1 learning theory & psychology


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1 learning theory & psychology

  1. 1. Learning Theory & PsychologyFETAC Level 6 Train the Trainer – Unit 123/06/2013 1www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  2. 2. Definitions• Training is “Organized activity aimed atimparting information and/or instructions toimprove the recipients performance or tohelp him or her attain a required level ofknowledge or skill”• Learning is “a relatively permanent change inbehaviour based on an individualsinteractional experience with itsenvironment.”23/06/2013 2www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  3. 3. Learning theory frameworks• Behaviourism: focuses only on the objectivelyobservable aspects of learning• Cognitivism: Cognitive theories look beyondbehaviour to explain brain-based learning• Constructivism: views learning as a process inwhich the learner actively constructs or buildsnew ideas or concepts23/06/2013 3www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  4. 4. Learning styles• David Kolbs model• Honey and Mumford’s model• Flemings VAK/VARK model• Knowles Andragogical learning theory• MASLOW’s Hierarchy of needs model• Herzberg’s Motivation / hygiene theory23/06/2013 4www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  5. 5. David Kolb’s model23/06/2013 5www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  6. 6. David Kolb• Stage I - Concrete Experience• An individual carries out a particular actionand then observes the effect of the action inthis situation. Experiencing or immersingoneself in the "doing" of a task is the stage inwhich the learner simply carries out the taskassigned. The engaged person is usually notreflecting on the task at this time but ratherjust carrying it out with intention23/06/2013 6www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  7. 7. David Kolb• Stage II - Reflective Observation• Reflection involves stepping back from taskinvolvement and reviewing what has been done andexperienced. The skills of attending, noticingdifferences, and applying terms helps identify subtleevents. Ones paradigm (values, attitudes, values,beliefs) influences whether one can differentiatecertain events. Understanding of the effects of anaction in the particular instance is required in order toanticipate what would follow from the action if it wasto be taken again under the same circumstances.23/06/2013 7www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  8. 8. David Kolb• Stage III - Abstract Conceptualization• Conceptualization involves interpreting theevents that have been noticed and understandingthe relationships among them. It is at this stagethat theory may be particularly helpful as atemplate for framing and explaining events. Onesparadigm again influences the interpretive rangea person is willing to entertain. Understandingthe general principle under which the particularinstance falls does not imply ability to express theprinciple in a symbolic medium23/06/2013 8www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  9. 9. David Kolb• Stage IV - Active Experimentation• Application through action in a newcircumstance within the range ofgeneralization. Within this context planningenables taking the new understanding andtranslates it into predictions about what islikely to happen next or what actions shouldbe taken to refine the way the task is handled.23/06/2013 9www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  10. 10. Honey and Mumford’s model• In the mid 1970’s Peter Honey and AlanMumford adapted David Kolb’s model for usewith a population of middle/senior managersin business.• Two adaptations were made to Kolb’sexperiential model. Firstly, the stages in thecycle were renamed to accord withmanagerial experiences of decisionmaking/problem solving23/06/2013 10www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  11. 11. Honey & Munford23/06/2013 11www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  12. 12. Honey & Munford• The Honey & Mumford stages are in the cycleare:1. Having an experience2. Reviewing the experience3. Concluding from the experience4. Planning the next steps.23/06/2013 12www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  13. 13. Honey & Munford23/06/2013 13www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  14. 14. Honey & Munford• Secondly, the styles were directly aligned tothe stages in the cycle and named:1. Activist,2. Reflector,3. Theorist and4. Pragmatist23/06/2013 14www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  15. 15. Honey & Munford23/06/2013 15www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  16. 16. Homey & Munford23/06/2013 16www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  17. 17. Honey & Munford23/06/2013 17www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  18. 18. Honey & Munford23/06/2013 18www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  19. 19. Flemings VAK/VARK model23/06/2013 19www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  20. 20. Flemings VARK model• Fleming claimed that visual learners have apreference for seeing (think in pictures; visualaids such as overhead slides, diagrams,handouts, etc.). Auditory learners best learnthrough listening (lectures, discussions, tapes,etc.). Tactile/kinesthetic learners prefer tolearn via experience—moving, touching, anddoing (active exploration of the world; scienceprojects; experiments, etc.).23/06/2013 20www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  21. 21. Knowles Andragogy theory23/06/2013 21www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  22. 22. Knowles Adragogoy• Beginning in the 1950s Malcolm Knowlesdeveloped a new theory - which he called"Andragogy" - in the context of adult learners.This is often contrasted with the childs learningmethods - pedagogical learning.• The key difference between pedagogical learningand andragogical learning is that the role of theeducator is minimized. If someone fails to learn, itis not assumed to be the failure of the instructor.23/06/2013 22www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  23. 23. Knowles Androgogy• The central idea in the context of adultlearning is that it is only after convincing him-or herself of the rationale of learning that anadult will decide to learn. Hence, adultscannot be treated like children. Therefore it isassumed that workshops and seminarsorganized by the students themselves create abetter learning environment than thoseorganized externally23/06/2013 23www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  24. 24. 23/06/2013 24www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  25. 25. How does the Hierarchy Work?• - A person starts at the bottom of the hierarchy (pyramid)and will initially seek to satisfy basic needs (e.g. food,shelter)• - Once these physiological needs have been satisfied, theyare no longer a motivator. the individual moves up to thenext level• - Safety needs at work could include physical safety (e.g.protective clothing) as well as protection againstunemployment, loss of income through sickness etc)• - Social needs recognise that most people want to belong toa group. These would include the need for love andbelonging (e.g. working with colleague who support you atwork, teamwork, communication)23/06/2013 25www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  26. 26. How does the Hierarchy Work?• - Esteem needs are about being given recognition for ajob well done. They reflect the fact that many peopleseek the esteem and respect of others. A promotion atwork might achieve this• - Self-actualisation is about how people think aboutthemselves - this is often measured by the extent ofsuccess and/or challenge at work• Maslows model has great potential appeal in thebusiness world. The message is clear - if managementcan find out which level each employee has reached,then they can decide on suitable rewards.23/06/2013 26www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  27. 27. Herzberg’s 2 factor (motivation theory)23/06/2013 27www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  28. 28. • Herzbergs Two Factor Theory is a "contenttheory" of motivation" (the other main one isMaslows Hierarchy of Needs).• Herzberg analysed the job attitudes of 200accountants and engineers who were asked torecall when they had felt positive or negative atwork and the reasons why.• From this research, Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to understanding employeemotivation and satisfaction:23/06/2013 28www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  29. 29. Hygiene Factors• Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a businessto avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors areconsidered inadequate by employees, then they cancause dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factorsinclude:• - Company policy and administration• - Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration• - Quality of supervision• - Quality of inter-personal relations• - Working conditions• - Feelings of job security23/06/2013 29www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  30. 30. Motivator Factors• Motivator factors are based on an individuals need forpersonal growth. When they exist, motivator factorsactively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, thenthey can motivate an individual to achieve above-averageperformance and effort. Motivator factors include:• - Status• - Opportunity for advancement• - Gaining recognition• - Responsibility• - Challenging / stimulating work• - Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job23/06/2013 30www.allenbusinessconsultancy.com
  31. 31. Questions?23/06/2013 31www.allenbusinessconsultancy.comallenbusinessconsultancy@gmail.comAllen Business ConsultancyABConsultancy1Harvey Allen