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The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?

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NASA - a short history, current projects, industry privatization and future projects. Discussion question: Is where the industry going a good direction? Would it have been more worthwhile to keep the focus on scientific endeavors versus the commercial direction we are currently headed?

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The future of NASA and other space progams: what's next?

  1. 1. THE FUTURE OF NASA AND OTHER SPACE PROGRAMS: WHAT’S NEXT? By Allaire, Marissa, Maggie, and Kristie
  2. 2. “WELL, SPACE IS THERE, AND WE’RE GOING TO CLIMB IT.” A History of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  3. 3. HUMBLE BEGINNINGS: THE NACA  In 1915, the United States government established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, otherwise known as the NACA. It was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.  Initially formed as a federally -funded agency for “emergency measures” during WWI, the NACA focused its energy on coordinating research and industrialization of flight -projects for the war ef fort abroad.  Throughout its 43-year history, NACA funded research for the improvement of flight safety, and whether the question of flight into space was even possible.
  4. 4. THEN AND NOW: NACA (1915) & NASA (1958)
  5. 5. A RACE TO SPACE: THE USSR CHALLENGES THE US  On October 4, 1957, the USSR launched Sputnik into space, making it the first object ever to be successfully launched and make a complete (unmanned) orbit around Earth.  Less than even a month later, the USSR outdid its astounding progress when, on November 3, 1957, it launched a second unmanned satellite into orbit around the Earth – this time, carrying a dog, Laika. Sputnik II proved , beyond the limited capability of laboratory, that a living creature could sustain life while in space, a fact heretofore unknown.  The success of the first two Sputnik missions dawned the beginning of a new era, the race to the moon against the United States. A race that the USSR was already winning.
  6. 6. A TIN CUP AND A SPACE PUP: SPUTNIK I & LAIKA
  7. 7. A RACE TO SPACE, CONTINUED: THE US PLAYS BALL WITH THE SOVIETS  After the unprecedented success of the Sputnik missions in the autumn of 1957, the US government felt threatened by the USSR’s progress that far outpaced the grounded efforts of the NACA.  And so, in the following January, the US – using rocket technology that had been developed over a decade earlier, during WWII launched Explorer I, a 30-lb spacecraft that, while in orbit, discovered what are now known as the Van Allen radiation belts.  Explorer I was followed closely by the US Navy’s launch of the three-lb. Vanguard craft. Both missions, while not as spectacular as the showier Sputnik missions, nonetheless proved that the US was as capable of pursuing a space program – and thus Cold Warera tensions began to be played out among the stars.
  8. 8. “FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL MANKIND:” THE BIRTH OF NASA  After the success of independently -funded US endeavors to space, NACA was deemed too -small an agency to keep up with the Soviets, who were already looking to skies again – this time, with men at the helm.  Thus, on July 26, 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act , which would fund all of the United States’ future space endeavors.  Yet the congressional act brought up a question that left many in the States divided: Should flight to space – and, perhaps, even space itself – be a military controlled entity, or a civilian one?
  9. 9. “FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL MANKIND:” THE BIRTH OF NASA  This question was answered when, on October 1 , 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration – or NASA, was of ficially formed as a federally -funded civilian agency.  NASA absorbed the NACA , along with its 8,000 employees, and was initially awarded a 100 million -dollar annual budget by Congress, along with three major laboratories as its base of operations.  In an open letter written entitled “Introduction to Outer Space,” President Eisenhower outlined his own goals for what such an ambitious agency should be to the United States, eight months before NASA was formed, giving the fledgling agency its motto…
  10. 10. “These opportunities reinforce my conviction that we and other nations have a great responsibility to promote the peaceful use of space and to utilize the new knowledge obtainable from space science and technology for the benefit of all mankind.” MARCH 26, 1958 E x c e rp t f r o m “ I n t r o d uc t i o n to O u te r S p a c e , ” by President E i s e n h owe r.
  11. 11. FLY ME TO THE MOON: THE MERCURY, GEMINI, & APOLLO PROJECTS  When the young, charismatic President John F. Kennedy was sworn into of fice on January 20, 1961 , his administration would usher in a new, ambitious era for NASA.  During his short tenure as President of the United States, Kennedy made NASA and the future of space flight among his top priorities, seeing it as an opportunity to spread democracy even into the outer reaches of space.  For JFK, ensuring the United States’ superiority in space flight technology and progress in space over the Soviet Union would mean a victory of democracy over communism – thus extending the Cold War from the Earth, to the moon…
  12. 12. “First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon…But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon…it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.” MAY 25, 1961 E x c e rp t f r o m JFK’s joint a d d r e s s to Congress, askin g for additional funds for NASA .
  13. 13. PROJECT MERCURY (1961-1963)  The goal of the Mercury single-astronaut flight project was to investigate whether a manned flight would be possible.  Over a period of two years, a series of experiments were carried out to test the human body against anti-gravity conditions of outer space replicated in the NASA labs, as well as to design a capsule (pictured to the left) in which a human could survive said uninhabitable conditions.
  14. 14. THE MERCURY FLIGHTS  On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr., became the first American to fly into space, and safely return.  His suborbital trip lasted just 15 minutes, but was crucial for it proved that man could survive exiting and re-entering the earth’s atmosphere.
  15. 15. THE MERCURY FLIGHTS February 20, 1962: John H. Glenn Jr. successfully orbits the Earth, making him the first US astronaut to do so.
  16. 16. PROJECT GEMINI (1965-1966)  Project Gemini encompassed a series of ten missions over a year  Focus was to send not one, but two astronauts into space, and creating a capsule large enough for such a mission.
  17. 17. GEMINI 4 On June 3, 1965, astronaut Edward H. White, Jr., co-pilot on the Gemini 4 flight, completed the first spacewalk.
  18. 18. PROJECT APOLLO (1968-1972)  Despite an incredible string of successful manned flights into space, NASA’s mission to reach the moon by the end of the decade nearly came to a halt when the program suf fered its first major tragedy.  On January 27, 1967, astronauts Virgil Grissom, Roger B. Chaf fee, and Edward H. White, Jr., were killed when a fire engulfed one of the first capsules during Apollo I.
  19. 19. APOLLO I CASUALTIES
  20. 20. “ONE GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND:” APOLLO 11  Born out of fire and loss, the Apollo missions would nonetheless realize Kennedy’s dream of sending a man safely to the moon and back before the end of the decade.  On July 20, 1969, astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk the surface of the moon, with astronaut Michael Collins manning piloting the successful landing on the lunar surface.
  21. 21. “HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM:” APOLLO 13  Two ye a r s a f te r t h e s uc c e s s ful m o o n l a n di ng o f t h e Ap o l l o 11 m i ssion, Apri l o f 1 97 0 s aw a n ot h e r fl i g ht to t h e m o o n .  H owever, due to a c o m pro m ise i n t h e ox yg e n t a n k , t h e c rew o f t h e Apo l lo 1 3 m i s sion wo ul d n eve r m a ke i t to t h e m o o n – but t h e “ fa i lure ” o f t h e m i s sion be c a m e a s uc c e ss i n te rm s o f N ASA be i n g a bl e to bri n g t h e a s t ro n a ut s h o m e s a fe ly.  B y t h e e n d o f t h e Apo l l o m i ssions, o f w h i c h t h e re we re s evente en, t h e US wo ul d l a n d t h e m o o n fi ve m o re t i m e s.
  22. 22. FAILURE TO LAUNCH: THE COLUMBIA AND CHALLENGER TRAGEDIES Tragically, the capsule fire that killed three men during the Apollo I mission, and the close call with Apollo 13, would not be the only tragedies to plague NASA. In the 1980s and early 2000s, two more missions would go awry, taking the lives of fourteen US astronauts and one civilian.
  23. 23. JANUARY 28, 1986: THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER DISASTER  By the 1980s, NASA developed a new space craf t, one that could sustain long -term flight and carr y a more extensive crew: the space shuttle.  Despite having a successful launch in 1983, Challenger exploded mid -flight three years later, only 73 seconds into the air, killing its seven man crew, which included a school teacher, Christa McAulif fe.  Af ter a formal investigation made by NASA , it was determined that structural failure was to blame.
  24. 24. FEBRUARY 3, 2003: THE SPACE SHUTTLE COLUMBIA DISASTER  After a successful 28 th mission, the space shuttle Columbia began its reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere when, at 8:59am EST on February 3, 2003, the shuttle disintegrated, killing its seven-man crew.  NASA’s investigation into the incident revealed that a piece of foam insulation on the outside of the hull became loose during its initial launch, compromising the shuttle’s heat shields that would have protected the shuttle properly upon
  25. 25. DEALING WITH THE AFTERMATH OF CHALLENGER & COLUMBIA The Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters did much to damage the American public’s perception of NASA. In the decades following the initial moon landing of Apollo 11, many Americans began to question whether manned flights into space were worth the risk of losing anymore life. ~ Indeed, NASA’s early years were fuelled by social and political ambitions to extend American democracy beyond earthly borders, especially during the height of the Cold War. But after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, much of the old “race to space” urgency has been lost – which has lead to a loss of funding for the program that is, in President Eisenhower’s words, meant “for the benefit of all mankind.”
  26. 26. NASA DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What do you think about the future of NASA?
  27. 27. NASA BUDGET CUTS: PUTTING THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION ON THE LINE?  According to The Lamron, NASA, despite its continual progress, such as revealing more information about our galaxy’s origins and age via the Hubble Space Telescope – is in danger of major budget cuts that could potentially slow or halt such progress altogether.  With Obama’s budget proposed for 2014 cutting NASA’s funding by $300 million, do you think NASA is being unfairly targeted for budget cuts? What other programs could be cut instead?
  28. 28. WHAT HAS BEEN ALREADY CUT? Cassini mission
  29. 29. WHAT HAS BEEN ALREADY CUT?
  30. 30. NASA’S CURRENT ENDEAVORS  Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Of fice (C3PO)  C3PO creates privately owned and operated space transportation systems and NASA acts as a lead investor and customer.  SpaceX and Orbital
  31. 31. SPACEX: DRAGON  Free flying, reusable spacecraft  Designed to deliver both cargo and people into space  In 2012, DRAGON became the first commercial spacecraft in history to deliver cargo to the International Space Station and safely deliver cargo to Earth
  32. 32. SPACE INVENTIONS BEING USED ELSEWHERE  “Space exploration and the benefits it yields – in medicine and information technology - should not be overlooked” –Ben Barr     Cat scans More functional artificial limbs Insulin pumps Ventricular Assist Device (VADs)
  33. 33. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION  The ISS is an orbiting laboratory as well as space port that is a collaborative ef fort between 16 nations  Benefits of the ISS for civilians      Neurosurgical medical technology Water purification technology Agricultural monitoring Student amateur radio interaction Remote telemedicine
  34. 34. MARS EXPLORATION: CURIOSIT Y ROVER  Curiosity Rover  Major Objective: “Find evidence of a past environment well suited to supporting microbial life” ( NASA.gov)  Mission succeeded
  35. 35. MARS EXPLORATION: MAVEN ORBITER  The MAVEN Orbiter was “sent to study the Red Planet’s upper atmosphere over the course of at least one Earth year” (NBC News)  MAVEN: Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution  Launched Monday, 11/18/2013
  36. 36. LADEE: LUNAR ATMOSPHERE AND DUST ENVIRONMENT EXPLORER  “LADEE is a robotic mission that will orbit the moon to gather detailed information about the structure and composition of the thin lunar atmosphere, and determine whether dust is being lofted into the lunar sky.”
  37. 37. HOW IS SPACE FLIGHT CHANGING AFTER FUNDING SHIFT? What now????
  38. 38. FAA/AST Potential Regulatory Path -- Today Public Safety, Eventually Occupant Safety Mission Assurance Occupant Safety Occupant Safety Public Safety Public Safety Public Safety Current FAA Licensing Licensing Human Spaceflight FAA Certification Routine Commercial Space Travel Certificates Production Airworthiness Air Carrier Pilot Instruction Mechanic Dispatch Parts Time
  39. 39. RLVS Reusable Launch Vehicles European Union “End-of-Life Vehicles Directive” USEPA - “Recycling and Reuse: End-ofLife Vehicles and Producer Responsibility” Currently: Space shuttle
  40. 40. SPACEPORTS Spaceports or cosmodromes  are sites for launching and/or receiving spacecraft. New common term for sub-orbital launch spaces
  41. 41. Spaceport America, New Mexico.
  42. 42. SPACEPORT LAUNCH-ASSIST MACHINES MagLifter
  43. 43. SPACEPORT LAUNCH-ASSIST MACHINES StarTram
  44. 44. SUB-ORBITAL SPACE FLIGHT What is suborbital space flight? What are it’s uses? What are the prices?
  45. 45. XCOR AND SXC’S – LYNX (LMI/II)
  46. 46. BLUE ORIGIN’S – NEW SHEPARD
  47. 47. VIRGIN GALACTIC – “VSS ENTERPRISE”
  48. 48. VIRGIN GALACTIC – SS2 OR “VSS ENTERPRISE”
  49. 49. WORLD NEW ENTERPRISES Balloon Trip into Atmosphere  At 98,425 ft or ~20 mi) Cheaper option??  Only 75,000 in 8 seater capsule Release 2016
  50. 50. MEANWHILE IN RUSSIA….. Dauria Aerospace in conjunction with Samsung and Roscosmos
  51. 51. HDU-DSH Habitat Demonstration Unit- Deep Space Habitat “Even in space, there’s no place like home.”
  52. 52. NASA DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What do you think about the future of NASA? Pt.2
  53. 53. NASA BUDGET CUTS: PUTTING THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION ON THE LINE? Now that we’ve seen where we’re heading with less government assistance, is it worthwhile? Was this a good or bad thing that privatization of the industry happened?
  54. 54. BIBLIOGRAPHY Maggie  Dunbar, Brian. NASA. NASA, 10 Apr. 2008. Web. 25 Nov. 2013.  Dunbar, Brian. NASA. NASA, 14 Apr. 2008. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.  "Excerpt from an Address Before a Joint Session of Congress, 25 May 1961 ." - John F. Kennedy Presidential Librar y & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.  "JFK RICE MOON SPEECH." JFK RICE MOON SPEECH. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.
  55. 55. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allaire                      http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/gallery/history/vanguard.jpg http://www.wired.com/images/index/2008/01/explorer1_500px.jpg http://www.epa.gov/oswer/international/factsheets/ 200811_elv_directive.htm http://main.abqjournal.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/a01_jd_27oct_spaceport.jpg http://www.abqjournal.com/ 289536/news/more-states-joining-nm-in-space-industry-quest.html http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Spaceport_Visioning_Final_Report.p df http://xcor.com/lynx/ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article -2467356/London-Sydney-TWO-hours-Virgin-Galacticspace-flight-technology-used-build-new-generation-super-jets-replace-Concorde.html http://www.breakingtravelnews.com/news/article/space -expedition-corporation-breaks-finalfrontier/ http://images.gizmag.com/hero/spaceport -america-opens.jpg http://www.spacexc.com/en/bookings / http://www.zerogcolony.com / http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/468441main_HDU_FactSheet_ 508.pdf http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/technology/deep_space_habitat / http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/ 638869main_habitat_xhabloft_2011-web_946-710.jpg http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/24/travel/space-balloon-30km/ http://www.theinternational.org/articles/475-commercialization-law-and-governance-in http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/ 2013/10/21/private-space-co-dauria-aerospace-will-usesmartphone-tech-to-launch-russian-satellites/ http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/ 1113002237/nasa-will-rely-more-on-private-companies-in-thefuture-111313/ FAA/AST and USEU Contacts FAA/AST powerpoint from a press conference July 2013
  56. 56. BIBLIOGRAPHY Marissa • http://news.ca.msn.com/top -stories/nasa-launches-mavenorbiter-to-probe-mysteries-in-mars-air • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/images/index.html#.UpT kKSij4Ww • http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/fact_sheets/mars -sciencelaboratory.pdf • http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the switch/wp/2013/09/04/nasa-launch-could-be-the-first-steptowards-an-interplanetary-internet/ • http://www.nasa.gov/offices/c 3po/home/c3po_goal_objectives .html • http://www.spacex.com/dragon • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/bene fits_video/#.UpTnLCij4Ww • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/maven/main/#.UpTntyij 4Ww • http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/ladee/main/

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