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What are the income generating activities in agriculture By Allah Dad Khan

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What are the income generating activities in agriculture By Allah Dad Khan

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What are the income generating activities in agriculture By Allah Dad Khan

  1. 1. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture Presentation to PARD Training Course Participants By Mr.Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Expert Khyber Pakhtun Khwa Province Peshawar Phone cell 03329221298 Email : allahdad52@gmail.com What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 2
  2. 2. Present Agriculture Situation in  Agriculture is the mainstay of the country's economy  Contributing 24% towards GDP ( in 1947 per capita income $100 and Population 30 million in 2010 per capita income 1000 $ and Population 170 million)  Back bone for the economy( Livelihood for 68.5 % rural population of country  Providing employment to 47% 0f total work force )  Base for foreign trade ( Earning 35% of the country total export earning )  Ranks 7th in Wheat production in World 1st one is China .(2009)  Ranks 11th in Rice production in World 1st one is China . (2009)  Ranks 4th in Cotton production in World 1st one is China . ( 2009)  Ranks 7th in Date Palm production in World 1st one is Iraq. (2009)  Ranks 5th in Sugarcane production in World 1st one is Brazil (2009)  Ranks 4th in Onion dry production in World 1st one is China . ( 2009)  Ranks 7th in fresh vegetables production in World 1st one is China. (2009) What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 3
  3. 3. Emerging Issues in Agriculture  Flat yield and productivity of water  Under performance of rural sector markets and extension services.  Under investment in agriculture research and technology development.  Unreliability of water services  Improved rural infrastructure and education provision.  Scaling up of diversification into new, higher value crops and use of new land more efficient irrigation technology .  Farm to market road  High Cost of Agriculture Inputs  Shortage of water and water reservoirs  Special Calamity What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 4
  4. 4. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 5
  5. 5. Composition of Presentation  Integrated Farm Management  Good Agriculture Practices/Farmer Field Schools  Agriculture Crops fruits and vegetables.  Livestock and dairy development Activities  Poultry And Poultry Management  Medicinal Plants What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 6
  6. 6. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 7
  7. 7. Integrated Farm Management  Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm system providing efficient and profitable production that is environmentally responsible. IFM works by integrating beneficial natural processes into modern farming techniques and ensures that high standards of stewardship and environmental care are practiced. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 8
  8. 8. The key principles of Integrated Farm Management are:  A commitment to good husbandry and animal welfare  Efficient soil management and appropriate cultivation techniques  The use of crop rotations  Minimum reliance on crop protection chemicals and fertilisers  Careful choice of seed varieties  Maintenance of the landscape and rural communities  Enhancement of wildlife habitats  A commitment to team spirit based on communication, training and involvement What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 9
  9. 9. IFM TECHNOLOGIES FOR INTEGRATED FARM MANAGEMENT What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 10
  10. 10. Crop Rotation increases production Crop rotation is important in controlling pests, diseases and weeds. As many diseases survive in plant debris a break of two to five years between the same type of crop in a field allows time for diseases to decline to insignificant levels What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 11
  11. 11. Crop competition for enhance production  A healthy crop will withstand pests, diseases or weeds much better than a poor one. The success of residual herbicides used before or after crops appear relies on the crop achieving 100% cover early in its life, to suppress any weeds that grow later. This is particularly effective in potatoes, sugar beet and oilseed rape. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 12
  12. 12. Cover Crops reduces pesticides use  preventing soil erosion,  suppressing weeds, and  enhancing soil quality. Using appropriate cover crops is worth the extra effort because it reduces the need for chemical inputs like herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizers. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 13
  13. 13. Crop varietal resistance and tolerance activity to get good income Varieties of the same crop type have different patterns of resistance or tolerance to pests or diseases. This can reduce or delay the damage caused by pests and diseases, which in turn may mean fewer sprays of pesticide or, in some cases, lower doses What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 14
  14. 14. Monitoring crops and diagnosing problems are activities for higher income It is important to monitor your crops by regularly walking through them, and to make sure you identify problems quickly and correctly. You will then be better able to forecast whether a pest or disease will reach levels at which it will be necessary to protect the crop. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 15
  15. 15. Forecasting for pests and diseases are to be seen Weather forecasting is one obvious way of predicting whether a particular pest or disease (for example, potato blight, Septoria in wheat and apple scab) is going to be a problem. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 16
  16. 16. Soil Enrichment ( Use of Organic Matter)  Soil is arguably the single most prized element of agricultural ecosystems. Healthy soil teems with life, including many beneficial microbes and insects, but these are often killed off by the overuse of pesticides. Good soils can improve yields and produce robust crops less vulnerable to pests; abused soils often require heavy fertilizer application to produce high yields. Soil quality can be maintained and enhanced in many ways, including leaving crop residues in the field after harvest, plowing under cover crops, or adding composted plant material or animal manur What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 17
  17. 17. Natural Pest Predators ( Biological Control) / IPM  Understanding a farm as an ecosystem rather than a factory offers exciting opportunities for effective pest control. For example, many birds, insects, and spiders are natural predators of agricultural pests. Managing farms so that they harbor populations of pest predators is a sophisticated and effective pest-control technique. One of the unfortunate consequences of intensive use of chemical pesticides is the indiscriminate killing of birds, bats, and other pest predators.  What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 18
  18. 18. Bio intensive Integrated Pest Management  One of the most promising technologies is the control of pests through integrated pest management (IPM). This approach relies to the greatest possible extent on biological rather than chemical measures, and emphasizes the prevention of pest problems with crop rotation; the reintroduction of natural, disease-fighting microbes into plants/soil, and release of beneficial organisms that prey on the pests. Once a particular pest problem is identified, responses include the use of sterile males, biocontrol agents like ladybugs. Chemical pesticides are only used as a last resort. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 19
  19. 19. No Till Farming ( Zero Tillage)  The immense importance placed on no-tillage has led to natural farming also being referred to as No-till farming.  Hence, while there is lots to think about and do in natural farming, actual physical work and labour has actually been seen to reduce by upto 80% compared to other agricultural systems. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 20
  20. 20. Effective Microorganisms (EM)  originated in Japan in the 1980s. Its originator or developer was Prof Teruo Higa. As the name suggests, it makes use of microorganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi and ray fungi. These microorganisms are both aerobic and anaerobic and are not genetically-modified. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 21
  21. 21. Mulching, green manuring  Mulching is the use of organic materials to cover the soil, especially around plants to keep down evaporation and water loss, besides adding valuable nutrients to the soil as they decompose  Green manuring Green manuring is beneficial in two ways - firstly it fixes nitrogen, and secondly the addition of biomass (around five to ten tons/acre) greatly helps in improving the soil texture and water holding capacity. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 22
  22. 22. Hybrid Seed ( Genetic Engineering)  Hybrid seeds are the result of cross-pollination (or genetic engineering, carried out for specific purposes, usually higher production, resistance to specific plant diseases or for a specific attribute such as shape or colour. . What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 23
  23. 23. Multicropping and Intercropping  Multi-cropping is the simultaneous cultivation of two or more crops. In Indian agricultural tradition, farmers have been known to sow as many as 4 types of crops at one time. An example of multi- cropping is Tomatoes + Gourd + Canola  Inter-cropping is the cultivation of another crop in the spaces available between the main crop. A good example is the multi-tier is Sugarcane in Wheat crop. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 24
  24. 24. Innovative Bacteria ( Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria)  1) Rhizobia Rhizobia can fix 40-120 kgs. of nitrogen per acre annually depending upon the crop, rhizobium species and environmental conditions.  2) Azotobacter They are free-living nitrogen fixers and can be used for all types of upland crops but cannot survive in wetland conditions.  3) Azospirillum Like azotobacter, azospirillum species also do not form root nodules or associate with leguminous crops. They are however not free-living and live inside plant roots where they fix nitrogen, and can be used in wetland conditions.  4) Blue-green algae Blue-green algae are so named for their colour but they may also be purple, brown or red. They are easily prepared on the farm but can be used only for rice cultivation when the field is flooded and do not survive in acidic soils. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 25
  25. 25. Innovative Bacteria contd  5) Azolla . Azolla is a free-floating water fern that fixes nitrogen in association with a specific species of cyanobacteria. Azolla is a renewable biofertiliser and can be mass-produced on the farm like blue-green algae.  6) Phosphate-solubilising microorganisms These are a group of bacteria and fungi capable of breaking down insoluble phosphates to make them available to crops. They require sufficient organic matter in the soil to be of any great benefit.  7) Mycorrhiza. Of these, the most important in agriculture is vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza or VAM. Plants with VAM colonies are capable of higher uptakes of soil and nutrients and water. VAM strands acts as root extensions and bring up water and nutrients from lateral and vertical distances where the plant root system does not reach. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 26
  26. 26. Permaculture  Permaculture is a system of combining perennials, trees, shrubs, and vines to create a "permanent agriculture." Using an intensive design process, the natural elements of an ecosystem are replaced by food-producing relatives, creating an edible landscape. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 27
  27. 27. Permanent Raised Bed What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 28
  28. 28. Water Management Could include:  assessment of alternative sources and opportunities for water conservation  improving water application methods for irrigation  collecting water from roofs and gutters  ensuring that dirty water is segregated from clean water. This will reduce wastage by saving high quality water.  testing for nitrates in surface water and groundwater to help assess of risk of pollution What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 29
  29. 29. Soil and Water Conservation  Contour bunding / trenching : By making bunds and trenches along a contour line (the soil dug out to make a trench is used to construct a bund on the lower side), either continuously or in an overlapping manner, the flow of rainwater is slowed, thus reducing runoff and soil erosion and allowing recharge of groundwater  Ploughing along the contour : This has obvious benefits because the downward flow of both water and soil is arrested. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 30
  30. 30. Technology can help improve irrigation water use efficiency ( New Methods of Irrigation) Interpreting satellite imagery for irrigation management is a technology that, with increased research, could add real economic value for agricultural producers in irrigated areas. Monitoring evaporation, crop water demand, and water stress in real time would be a major leap forward. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 31
  31. 31. Rain Water Harvesting  Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well as more complex techniques such as underground check dams. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 32
  32. 32. Innovative Methods of irrigation  1. Drip Irrigation  2.Sprinkler Irrigation What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 33
  33. 33. Communication and training  increasing communication with staff including sharing information on farm performance  training staff in the benefits and techniques of environmental management  training in the safe application, handling and storage of pesticides, soil management and first aid.  increasing access to the farm for walkers and riders without reducing profitability and  causing environmental problems.  Creating opportunities to improve the public's understanding and confidence in farming eg considering farm open days. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 34
  34. 34. Landscape and wildlife features  Existing habitats and landscape features take priority when planning the environmental management  programme for the farm but they may be enhanced by  creating a whole farm conservation plan  encouraging biodiversity in field margins and headlands  avoiding misapplication and drift of agrochemical and fertilizer onto uncultivated land.  planning operations like rolling, spraying and cutting to avoid destroying nests and young and adult birds as much as possible. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 35
  35. 35. Livestock Management  operating a closed livestock system to reduce the risk of introducing diseases taking measures to avoid undue poaching which could lead to soil erosion  operating a clean grazing systems (alternate annual grazing of cattle and sheep to reduce parasite levels)  where possible, ensuring nesting birds and wildlife are protected from forage cutting checking that hedges are stock-proof and provide shelter for both stock and crops trying to ensure that no injury to an animal will be caused during transport in a vehicle.  management of livestock and poultry What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 36
  36. 36. Energy Efficiency  monitoring fuel energy consumption to identify areas of the high usage and trends over time  reducing vehicle movements  purchasing a cultivator drill to reduce overall number of passes in establishing cereal crops.  Utilizing Solar Energy  Biogas Plant What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 37
  37. 37. Germ Plasm Units and Registration Of Fruit Nursery What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 38
  38. 38. What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 39
  39. 39. Twentieth Century Challenges World agriculture in the twenty-first century is faced with three main challenges: 1) to improve food security, rural livelihoods and income; 2) to satisfy the increasing and diversified demands for safe food and other products; and, 3) to conserve and protect natural resources.
  40. 40. Concept OF Good Agriculture Practices three pillars of sustainability are 1: Good Agricultural Practices should be economically viable, 2 .Environmentally sustainable, 3. Socially acceptable; inclusive of food safety and quality dimensions, with a focus on primary production
  41. 41. Basic Aims of Farmer Field School 1. Skill Development 2. Empowerment 3. Will power 4. Capacity of Decision Making What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 45
  42. 42. Farmer Field School Approach Farmer Field School is a school without walls. Farmers and extension workers are students. The Farmers Field is the class room and the plant is the teacher. As the plant grows the students gain knowledge in the light of their observations. The get together at a fixed time every week once and make their own decisions based on observations and data analysis for the health of the plants.What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 46
  43. 43. Basic Principles of Farmer Field School 1. Grow a healthy crop 2. Conserve natural enemies 3. Conduct regular field observations 4. Farmers understand ecology and become experts in their own fields What are the income generating activities in Agriculture 47
  44. 44. TOF 25 Facilitators 10 FFS 3 days TOF per week 2 days FFS per week Innovations •Partial residence •Single district participants Pakistan Model What are the income generating activities in Agriculture48
  45. 45. FarmerField Schools Give a man a fish …...and feed him for a day Teach him how to fish …..and feed him for life What are the income generating activities in Agriculture49
  46. 46. Questions
  47. 47. Lets Go For Next Presentation

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