this work on health
1. The adaption of the place of work to technical progress
2. The replacement of dangerous articles, substances or
systems of work by safe or less dangerous
articles, substances or systems of work
3. The giving of priority to collective protective measures
4. The development of an adequate prevention policy in
relation to SHW at Work, which takes account of
technology, organisation of work, working
conditions, social factors and the working environment
5. Giving appropriate training & instruction to employees
The principles are “Goal setting” and are based
on a recognition that risks cannot always be
eliminated. The goal is to eliminate where
possible or reduce the risk using a hierarchy of
control, applying the principles in the order
listed in the 2005 Act.
Example of hierarchy of control
• Could the risk be avoided by completely eliminating
the need for employees to handle or come into contact
with the hazardous substance, its fumes or vapours?
• If this proves impossible, the unavoidable risk must be
evaluated to determine the appropriate control
• Would the adaption of the process to technical
progress eliminate or reduce the unavoidable risks
from the use of the hazardous substance?
• If not it may, be possible for example to replace or
substitute the hazardous substance with one that is
safe or less hazardous
• Collective protective measures such as the use of local
exhaust ventilation may be able to control the
exposure to an acceptable level
• Finally, where it is not possible to completely control
the risk using collective protection, individual
protective measures in the form of personal protective
equipment (e.g. Respiratory protective equipment)
would need to be used
• Using such equipment would require giving training
• Control measures must be capable of dealing with
changing circumstances at work
Step 4: Write the safety statement
• The statement must:
• List the control measures taken to avoid risks
• Name those responsible for implementing &
maintaining the measures
• Contain plans to deal with an emergency or
any serious & imminent risks
• List the names of the Safety Representatives
The Safety Statement
• The SS must be reviewed and, if necessary amended
when there has been significant changes in work
practises (e.g. Introduction of new equipment) or when
there is reason to believe it is no longer valid (An
accident or near miss may prompt this).
• The SS must also be revised within 30 days if directed
by an inspector.
• You are required to bring the SS to the attention of
your employees in a form, manner or language that is
• This should be done at least annually, on recruitment
or after any significant change.
Step 5: Record & review
• The SS is not a static document to be left in a
filing cabinet, it is a management tool to be
• As stated the SS should be reviewed at least
• It is also important that you keep records of
risk assessments carried out and any controls
put in place.
The role of the competent person
• As an employer you should appoint one or more
competent persons to take on lead roles in the
management of safety & health.
• “Competent person” means someone who is able
to give informed & appropriate advice on safety
• The CP should be selected on the basis of their
training, experience & knowledge. This may be
the employer, someone within the business or in
the case of a small business, a mix of internal &
• ......means “you have exercised all due care
when, having identified the hazards &
assessed the risks at your workplace, you have
put into place the necessary protective and
preventive measures, and where further
measures would be grossly inappropriate”
Consultation with employees
• Employers must consult with their employees with regard
to safety, and to this end employees have the right to elect
a Safety Representative.
• In consultation an employer is required to:
1. Consult with employees or their SR on any proposed
measures likely to substantially affect their SHW at work.
2. Provide SR with results of risk assessments and consult re:
prep of SS.
3. Provide other info such as reportable accidents, illnesses
or dangerous occurrences, the names of any competent
persons appointed to advise on safety, and preventive
measures to be taken to avoid risks.
• Refrain from penalising any employee for acting in
accordance with H & S laws or for reporting complaints
re: H & S at work.
• Recognise that SP’s have various rights including the
1. Inspect the place of work
2. Investigate accidents & dangerous occurrences
3. Investigate complaints made by employees (after
having given reasonable notice to the employer)
4. Time off without loss of pay for training
Safety Rep rights, continued..
1. Accompany an inspector carrying out an
inspection of the workplace.
2. Make representations to the employer
regarding SHW at work
3. Make representations to and receive
recommendations from an inspector
4. Consult & liaise with other SR’s in the same
1. Comply with relevant laws & protect their own H & S as
well as those who maybe affected by their own acts or
omissions at work.
2. Not be under the influence of any intoxicant that they
could danger themselves or others.
3. Cooperate with their employer with regard to SHW at
4. Not engage in any improper conduct that could endanger
their H & S or others.
5. Participate in H & S training offered by their employer.
6. Make proper use of all machine, tools & substances and
use all protective equipment
7. Report any defects which may endanger H & S.
Other people with duties
Persons who have control over:
• A non-domestic place of work that has been made available to the
employees of another person.
• The means of access to or egress from that place of work , or
• Any article or substance provided for use at that place of work
(Other than the employees of the person in control)
have a duty to ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, that the
place of work, access to or egress from it, and any article or
substance so provided, is safe without risk to health.
E.g. A person in control of an office has to ensure that a window
cleaner has safe access and egress, and that any permanent
cleaning equipment is safe to use (of course the employer of the
window cleaner also has duties of care in respect of their
Other peoples duties continued...
• Manufacturers, importers & suppliers of
equipment, machinery, articles or substances used at
work have the duty of ensuring the H & S concerning
the materials that they produce or supply
• They must also provide information on the correct use
of the materials to ensure H & S at work.
• Those who design or construct a place of work must
ensure that it is designed & capable of being
constructed & maintained without risk to safety &
• The Health & Safety Authority (HSA) is responsible for
enforcing & promoting SHW at Work.
• In the main, HSA Inspectors give advice & information
during the course of an inspection. However, they have
a wide range of enforcement powers that are used in
• An inspector may serve a direction for an improvement
plan requiring the submission, within one month, of an
improvement plan setting out the proposed remedial
action for dealing with a specified risk.
• Enforcement notices may be served to deal with
a failure to comply with the law.
• An Improvement notice gives a period of time for
the matter to be remedied.
• A Prohibition notice requires the immediate
cessation of the activity that has created the risk.
• The HSA may also apply to the High Court for an
order prohibiting or restricting the use of the
place of work.
• Following prosecution, the Courts may impose fines or imprisonment
(or both), depending on the seriousness of the offence.
• Cases can be tried in the District Court where the maximum penalty is
€3,000 per charge and up to 6 months imprisonment.
• The Circuit Court can impose a penalty of €3,000,000 and up to 2 years
• The HSA also has the authority to publish the names & addresses of
those subjected to a prohibition notice, High Court order or a penalty
following a court conviction.
• The 2005 act allows for “on the spot fines” of up to €1,000 for
breaches of regulations.
• Directors & Senior managers carry particular responsibilities under the
Act if it can be shown that an offence committed by their undertaking
was attributable to neglect, connivance, consent or authorisation on