Vegetables oils By Mr Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Expert Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Pakistan
VEGETABLES OILSA REPORT BY MR ALLAH DAD KHAN
Agriculture Extension Expert
Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways, for example:
• By source: most, but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or
seeds of plants, and the oils may be classified by grouping oils from
similar plants, such as "nut oils".
• By use: oils from plants are used in cooking, for fuel, for cosmetics, for
medical purposes, and for other industrial purposes.
The vegetable oils are grouped below in common classes of use.
I. Major oils
1. Canola oil, one of the most widely used cooking oils.
2.Coconut oil, a cooking oil, high in saturated fat, particularly used in
baking and cosmetics.
3.Corn oil, a common cooking oil with little odor or taste.
4. Cottonseed oil, used in manufacturing potato chips and other
5. Olive oil, used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps, and as a fuel for
traditional oil lamps
6. Palm oil, the most widely produced tropical oil. Popular in West
African and Brazilian cuisine Also used to make biofuel.
7. Peanut oil (Ground nut oil), a clear oil used for dressing salads and,
due to its high smoke point, especially used for frying
8. Safflower oil, produced for export for over 50 years, first for use in
paint industry, now mostly as a cooking oil.
9. Sesame oil, cold pressed as light cooking oil, hot pressed for a darker
and stronger flavor.
10. Soybean oil, produced as a byproduct of processing soy meal
11. Sunflower oil . a common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel
14% 43% 43%177 °C (351 °F) Cooking
14% 43% 43%232 °C (450 °F)
Soybean oil 15% 24% 61%241 °C (466 °F)
11% 20% 69%246 °C (475 °F)
9% 82% 9%
II .Nut oils
Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. Most are quite costly,
because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.
1.Almond oil, used as an edible oil, but primarily in the manufacture of
2.Cashew oil, somewhat comparable to olive oil. May have value for fighting
3.Hazelnut oil, mainly used for its flavor. Also used in skin care, because
of its slight astringent nature.
4.Macadamia oil, strongly flavored, contains no trans fat, and a good
balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
5.Mongongo nut oil (or manketti oil), from the seeds of the Schinziophyton
rautanenii, a tree which grows in South Africa. High in vitamin E. Also
used in skin care
6.Pecan oil, valued as a food oil, but requiring fresh pecans for good
7.Pine nut oil usually added to foods as a flavoring agent.
8.Pistachio oil, strongly flavored oil, particularly for use in salads.
9.Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil, contains no cholesterol and the
highest omega-3 fatty acid concentration (~ 49%)
10.Walnut oil, used for its flavor, also used by Renaissance painters in oil
11.Bottle gourd oil, extracted from the seeds of the Lagenaria siceraria,
widely grown in tropical regions throughout the world. Used medicinally
and as an edible oil.
12.Buffalo gourd oil, from the seeds of the Cucurbita foetidissima, a vine
with a rank odor, native to southwest North America.
13.Pumpkin seed oil, a specialty cooking oil, produced in Austria and
Slovenia. Poor tolerance for high temperatures
14.Watermelon seed oil, pressed from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris.
Traditionally used in cooking in West Africa.
III.Other edible oils
1.Amaranth oil, high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, used in food
and cosmetic industries.
2.Apricot oil, similar to, but much cheaper than almond oil, which it
resembles. Only obtained from certain cultivars.
3.Apple seed oil, used in cosmetics and shampoos. Also used as an edible
4.Argan oil, a food oil from Morocco that has also attracted recent
attention in Europe.
5.Artichoke oil, extracted from the seeds of the Cynara cardunculus.
Similar in use and composition to safflower and sunflower oil.
6.Avocado oil, a nutty-flavored culinary oil, also used as a base for
Also used in cosmetics.
Unusually high smoke point of
7.Babassu oil, similar to, and used as a substitute for, coconut oil.
8.Ben oil, extracted from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera. High in behenic
acid. Extremely stable edible oil. Also suitable for biofuel.
9.Borneo tallow nut oil, extracted from the fruit of species of genus Shorea.
Used as a substitute for cocoa butter, and to make soap, candles, cosmetics
10.Cape Chestnut oil, otherwise known as Yangu oil, is a popular oil in
African skin care.
11.Carob pod oil (Algaroba oil), from carob, used medicinally.
12.Cassia oil, made from Cinnamon, this spiced oil is used to flavour
13.Cocoa butter, from the cacao plant. Used in the manufacture of chocolate,
as well as in some cosmetics.
14.Cocklebur oil, from species of genus Xanthium, with similar properties to
poppyseed oil, similar in taste and smell to sunflower oil.
15.Cohune oil, from the Attalea cohune (cohune palm), similar to coconut
oil in makeup and usage
16.Coriander seed oil, from coriander seeds, used medicinally. Also used as
a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical and food industries.
17.Dika oil, from Irvingia gabonensis seeds, native to West Africa. Used to
make margarine, soap and pharmaceuticals, where is it being examined as a
tablet lubricant. Largely underdeveloped.
18.False flax oil made of the seeds of Camelina sativa, available in Russia
as ryjhikovoye maslo (рыжиковое масло). Considered promising as a
food or fuel oil
19.Flax seed oil (called linseed oil when used as a drying oil). High in
omega 3 and lignans, which can be used medicinally. Easily turns rancid.
12.Grape seed oil, suitable for cooking at high temperatures. Also used as a
salad oil, and in cosmetics.
13.Hemp oil, a high quality food oil.
14.Kapok seed oil, used as an edible oil, and in soap production.
15.Kenaf Seed oil a fibre plant similar to Hemp.
16.Lallemantia oil, from the seeds of Lallemantia iberica, discovered at
archaeological sites in northern Greece.
17.Marula oil, extracted from the kernel of Sclerocarya birrea. Used in the
food and cosmetic industry, it has strong antioxidant and moisturising
18.Meadowfoam seed oil, highly stable oil, with over 98% long-chain fatty
acids. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications.
19.Mustard oil (pressed), used in India as a cooking oil. Also used as a
20.Nutmeg butter, extracted by expression from the fruit of cogeners of genus
Myristica. Nutmeg butter has a large amount of trimyristin. Nutmeg oil, by
contrast, is an essential oil, extracted by steam distillation.
21.Okra seed oil (Hibiscus seed oil), from the seed of the Hibiscus
esculentus. Composed predominantly of oleic and linoleic acids. The
greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor.
22.Papaya seed oil.
23Perilla seed oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids. Used as an edible oil, for
medicinal purposes, in skin care products and as a drying oil
24.Pequi oil, extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense. Used in
Brazil as a highly prized cooking oil.
25.Pine nut oil. An expensive food oil, from pine nuts, used in salads and
as a condiment.
26.Poppyseed oil, used for cooking, moisturizing skin, in paints and
varnishes, and in soaps.
27.Prune kernel oil, marketed as a gourmet cooking oil.
28.Quinoa oil, similar in composition and use to corn oil.
29.Ramtil oil, pressed from the seeds of the one of several species of genus
Guizotia abyssinica (Niger pea) in India and Ethiopia. Used for both
cooking and lighting.
30.Rice bran oil, suitable for high temperature cooking. Widely used in
31.Royle oil, pressed from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis, a wild, edible oil
shrub that grows in the higher Himalayas. Used medicinally in Nepal.
32.Sacha Inchi oil, from the Peruvian Amazon. High in omega-3 and omega-6
33.Tea seed oil (Camellia oil), widely used in southern China as a cooking
oil. Also used in making soaps, hair oils and a variety of other products.
34.Thistle oil, pressed from the seeds of Silybum marianum. Relatively
unstable. Also used for skin care products
35.Tigernut oil (or nut-sedge oil) is pressed from the tuber of Cyperus
esculentus. It has properties similar to soybean, sunflower and rapeseed
It is used in cooking and making soapand has potential as a
36.Tomato seed oil. High in unsaturated fats and lysine. Potentially useful
as a protein supplement.
37.Wheat germ oil, used as a dietary supplement, and for its "grainy"
flavor. Also used medicinally. Highly unstable.