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Strawberry production in world A Book Written by Mr Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Specialist KPK Pakistan

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Strawberry production in world A Book Written by Mr Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Specialist KPK Pakistan

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Strawberry production in world A Book Written by Mr Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Specialist KPK Pakistan

  1. 1. 1 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Strawberry the World’s Healthiest Food by Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Specialist KPK Pakistan Author Mr. Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Expert Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Peshawar Pakistan
  2. 2. 2 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Strawberry the World’s Healthiest Food by Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Specialist KPK Pakistan 1. Strawberry Plant Etymology There is some disagreement as to how the strawberry plant got its name. It is generally accepted that the English word “strawberry” comes from the Old English “streawberige” or the Anglo-Saxon “streoberie” (sometimes also spelled “strawberries”). Regardless, it was not spelled in the modern fashion until about 1538. It is likely that the straw that was traditionally used as mulch and to keep the weeds out and berries clean gave rise to the name. However, some argue that the straw-like appearance of the strawberry plant runners led to its current English name. The genus name under which the strawberry falls, Fragaria, derives from the Latin word for strawberry, “fraga.” And, “fraga” itself is a derivative of “fragum,” which means “fragrant” and accurately characterizes the olfactory sensation that characterizes freshly plucked strawberry fruits! 2. Origin of strawberry Prior to the relatively recent development of F. X ananassa, wood strawberries (F. vesca) and Musky strawberries (F. moschata) were cultivated in Europe and Russia for centuries. Though strawberries have ancient origins, most of the earliest varieties were small, hard, and inedible. In ancient Greece, for example, strawberries grew wild. The Romans didn’t pay much attention to the fruit either, though they believed it symbolized the love goddess Venus on account of its shape and color. A few healers during this century prescribed strawberries to treat a range of ailments from fainting, liver ailments, to bad breath. The fruit continued growing relatively unnoticed, and the earliest illustration of the berry was in 1454. It was only until 1750 that the best known strawberry cultivar came about by sheer accident: According to the book, “Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species,” a variant from Chile was placed next to a North American
  3. 3. 3 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK variant in a European home garden. The result was the delicious variety enjoyed by millions today. 3. History of strawberry Strawberries that were originally grown in northern parts of Europe were also found in different parts of Russia, Chile and United States. Strawberries are also thought to have been cultivated in ancient Rome in large scale for medicinal purposes. During the 13th century, France also cultivated strawberries for its medicinal purpose. The roots, fruits and leaves of Alpine strawberry were widely used in these countries to make medicine that were used to cure digestive problems and skin diseases. Berry was used internally to cure diarrhea. Its leaves and roots were used for gout. Over the years strawberries were used for treating skin rashes, sun burn, discoloration of teeth and digestive disorders. In 13th century, strawberry was widely used as an aphrodisiac. Strawberry is found in different parts of the world and this heart-shaped fruit of love had been mentioned by the Roman Poets Virgil and Ovid in the first century and in England gardeners had cultivated strawberries since the sixteenth century Strawberries have grown wild for millennia in temperature regions throughout the world. While cultivation of strawberries doesn't date back this far, it still dates back hundreds and hundreds of years. It was not until the 18th century, however, when cultivation of strawberries began to be pursued in earnest. In 1714, a French engineer sent to Chile and Peru to monitor Spanish activities in these countries "discovered" a strawberry native to this region that was much larger than those grown in Europe. He brought many samples back to France, which were subsequently planted. These plants did not originally flourish well until a natural crossbreeding occurred between this species and a neighboring North American strawberry variety that was planted nearby in the field. The result was a hybrid strawberry that was large, juicy and sweet, and one that quickly grew in popularity in Europe. The strawberry, like many other perishable fruits at this time, remained a luxury item only enjoyed by the wealthy until the mid-19th century. Once railways were built and more rapid means of transportation established, strawberries were able to be shipped longer distances and were able to be enjoyed by more people. Today, using a commonplace, layperson's definition of the word "berry," the strawberry has become the most popular berry fruit in the world. (In technical scientific terms, this distinction would go to bananas, since their seeds and pulp produced from a single ovary, and that characteristic is used to classify berries versus non-berries. In fact, when considered from a technical scientific standpoint, strawberries are not berries
  4. 4. 4 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK at all, but rather "accessory fruits" in which the delicious substance that we eat is not directly produced from the ovary. But for most of us, despite these technical scientific distinctions, strawberries count as some of the best berries ever!) 4. Botany of strawberry The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae and the fruit of these plants. There are more than 20 named species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the Garden strawberry, Fragaria ananassa.. Strawberries are low-growing herbaceous plants with a fibrous root system and a crown from which arise basal leaves. The leaves are compound, typically with three leaflets, saw tooth-edged, and usually hairy. The flowers, generally white, rarely reddish, are borne in small clusters on slender stalks arising, like the surface- creeping stems, from the axils of the leaves. As a plant ages, the root system becomes woody, and the “mother” crown sends out runners (e.g., stolon’s) that touch ground and root, thus enlarging the plant vegetatively. Botanically, the strawberry fruit is considered an “accessory fruit” and is not a true berry. The flesh consists of the greatly enlarged flower receptacle and is embedded with the many true fruits, or achenes, which are popular . 5. Importance of strawberry The berries are non-fat and low in calories, rich in vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, fiber, and vitamin B6. Over history the strawberries have been used in medicines. They have been used for sunburn, discolored teeth, digestion, and gout. As far back as the 13th century, the Strawberry was used as ananaphrodisiac. Strawberry, Fragaria ananasa is known as the most delicious and refreshing fruit. Strawberry, which has great dietetic value, is one of the potential sources of vitamin C, protein,
  5. 5. 5 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK fates and carbohydrates; according to agriculture experts. Strawberry culture is quite profitable for small land owners. The strawberry fruit is soft and perishable and its quality is affected when it touches the soil The fruit is commercially consumed both in fresh form and can be preserved for making Jam, Jellies and squashes that can be used in off-season. 6. Aggregate Fruit Technically, the strawberry is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from thereceptacle that holds the ovaries.[4] Each apparent "seed" (achene) on the outside of the fruit is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. 7. Fruit cluster. Primary berries are not only the largest and first to ripen; they have the most seeds. Secondary berries ripen next and are the next largest in size. Tertiary berries ripen still later and are the third largest. Quaternary berries are the smallest (generally unmarketable) and ripen last . Development of the fruit from open blossom to ripeness takes 20 to 30 days, depending on weather conditions. 8.The Anatomy of a Strawberry Plant As with any biological organism, the anatomy of a strawberry plant can be quite complex, depending on how deeply you delve into the microscopic world. For the sake of this page, a basic overview is presented. There are five basic anatomical structures that make up a strawberry plant’s being. They are the leaf, root system, crown, stolon (more commonly called a “runner”), and daughter strawberry plant. See the labeled strawberry plant picture below:
  6. 6. 6 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 9. Ten Strawberry top Producing Countries in world 2016 Rank Area Production (Int $1000) Production (MT) 1 United States of America 1855196 1366850 2 Mexico 489198 360426 3 Turkey 479354 353173 4 Spain 393475 289900 5 Egypt 328864 242297 6 Republic of Korea 260787 192140 7 Japan 251096 185000 8 Russian Federation 236166 174000 9 Germany 211502 155828 10 Poland 203796 150151 10. Highest strawberry producing country in the world
  7. 7. 7 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK United States of America has topped in the list of strawberry producing countries on the planet around 1,312,000 tons yearly creation. These have cancer prevention agents which decrease the impact of infections on human body. It creates 27 percent strawberries of the entire world. Mexico, Turkey, Spain, Egypt, Republic of Korea and Japan have additionally the big part in world strawberry production. 11. Strawberry Production in Pakistan Strawberry is well-known as the most appetizing and very nutritive fruit. According to agricultural experts, it has enormous dietetic value and one of the potential sources of protein, carbohydrates, fats and vitamin. In Pakistan, it is consumed in fresh form as well as in processed form for making squashes, jams and jellies which may use throughout the year. Main varieties of strawberry which are cultivated in Pakistan are Douglas and Toro appropriate for southern areas of Pakistan whereas Chandler, Cruz Pocahontas and Tufts are suitable for Islamabad and Honeyo, Chandler, Gorella and Corona are recommended for Swat however It is mainly growing in northern areas of the country like Swat, Charsadda, Mansehra, Haripur, Abbottabad, Mardan, Peshawar and some parts of central and south Pakistan like Gujrat, Sialkot, Jhelum, Chakwal, Multan and Karachi. 12. Wild Strawberry in Pakistan
  8. 8. 8 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Wild straw berry are growing in the hills of Gilgit, Chitral, Kaghan, Kohitan, Mansehra, Battagram, Shangla, Dir Malakand, Abbott bad, Murree and Kashmir. Fragaria vesca plants grow to around 0.3 m (1 ft) high, short, woody stems and a basal rosette of compound leaves, with 3 coarsely toothed leaflets around 6 cm (2.5 in) long. The plants are characterized by long arching runners or stolon, which form new plantlets at the tip, and that allow them to reproduce vegetatively as well as by seed. The small, white, 5-parted flowers, 1.25 to 2 cm (0.5 to 0.75 in), occur in small clusters. The strawberries formed in the wild, uncultivated types are quite small, 1 to 2 cm (0.25 to 0.75 in) across, and generally ripen to red (although there is a white form). 13 .A study about Nutrition A study by Dr. Gene Spiller from Nutrition and Health Research Center has shown that eating one serving (about 8-10 strawberries) a day can significantly decrease blood pressure, which may reduce the risk of heart disease. Pakistan is producing a limited quantity of strawberries which are either eaten or used in preparing ice- cream, jam, jelly, pickle, cake or milk shake. Strawberries are no exception to this rule; in addition to antioxidants, they have many other nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that contribute to overall health. These include folate, potassium, manganese, dietary fiber, and magnesium. It is also extremely high in vitamin C Together; these components are responsible for the overwhelming health benefits of strawberries. Let’s explore them in more detail in the section below. 14.Nutritional Analysis Nutritional composition (per 100 gram edible portion Strawberry Water (%) 90 Calories 37 Protein (%) 1.4
  9. 9. 9 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Fat (%) 0.7 Carbohydrates (%) 8 Crude fiber (%) 1.5 % of US RDA* Vitamin A 1.2 Thiamin, B1 2.1 Riboflavin, B2 4.4 Niacin 3.3 Vitamin C 131 Calcium 2.6 Phosphorus 2.6 Iron 10 Sodium <1 Potassium 3.5 15. Health Benefits of strawberry 1. Prevent Esophageal Cancer: Research shows that within six months, drinking water mixed with freeze-dried strawberry powder has been able to significantly reduce 80% of developing cancer cells within the esophagus’s of rats, and is projected to have consistent results in human esophageal cancer as well. 2. Combat Arthritis and Gout: Filled with antioxidants and detoxifying agents, strawberries can efficiently aid to eradicate inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and gout forever. This fruit has compounds, which relieve pain and inflammation associated with these ailments caused by free radicals that exist within the body. A recent study depicted that women who ate more 16 or more strawberries per week had much lower inflammation levels. They were also 14% less likely to have elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) within their blood, which indicates high inflammation. 3. Healthy Digestion & Stored Fat Burning: Since they are filled with fiber, strawberries maintain regularity and clarify the intestines. Anthocyanins, the red-hued antioxidant in strawberries, cause stored fat to be burned much quicker than compared to ingesting foods without it. Nitrate, also
  10. 10. 10 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK present in this super fruit, encourages oxygen and the flow of blood within the body; this in turn inspires weight loss. 4. Packed With Folic Acid: These super berries provide your body with folate, an essential type of folic acid found within food. Without a sufficient amount of this B vitamin, you may be susceptible to conditions such as vascular disease, atherosclerosis, and a decline in cognitive function. 5. Promote Bone Health: Strawberries contain potassium, magnesium, vitamin K and which are important for strengthening your bones. 6. Lower Cardiovascular Disease: Flavonoids reduce our risk of for heart disease and hypertension by lowering LDL cholesterol. A study shows that those who eat three or more servings of these berries were able to decrease their risk of a heart attack by 32%. 7. Huge Immune System Boost: Strawberries have a surplus of Vitamin C (about 113% of recommended daily intake) which is more than enough of that your body needs to reap the benefits. When consuming vitamin C during stressful situations, it actually has the ability to decrease blood pressure to a normal level, preventing the development of hypertension. 8. Increase Brain Function: Free radicals are to blame when it comes to signs of aging and many other problems within the human body. They specifically cause brain tissue to decline and neurotransmitters to become much weaker. However, vitamin C and phytonutrients in strawberries counteract some of these conditions when ingested regularly. Iodine, which is another nutrient strawberry is abundant in, maintains proper nervous system and brain function. Anthocyanins also have the ability to improve short-term memory drastically. 9. Wrinkle Eliminator: Along with biotin, which is necessary in maintaining durable hair and nails, strawberries also contain the antioxidant ellagic acid, which defends flexible fibers in our skin and allows it to appear youthful. 10.Battle High Blood Pressure: Potassium, a vasodilator, and magnesium efficiently reduce high blood pressure, which can be spiked by sodium intake among other risk factors such as diet. Consuming strawberries
  11. 11. 11 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK regularly not only helps prevent hypertension, but also maintains healthy oxygen levels by enabling consistent blood flow throughout the body. 11.Eye Care: The primary reasons for almost all problems related to the eyes are free radicals or a deficiency of certain nutrients. With increased age and a lack of these protective nutrients, the harmful oxidants or free radicals can cause heavy damage on our eyes, such as excessively dry eyes, degeneration of the optical nerves, macular degeneration, vision defects and increased susceptibility to infections as well. 12.Strawberry a great source of fibre. Strawberries are high in fibre, which is important for moving food through your digestive system and helping bowel movements. This can help improve digestion, especially for those with constipation or irregular stools. 13.Straw berry have more than enough vitamin C. Strawberries contain more than 100 percent of our daily recommended intake of vitamin C in just one cup. Recent studies show that when vitamin C is consumed during times of stress, it actually has the ability to decrease our blood pressure to a normal level, preventing the development of hypertension — especially in kids 14.Strawberry are high in antioxidants. Strawberries contain anthrocyanin, which is a powerful antioxidant that protects us from the damaging effects of our environment, especially the sun. The antioxidant power of the anthrocyanins found in strawberries lasts up to 24 hours after consumption; this makes them a great defense against free radical damage. 15.Anti-pigmentation: Strawberry fruit extract, being rich in ellagic acid, helps to lighten hyperpigmentation caused by UV rays by inhibiting the synthesis of melanin, the chemical that imparts color to your skin. 16.Anti-acne: Being rich in Vitamin C, Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA), salicylic acid and flavonoids, strawberry is effective in clearing acne and reducing oil. All you need to do is mash ½ cup of sliced strawberries with 1 tablespoon sour
  12. 12. 12 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK cream and apply it on your face for 10 minutes. This will clear the acne as well as blemishes. 17. Weight Loss: Strawberries are low in sugar, calories and sodium, and fat-free. The natural sugars contained in strawberries are extremely low with 4 grams per serving. They also contain nitrates which promote blood flow and oxygen throughout the body, resulting in weight loss. Nitrates also prevent the muscles from becoming too tired after exercise. 16. Fruit formation in strawberry The strawberry is an accessory fruit, since the edible portion is non-ovarian in origin (it is largely swollen receptacle tissue). The true fruits which contain the seed of the strawberry are achenes, which are similar to tiny sunflower seeds. The achenes are the numerous, tiny, ellipsoid specks that cover the fruit surface. Fruit mature rapidly; ripening occurs in 20 to 50 days after pollination. 18.Value-added products of strawberry Strawberry is a very versatile fruit is used in many delicious drinks, desserts, juice, smoothies, sundaes, shortcake, ice-cream, strawberry cheese cake, jam and a host of other mouthwatering combinations that stimulate the senses Strawberries lend themselves to purees, jams, concentrates, pastries, yogurt, and other processed commodities. Local specialty products offer potential for niche marketing, especially where there is access to tourists or a large population center. 19. Agro-climatic requirements Strawberry grows well under temperate climate. Some cultivars can be grown in sub- Tropical climate. Daylight period of 12 hrs. or less and moderate temperature are important for flower-bud formation. Each cultivar has a different day length and Temperature requirement.Strawberry thrives best in temperate climate. It is a short day plant, which requires exposure to about 10 days of less than 8 hours sunshine for initiation of flowering. In winter, the plants do not make any growth and remain dormant. The exposure to low temperature during this period helps in breaking
  13. 13. 13 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Dormancy of the plant. In spring when the days become longer and he temperature rises. The plants resume growth and begin flowering. The varieties Grown in milder subtropical climate do not require chilling and continue to make some growth during winter Sandy loam to loamy soil with pH 5.7-6.5 is ideal for Cultivation. At higher pH root formation is poor. The presence of excessive calcium in the soil causes yellowing of the leaves. In light soils and in those rich in organic matter, runner formation is better. Strawberry should not be cultivated in the same land for a number of years. It is preferable to plant it in green manure field. Alkaline soils and soils infected with nematodes should be avoided. 20.Temperature Day-neutral strawberries will flower and set strawberries whenever the temperature is in the range of 200C to 290C (350F to 850F). 290C is considered the upper limit at which day- neutral strawberries will produce flowers. When temperatures descend gradually the plant can tolerate even temperatures as low as -60C (210F), but it will die when temperatures fall to -120C (100F). When flowers are developing at sub- optimal temperatures they will develop in an irregular manner, with a much lower number of stamen, and those that are existent will produce markedly less pollen. When the temperature falls under 100C, the existent pollen will fail to germinate, so the productivity of these plants will be decimated in that season. Because strawberries bloom very early in the spring, plantings should not be located In topographic frost pockets. Where cold air drainage is limited, the crop may be lost to late spring frosts, which can kill the flowers. Installation of frost control measures may need to be considered. Descending temperatures are one of the stimuli (together with shortening day length) pushing the differentiation of the plant apices towards its reproductive phase (production of flowers), while ascending temperatures push the differentiation of the plant apices towards its vegetative phase (production of stolons).
  14. 14. 14 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 21.Relative humidity (RH) Development and spread of powdery mildew is favored by moderate to high relative humidity and temperatures of about 150C to 270C (600F to 800F). Unlike most other fungi that cause plant disease, powdery mildew does not require free water for spores to germinate and infect. In dry years, when most other diseases are not a problem, powdery mildew can represent a very serious danger. Development of Angular leaf spot (bacterial blight) is favored by moderate to cool daytime temperatures around 200C (680F), a low night-time temperature (near or just below freezing), and high relative humidity. High RH also has a deleterious effect on the opening of the pollen sacs of the stamen. It is highly important, therefore, to enable good aeration of the plants growing in protected structures during the flowering season. 22. Soil Requirement for strawberry Sandy loam or light clay soils are best. There should be no heavy clay or rock within 300 mm of the surface. On sandy soils, it is difficult to maintain the supply of water and nutrients the plants need. Heavy clay soils stay too wet after rain, increasing the risk of disease and reducing yields. 23. Soil salinity and alkalinity Strawberry plants are extremely sensitive to salinity, especially at the transplant stage. Highly alkaline soils can occur in bands or patches throughout a field. This can cause yellowing or chlorosis of the plants, a condition that can lead to significant yield losses or complete plant die-back 24. Soil surface drainage The surface drainage system must permit water to move away from the field quickly and completely. Water standing on the strawberry field for even a day or two will injure plants, especially during the intensive growth period. 25. Internal soil drainage Poorly drained sites should be avoided. On sites with certain contours, such as dips, ridges and slopes, poor drainage can cause "yellowing" in strawberries. This condition can significantly reduce yields. On sites where drainage is a problem, the use of clay- or plastic-drainage tile could be considered. Raised beds, 20 cm (8 inches) high and 30 cm to 60 cm (2 to 3 feet) wide are recommended and should be maintained over the life of the planting. Application of perlite and working it into the soil will enhance good drainage.
  15. 15. 15 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 26. Terrain slope Strawberries should ideally be planted on slightly inclined slopes, especially if they face east or south-east (in the northern hemisphere).Strawberries require cultivation, so avoid planting them on steep slopes. Plantings on 10% to15% slopes are likely to erode, with some plants being buried and others washed out of the soil. If sloping sites must be used, run rows across the slope or on the contour and use a wide row width. 27. Previous and neighboring crops Strawberries should not be planted in soils where strawberries, raspberries, vine crops, alfalfa, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, beans, carrot, okra or sod have been grown in any of the previous four years, unless the soil has been fumigated. Such sites are likely to contain disease and insect pests that may attack plants. The fungus diseases black root rot and verticillium wilt, which have attacked the above crops, build up in the soil. These diseases reduce the productivity of strawberry plants. Likewise, sites that are heavily infested with sedge, nutgrass, quackgrass, Johnson grass, and thistles should be avoided or treated prior to planting to destroy these chronic weeds. Fumigation should be considered if a long- term rotation that excludes the host crops is not feasible. Sites surrounded by natural bush stands may contain native strawberry plants. These plants can harbor insects, diseases and viral pathogens that may infect cultivated strawberry stands. To maintain good sanitation, it may be necessary to kill native strawberry stands within 400 m (1,300 feet) of commercial strawberry fields. 28. Land Selection Strawberries can be grown on a variety of soils. Choose a well-drained site that receives plenty of sun and is close to an irrigation source. The slope of the site should be no greater than 12 percent. The term "well drained" refers to drainage through the soil profile. A sloping site is not necessarily well drained. Strawberries need at least 8 hours of full sun each day. The land with high organic matter having pH 5.5 to 6.0. Silty Loam land would be the best land for strawberry cultivation 29. Land Preparation
  16. 16. 16 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK The soil is ploughed during summer with a soil turning plough which is followed by repeated ploughing to make soil friable, remove weeds and stubbles. Soil fumigation with a mixture of methyl bromide and chloropicrin helps to increase root system, reduce fertilizer requirement and control the weeds 30. Plant right. Be sure to set the plants so that their roots are well covered with soil but the central growing bud, or crown, is exposed to light and fresh air. This is very important: If you bury the crown, the plant could easily rot. Follow spacing guidelines found on the plant’s stick tag. After planting, water well and add mulch. Any type of mulch – from black plastic to pine straw to shredded leaves – will help keep the soil moist and the plants clean. 31.Varieties cultivated Strangely, strawberry varieties have origins all over the world. Some come from the Himalayas; others from Europe. Other types have points of origin from Japan, China, North America, and the Kurile Islands. Important strawberry varieties cultivated in Pakistan are Chandler,pajaro, Cardinal , Noor, Duglus, , Tuftus, Karoz, , commander, corona Chandler Fruit is of exceptionally high dessert quality with outstanding color and flavour. It is very resistant to physical damages caused by rain. Plants are tolerant to viruses. Fruits are large, flesh and skin firm and flavour excellent. It is suitable for fresh market and processing. On an average, berry weights 15-18 g. The fruits have good TSS (12%), acidity (0.85%), vitamin C (55.5mg/100g) and sugar content (6.1%).
  17. 17. 17 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Pajaro It is very successful under summer system. Plant tolerant to virus. Fruit has good dessert and processing quality. Fruit is quite susceptible to physical damage caused by rain. Fruits large flesh very firm, skin firm, red color, average berry weighs 7.6g, TSS 12.2%, acidity 0.97% and sugars 5.5% Douglas' has a sweet-tart flavor as well as a solid texture that makes it good for shipping. Cardinal Strawberries Cardinal strawberry plants produce very large fruits. Additionally, Cardinal strawberries are very sweet, making them a favorite item on any table. Cardinal strawberry plants are June-bearing, and they produce their harvest over the span of 2 to 3 weeks during Midseason . The best time to pick Cardinal strawberries is after the very tip of the fruit has turned red. At this point, the strawberry will be red throughout with full flavor. At maturity, Cardinal strawberries are red and firm with a glossy appearance. They are excellent for processing, very good for freezing, good for fresh eating, and fair as a shipping berry in a commercial operation. Cardinal strawberry plants produce a high yield. This characteristic along with its taste and firmness make Cardinal strawberries one of the ideal choices for pick-your-own or U-pick farm. Good runner production. Moderately resistant to powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) but susceptible to wilt (Verticillium dahliae) and crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum). Planting 32 .Planting of strawberry Ordinarily, strawberries are propagated from runner plants grown by large commercial growers. The sale of runner plants is frequently a sideline business which supplements the main income from the fruit. The best strawberry transplants are less than a year old. A good transplant should have an extensive fibrous root system, seven or eight inches in length. This type of root system usually develops best in rather loose sandy soil. Such soil also facilitates
  18. 18. 18 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK digging the plants and cleaning the roots for packaging Season Sowing was undertaken during the first week of November. The roots of the runner should be dipped in fungicides solution 34. Transplanting. Strawberry plants may be set by mechanical transplanters or by hand. Soil should be worked to a depth of 6 to 8 inches before planting and should contain adequate moisture. If plants are not in plastic bags, the roots must be kept moist. White, secondary roots are killed in less than a minute in hot, dry air. Therefore, it is best to plant on a cool, cloudy, still day, if possible. Plants should be soaked in water prior to transplanting to insure the best water status for establishment. Mechanical vegetable transplanters increase the speed of planting when more than an acre of plants are to be set. Special care should be taken to insure that plants are set at the proper depth (Figure 4). Do not bend or twist roots during planting. Transplanters may set plants better when roots are trimmed to 5 to 6 inches and a deep furrow is opened. It is important to have one person follow the planter to insure that plants are set correctly and to fill in any that are missing. 33 .Planting
  19. 19. 19 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 35. Plant at the Right Depth Most strawberry plants are sold as crowns; a mop of roots attached to a central growing tip. You can find potted strawberry plants, but they’ll be much more expensive than crowns and you won’t gain any time by planting them.It’s very important that the crown be planted slightly above the soil line. For each plant, dig a hole 2 - 3 in. deep and wide enough to allow the roots to be fanned out in a circle. Then mound the soil in the center of the hole so that the crown is sitting just above the soil level.Fill the hole and then water it well. Soil has a tendency to sink as it settles, so check that the crown is still above the soil surface level. If not, make adjustments and plant the rest of the plants a bit higher. 36. Care of young Plantation The roots of strawberry plants spread out close to the surface. Therefore, the soil should be well supplied with moisture, and hoeing should be done lightly and young plantation be kept weed free. 37. Thinning Plants.
  20. 20. 20 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK For best production, do not have too many plants in the rows. A heavy plant stand should be dimmed enough to allow newly formed plants to be about 5 to 6 inches apart. Extensive hand thinning is not practical on large plantings. 38. Pinch the Blooms Pinch off any blooms that form during the first growing season. This allows the plant to focus its energy on developing runners. A runner is a shoot that grows out from the main plant and develops into a second plant. This creates a thick, vigorous row of strawberry plants. 39. Method of Planting (Spacing) Strawberries in the ground should be planted in double rows with soil mounded into raised beds the cultivation was taken on a ridge. The distance between rows was two feet to two and half feet and plant to plant it was 4-6 inches. Total plant population maintained was 35,000 per acre. 40. Inter-cropping Fruit growers often find it economically beneficial to grow strawberries between the rows of young fruit trees until they become of bearing age. Such intercropping is well justified so long as the strawberries do not interfere with the culture of the tree fruits, which represent a much greater investment. Usually it is not wise to plant strawberries closer than six to eight feet to tree fruits. Otherwise they are likely to interfere with cultural operations for the trees and may
  21. 21. 21 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK compete for water and nutrient materials in the soil. Often the trees suffer more than the strawberries. 41.Mulching Mulching is necessary in June bearing varieties to protect flower buds from temperatures below 15' F and to protect crowns from heaving damage. A three- to five-inch layer of straw mulch be applied after a few hard frosts, usually in late November or early December . 42. Frost Protection/Winterizing Keep in mind, however, that strawberry growers tend to over emphasize the importance of fertilizers and underestimate the importance of water. Yields are more frequently reduced from lack of water, poor soil drainage, and poor soil physical properties than from a lack of fertilizer. 43 .Flowering time
  22. 22. 22 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Flowering starts depending upon the season and time of sowing in the month of February and March it has been observed the bee hives are increasing the cross pollination and increase production .It takes 30 to 30 days from flowering to fruiting depending on variety and season 44.Pollinaion Strawberry is mostly self-pollinated, and under field conditions, self-pollination is supplemented with natural agents like wind, honey bees, and other insects. 1. Let the insects do the work for you. This is actually the best method of strawberry pollination. Insects, especially bees, will find and pollinate strawberry flowers quite effectively. Planting your strawberry patch where it will receive the most attention from the creepy-crawly-flying thingies is a great idea. Remember, the more pollination that occurs, the bigger your strawberries and your overall yield. What is fascinating is that insect diversity actually matters. Domesticated honey bees will focus their fertilization on the top of the flower while wild species of bees typically fertilize more heavily around the base of the flower. Each fly or butterfly or beetle that comes sniffing around will also fertilize the strawberry (albeit less effectively) by spreading pollen around. In short, insect diversity matters. You want the biggest and best strawberries? Let the bugs flock forth to do their strawberry pollination.
  23. 23. 23 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 2. Let the wind do it. Even gentle breezes are sufficient to transfer the pollen a few millimeters from stamen to pistil. So, even in the absence of bugs (like an a hydroponic set up or a bug-free window sill), strawberry pollination can still occur. However, wind or breezes often won’t do a great job. So, you will probably end up with fertilized strawberries (at least a few), but you might be disappointed with the overall haul. 3. You do it. The tiny motes of pollen that can be found on the stamens of strawberry flowers are not picky. Being as small and light as they are, they are transferred around rather easily. Brushing the outer edge of flower with your finger (gently!) to move pollen into the center of the flower is an easy and quick way to pollinate your strawberries. More effective is using a fibrous or small-bristled utensil to brush/collect pollen from multiple flowers and “paint” them onto the pistils of multiple flowers. A makeup brush, fine-bristled paint brush, or a q-tip that has the cotton teased out on one end all will work. Benefits of Strawberry Pollination 1. Heavy pollination increases the overall yield of strawberry plants. 2. Cross pollination leads to decreased deformations and an overall higher-quality aesthetic. 3. Cross pollination results in larger overall strawberries than self-pollination or same-variety pollination. Remember, insect diversity also matters. Get as many good bugs to visit your plants as possible! 4. Natural strawberry pollination increases commercial viability also. Bee pollination results in brighter and redder berries, which are more pleasing to customers. Natural pollination also improves quality by reducing spoilage. To quantify, studies show that bee pollination results in 39% greater value than wind pollination and a whopping 54% greater value than self-pollination.
  24. 24. 24 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 45. Soil Testing. A soil test should be made at least a year in advance of planting to determine the soil acidity (lime requirement), nutrient levels, and nematode populations. If lime is required to raise the soil pH to 6.0 to 6.5 before planting, it should be applied 1 year in advance. Other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium should be applied prior to planting 46. Fertilizing Strawberry Plants Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other soil nutrients are required for vigorous crown and runner development. Soil tests will identify the nutrient needs. Generally phosphorus, potassium, and part of the nitrogen should be applied at or before planting. On most soils and under most conditions strawberry plants will be benefited by the application of commercial fertilizers, particularly by nitrogen, during the first growing season 47. Controlling Weeds Weeds must be kept down in the strawberry bed but any hoeing must be very shallow to avoid root damage: it is better to use paraquat / diquat weed killer as much as possible, being very careful not to let it touch the leaves of the strawberry plants. A weed eradication programme one year prior to planting is recommended if perennial weeds are a problem. Herbicides, mechanical control methods, and a green manure smother crop can be used effectively. Consult herbicide labels to avoid potential carry-over problems for the new strawberry planting. Preplan harrowing of a prepared field will reduce weed populations. 48. Water Requirements for Growing Strawberries Sprinkler irrigation is crucial to prevent frost damage in June bearing varieties after the mulch is removed in early spring. Irrigate whenever the air temperature drops below 34' F. Apply 0. 1 inch of water per hour with one sprinkler head revolution per minute. Sprinkler irrigation should protect flowers and developing fruit down to 20' F. Spring frost protection is unnecessary during the planting year in day-neutral strawberries because the flowers are usually removed until the danger of frost is
  25. 25. 25 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK past. Frost protection may, however, be desired in the fall to extend the harvest season. Day-neutral strawberries require more careful irrigation and water management than June-bearing strawberries, especially on raised beds. During the summer apply 0.75 to 1.5 inches of water per week depending on the weather, soil type, and effectiveness of mulch in preventing evaporation. Use trickle irrigation with plastic mulch to ensure sufficient water in the root zone. Overhead irrigation may be used with straw or other organic mulches. Fertilizer can be applied through the irrigation system. Higher levels of certain nutrients such as nitrogen may be needed if trickle irrigation is used because of increased leaching through the soil profile 32 49. Protecting Your Growing Strawberries A. Insects of strawberries i) Root-feeding Pests The most common root-feeding pests of strawberries in Illinois include the strawberry crown borer, Tyloderma fragariae, the strawberry root weevil, Otiorhynchus ovatus, and white grubs in the genus Phyllophaga. Other below ground pests, including the strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae and strawberry root aphid, Aphis forbesi, are rarely economically important in Illinois. Although the crown borer, root weevil and grubs are all members of the insect order Coleoptera (the beetle and weevils) their life histories differ considerably 1.Strawberry Crown Borer (Tyloderma fragariae) These strawberry plant pests are about 1/5 of an inch long and have three spots on their wing covers. They are flightless weevils that feed on strawberry plant crowns to open holes, into which they then lay their eggs through the middle of June. The hatched larva will bore into the crowns causing damage to the growing strawberry plant. The grubs will form a pupa and subsequently become a weevil to feed on the plant’s leaves.
  26. 26. 26 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 2.Strawberry Root Weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus) Root weevils are about 1/3 of an inch long and have wing covers distinguished by many rows of small pits. Adult weevils will lay eggs into the soil. Hatched larvae will burrow through the soil and feed on the roots and crowns of a nearby strawberry plant causing damage or death. The adult weevils will feed on the leaves. 3.White Grubs (Phyllophaga)
  27. 27. 27 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK White grubs range from 1/2 to 1 inch and eventually become the large May or June beetles (also called “June bugs”) common to many parts of the United States. The grubs burrow into the soil and overwinter twice before taking beetle form. Consequently, the grubs can do damage to the roots of strawberry plants for multiple years as they feed. ii) Foliage-feeding Pests The foliage-feeding pests of strawberries in Illinois include leafrollers (strawberry leafroller and others), the strawberry rootworm and two mite species—the two- spotted spider mite and the cyclamen mite. This summary reviews the life histories of these pests and the practices that can be used for their management. 1.Strawberry Rootworm (Paria fragariae) Adult beetles are shiny, oval-shaped, dark brown to black, about 1/3 of an inch long, and display four blotches on their wing covers. Adults feed on the leaves through early fall and can cover strawberry plant foliage with holes. The larvae burrow into the soil and feed on the roots 2. Strawberry Root Aphid (Aphis forbesi) Also known as the strawberry root louse, this small strawberry plant pest is about 1 mm in length, has a oval and dark bluish-green body, and has a yellowish head. They feed on the roots and crowns of strawberry plants and can be quite numerous if infestation occurs.
  28. 28. 28 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 3. Strawberry Leaf rollers (Ancylis comptana fragariae) The adult moths emerge in April or May to lay their eggs on the strawberry plant, usually on the underside of the leaflets. The translucent eggs then hatch and the larvae feed on the epidermis of the leaves, secreting silk threads as they go to tie the leaflets together. Other species of leaf rollers also feed on the strawberry plant, but none of them usually cause significant damage to the overall strawberry planting. 4.Strawberry Mites (Tetranychus urticae and Steneotarsonemus pallidus)
  29. 29. 29 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK The two-spotted spider mite and the cyclamen mite can wreak havoc on strawberry plants. The spider mites damage leaf surfaces in order to feed on sap, while the cyclamen mites feed on new, unfolding leaves and blossoms. Both will cause leaf death and drop, and the cyclamen mite causes distorted fruits. iii) Flower and Fruit-feeding Pests The common flower and fruit-feeding pests of strawberries in Illinois are the strawberry clipper, the tarnished plant bug, the strawberry sap beetle and slugs. In 1994 the eastern flower thrips, an insect that rarely causes significant losses in strawberries, appears to have caused severe damage to the crop . 1.Strawberry Clipper (Anthonomus signatus) Also known as the strawberry weevil, these pests are about 1/10 of an inch long, dark reddish-brown, and have a long and slender, curved snout. The adults feed on pollen inside the almost-mature flower, subsequently laying an egg inside the flower. They then girdle the bud to prevent opening and clip the stem so that it hangs or falls to the ground. 2.Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris)
  30. 30. 30 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Also known as the Lygus bug, these strawberry plant pests are about 1/4 of an inch long and are distinguished by a yellow “V” marking on their back just behind the head. In the spring they feed on strawberry plant flowers which results in disfigured and knobby strawberries. The feeding by Tarnished plant bugs is one of the causes of irregularly-shaped, catfaced strawberries. The insects damage fruit by puncturing and then sucking the contents of individual seeds; which stops development of the berry in the area surrounding the feeding site 3.Slugs (Agriolimax and Arion species) Slugs are very damaging garden pests that can be found throughout the country, most likely in moist and humid climates. Your garden is likely to have more slugs during a particularly rainy season. Slugs are not insects, rather, they are soft-bodied mollusks. Slugs never change, because they are members of the phylum Mollusca, along with the giant squid, the periwinkle, and the steamer clam. Unlike seagoing mollusks, the slug is equipped with a single lung. Its shell is lacking or represented only by a small plate, but it does not seem to mind. Slugs are hermaphroditic, with each individual having both male and female reproductive organs. As you would expect, their love life is complex. The common gray garden slug dances an elaborate, hour-long nuptial waltz before mating, while other species perform acrobatic movements while hanging suspended from threads of slime B.Birds It’s hard to believe something could be more of a pest than snails and slugs, but birds might just top them. They can clean out a bed in short order. The best way to avoid this is to put some type of cover over the whole bed. You can use bird nettingor row covers. Just make sure you don’t put it down while the plants are in flower or they won’t be pollinated. Wait until you see the fruits starting to form.
  31. 31. 31 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Biological Control of straw berry Pests Biological pest control is an important part of integrated pest management of greenhouse strawberry pests. We use various species of beneficial insects to control pests like the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypi), the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranichus urticae), and the western flowerthrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).
  32. 32. 32 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Coleomegilla maculata (Ladybug beetle) adults and larvae (Entomos L.L.C., FL) are used for controlling aphids and mites. C. maculata has a Life cycle of 18 days from the egg to the adult stage and adult beetles can survive for 3-6 months. The larvae can consume 10-15 aphids per day Aphidius colemani (Parasitic wasp) adults (Syngenta Inc) parasitize aphids and provide excellent control if released early in the season before the aphid populations start increasing. Life cycle from the egg to adult stage is 14 days. Adults can live for 2-3 weeks and parasitize about 100-200 aphids per day. Geocoris punctipes (Big-eyed bug) nymphs (Entomos L.L.C., FL) are used to control aphids and mites. G. punctipes has a life cycle of 30 days from the egg to the adult stage, and life span of adults is 2-4 months. They can consume about 10-15 aphids and 45-50 mites per day.
  33. 33. 33 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Orius insidiosus (Insidiosus Flower Bug) adults (Entomos L.L.C., FL) are used to control mites and thrips.O. insidiosus has a life cycle of 12 days from the egg to the adult stage. Adults can survive for 35 days and can consume about 30 mites per day. Neoseiulus californicus (predatory mite) adults (Syngenta Inc.) feed on two-spotted spider mite adults and eggs. Life cycle of N. californicus from the egg to adult stage is 1-2 weeks and they can consume one adult and a few eggs per day.
  34. 34. 34 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Bacillus thurengiensis var. israelensis is applied every two weeks through the fertilizer injectors for controlling fungus gnats. C. Diseases of strawberries There are quite a few diseases that affect strawberry plants. The strawberry plant’s leaves, roots, and fruit are all susceptible to a variety of diseases, depending on the resistance of the strawberry plant cultivar being considered. This is a summary of the most common strawberry plant diseases: 1.Powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca macularis (Wallr. Fr.) Jacz. f. sp. fragariae, Peries] infects strawberry flowers and fruits in all stages of development and is especially severe in Florida from November through March. A biofungicide called AQ-10 (Ampleomyces quisqualis) is used for controlling this disease.
  35. 35. 35 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Birds Birds will inevitably get some of your berries. Plant more than you’ll need and cover the area with close bird netting. 2. Red Stele Root Rot A strawberry plant’s roots are damaged by red stele root rot (also known as Lanarkshire disease). The disease is caused by a fungus living in the soil, and its presence is confirmed in a strawberry plant that has a red core to its roots. The fungus is particularly prevalent in the northern two-thirds of the United States. Heavy clay soils with poor drainage that remain saturated with water during cool weather are most at risk. The fungus that causes red stele root rot is Phytophthora fragariae, and, once established, can remain alive for at least thirteen years (maybe longer), regardless of crop rotation. Control: 1. Avoid poorly drained soils, plant on raised beds 2. Plant resistant cultivars
  36. 36. 36 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 3. Fungicide specific for Phytophthora (Ridomil or Aliette) 3.Strawberry Plant Leaf Spot Leaf spot is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fragariae and manifests as dark purple to reddish-purple spots on multiple parts of the strawberry plant. The round spots are usually between 1/8 and 1/4 inches in diameter and most easily seen on the leaves of an infected strawberry plant. However, the petioles, stolons, fruit stalks (pedicels), and strawberry caps (calyxes), and ripe strawberries can also be infected. The center of the spots eventually become almost white with tan or gray intermediate steps. The parts of the strawberry plant affected by this disease are the young, succulent ones. Cultural Control 1. Select site with well drained soils. 2. Maintain good plant health. 3. Avoid water stress , winter injury and herbicide injury. Chemical Control 1. Pre-plant soil fumigation is the only control
  37. 37. 37 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 4. Strawberry Plant Leaf Blight The fungus Dendrophoma obscurans (also known as Phomopsis obscurans) causes leaf blight, and it typically does its damage after harvest. One to six enlarging, elliptical or angular blemishes will develop on the leaflets and growing up to one inch in width. The spots begin with a reddish-purple color. As they enlarge, they develop a dark brown center that is surrounded by a lighter brown area with a purplish border. This fungus almost exclusively attacks weaker, slow-growing plants and usually ignores youthful runner plants. Dendrophoma obscurans can also cause a spreading, pink, soft rot at the stem end of a strawberry. 5. Strawberry Plant Leaf Scorch Leaf scorch is caused by the fungus Diplocarpon earliana, which attacks the strawberry plant’s leaves, calyxes, petioles, runners, and pedicels. In the early stages, it looks like leaf spot. Later, the lesions develop black spots as the fungal fruiting bodies are produced, but, unlike leaf spot, the centers of the lesions will remain dark purple. Strawberry plant leaves with a severe infection will shrivel and appear scorched. Rarely the fungus will infect green strawberries causing reddish brown spots or flecks to be visible on the unripe fruit. Control 1.Good resistance in many cultivars. 2.Fungicides spray if necessary
  38. 38. 38 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 6.Strawberry Gray Mold If a strawberry plant is infected by gray mold, fruit production is likely to be particularly devastated (expect 80-90% loss of both flowers and strawberries). It is caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, and wreaks havoc during rainy and cloudy periods just before or during harvest. Strawberries touching dirt, another infected or rotting strawberry, or dead leaves in dense foliage are most commonly affected. The fungus causes infections that manifest as soft, rapidly-growing spots that are light brown in color. The fruit will dry out, darken, and become covered with a dust-like, powdery layer of fungus spores, which gives the gray appearance.
  39. 39. 39 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Cultural Control 1. Good Sanitation (fungus survives in dead leaf material) 2. Management of vigor ( excess vigor leads to rank foliage and more disease pressure 3. Narrow rows on raised beds 4. Straw mulch prevents fruit from touching soil and becoming infected. Chemical Control 1. Most infections occur at bloom and fruit rot occurs as fruit ripen. Secondary spread of spores can lead to infections of ripening fruit. 2. Selected fungicides applied at bloom e.g., Elevate, Benlate, Topsin- M pluscaptan or thiram 7.Strawberry Plant Leaf Variegation Leaf variegation is a mysterious disease, and its cause is currently unknown. It also goes by many other names, including: June yellows, spring yellows, chlorosis, Blakemore yellows, and non-infectious variegation. The disease usually (but not exclusively) occurs in strawberry plants that have Howard 17 (Premier), Blakemore, or Auchincruive Climax cultivars in their plant ancestries. Affecting only flowers and leaves, the disease manifests on new leaflets in the spring as yellow or white streaks or spots and a puckering of the leaflet. While onset is unpredictable, the strawberry plant will progressively manifest worsening symptoms until it dies two to three years later as a dwarfed and unproductive shell of its former self. 8. Verticillium Wilt of the Strawberry Plant
  40. 40. 40 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Verticillium wilt is caused by a very common soil fungus called Verticillium alboatrum. For new strawberry plantings, symptoms usually manifest as new runners are being produced. Older plantings are usually affected just before harvest. Affected strawberry plants will show different symptoms depending on the cultivar, and affected plants must be tested for definitive diagnosis. The symptoms are not easily distinguished from other strawberry plant root diseases or winter injury. Once established, the fungus will likely survive for 25 years or more. 9.Leather Rot (Crown Rot) of the Strawberry Leather rot (also known as crown rot) is caused by the fungus Phytophthora cactorum and affects strawberries in poorly drained soils where there is or has been standing water. Most commonly, the fungus causes brown areas or brown outlines to form on green strawberries. The infected strawberries will have an unpleasant odor and bitter taste. Mature strawberries that are infected may look completely normal and taste terrible. Excessive rainfall in May, June, and July often create the optimal conditions for this fungal infection.
  41. 41. 41 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Control 1.Avoidance is the best control. 2. Prevent fruit contact with soils by mulching with straw between the rows 10. Strawberry anthracnose Anthracnose fruit rot appears as soft to firm brown to black spots on green fruit and dark purple spots on ripe fruit. On ripe fruit the spots enlarge rapidly until the entire fruit rots. The disease is most destructive during warm, wet weather. It may cause 50-70% fruit loss. Control 1.Plant certified disease-free plants 2. Avoid poorly drained soils, plant on raised beds 11. Viruses Viruses may stunt plant growth or cause mottling or curling of leaves. They are introduced by insects such as aphids or leafhoppers. To prevent viruses, use certified plants and control these insects.
  42. 42. 42 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK D. Nematodes Nematodes are worms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. They live in the soil and mostly feed on roots. Symptoms of nematode damage include galls on the roots or stubby, stunted roots. To avoid a buildup of nematodes, rotate plantings to a different site when establishing new beds. Foliar nematodes - Foliar nematodes do not only live on strawberries but they also occur on a large number of plant species. They are especially in the centre of the plant. At the outside of the plant they can not live very long. The leaves are deformed, scalloped, minor and have sharp points. The leafstalks are considerably thinner than they ought to be. The number of flowers is poor and sometimes the whole production of new buds is lost. The buds on the side often sprout (the plant is falling apart as it were). Stem nematodes - In contrast to foliar nematodes, stem nematodes can live for a long period of time without host plant. If a sensitive plant will be planted on infected soil, it will be attacked. If stem nematodes are involved, the attack can be best observed in spring. The leafstalks and flower stems will remain short and are strongly thickened and bumpy. The leaf rims will curl up and the leaves are covered with a bluish bloom and often strongly deformed. The flowers remain small and produce deformed fruits. The infection often occurs spot wise. To make sure about the actual presence of the infection, a soil sample is necessary Free living root nematodes - (Longidorus elongatus and Xiphinema diversicaudatum) - Both species of nematodes have an extensive series of host plants. Plants which have been attacked by root nematodes, lag behind in growth. The root system has badly developed, the roots are stunted and have swollen root tips. What is more important than this direct damage, is the carrying on of viruses. In this way strawberry plants can be infected with viruses. Root cystnematodes - (Pratylenchus penetrans) - The root cyst nematode can live on a large number of plants. For strawberries it is the most dangerous nematode species. Nematodes spend their entire life cycle in the roots of the plants. One generation will last about six or seven weeks. Attacked plants show interrupted growth, produce fewer runners and will die. As a result of this, so-called eelworm patches form in the crop. Especially on light soil this eelworm may cause damage. The development of the roots of attacked plants is far poorer. The ends of the roots are thickened and the root hair is lacking. An attacked plant is growing as it were on the soil and can be easily pulled out of the soil. Through the damaged roots fungi - for example black root rot - can penetrate into the plants. Root-knot - (Meloidogyne hapla) - This nematode can be found especially on light soil. It provides a thickening (small tuber) on the fine roots. Plants which have been seriously attacked, are strongly lagging behind in growth and are worthless for future use. So far this nematode causes hardly any problems in strawberry plants.
  43. 43. 43 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 50. Strawberry Disorders Albinism is a physiological disorder in strawberry due to lack of fruit colour during ripening. Fruits remain irregularly pink or even totally white and sometimes swollen. They have acid taste and become less form. Albino fruits are often damage during harvesting and are susceptible to Botrytis infection and decay during storage. It is probably caused by certain climatic conditions and extremes in nutrition.
  44. 44. 44 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 51. Sign of Maturity Overripe strawberries appear withered and have lost their sheen. They may have bruises emitting fermented juice or are peppered with white mold—both are indicators to avoid. Also, check the bottom of the carton as well to avoid selecting any squished fruits harmed during shipment 52. Taste of Strawberry The best strawberries are fleshy and juicy in texture; their taste is sugary, tart, mildly floral and bright yet robust. Its subdued earthy undertones suit the strawberry to Unfortunately, once strawberries are picked off the vine, they will not ripen further. When picking strawberries, it is important to choose ones that are red in color, since these will be the most ripe. Similarly, try not to pick berries that are too big because they may have less flavor. Though color is an important give away, the single best indicator when purchasing strawberries is the smell. Deliciously sweet fruits emit a floral, sweet, earthy aroma. This gauge of sweetness only works on strawberries sitting at room temperature-- chilled strawberries will not be aromatic, sweet or otherwise. Another interesting theory is that the distance of seeds on each fruit may be an indicator of ripeness. Tightly spaced seeds show that the fruit didn’t have much time to ripen before being plucked, whereas seeds far apart indicate that the fruit had time to expand and ripen fully before harvesting. Overripe strawberries appear withered and have lost their sheen. They may have bruises emitting fermented juice or are peppered with white mold—both are indicators to avoid. Also, check the bottom of the carton as well to avoid selecting any squished fruits harmed during shipment.
  45. 45. 45 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK mingle beautifully with herbs like mint and basil; its tartness, with balsamic vinaigrette. Amazingly, over 300 compounds contribute to strawberry’s unique taste. Different strawberry varieties ripen to different colors. The best test is the taste test. If the berries are sweet and juicy, they are ready to pick. For the best quality, pick berries in the morning and refrigerate them as soon as possible. 53.How to Open/Cut: Strawberries are quite simple to prepare, as they require no peeling, de-coring or de- seeding. Remove the leafy top and slice into desired pieces. As a tip, do not cut the top straight away, as this wastes fruit—instead, twist the leaves, and then use a small paring knife to remove the stem. 54.Rotations Avoid rotations with soybeans, field corn, tobacco or other crops treated with herbicides and/or plant growth regulators that could carryover and cause crop losses or significant production reductions in strawberries. Read all labels carefully for
  46. 46. 46 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK rotational restrictions. Get assistance to clear up any chemical related questions before, not after planting strawberries. 55. Straw berry and onion 56. Post Harvest handling and Marketing Strawberries are highly perishable and hence a great deal of care in harvesting and handling as well as its marketing also requires to be organized carefully. Usually the fruit is picked in the early morning and sent to the market in the afternoon of the same day or is picked in the late afternoon, stored overnight in a cool place, and sent to market the following morning 57. Harvesting and marketing
  47. 47. 47 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Proper picking, grading, and packing are as essential as good cultural practices to success. The harvest frequency and duration depend on weather conditions, varieties, soil factors, and cultural practices. Strawberries are almost entirely hand picked. As a general rule for wholesale operations, six to nine pickers are needed for one acre. 58. Yield The yield varies according to season and locality. A yield of 20 to 25 tons per hectare is excellent, though yields upto 50 tons per hectare have been reported under ideal conditions
  48. 48. 48 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 59. Grading Fruits are graded on the basis of their weight, size and colour 60.Storage Fruits can be stored in cold storage at 320C upto 10 days. For distant marketing, strawberries should be pre-cooled at 40C within 2 hrs. of harvesting and kept at the same temperature. After pre-cooling, they are shipped in refrigerated vans.
  49. 49. 49 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 61.Packing Packing is done according to the grades for long distance markets. Fruits of good quality are packed in perforated cardboard cartons with paper cuttings as cushioning material. Fruits of lower grades are packed in baskets. 62. Transportation
  50. 50. 50 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Road transport by trucks/lorries is the most convenient mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market. 63.Propagating Strawberries Propagation is done by means of runners that are formed after the blooming season. The plants may be allowed to set as many runners as possible but not allowed to set any fruits. All the plants with good root system should be utilised to set a new
  51. 51. 51 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK plantation. Given the best attention and care, a single plant usually produces 12 to 18 runners. 64.Target Market: The target customers will be wholesellers and retailers catering for household markets in Pakistan including local markets in Sukkur, Karachi, Hyderabad, and other districts of Sindh and Rahim Yar Khan in Punjab, different areas of Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 65. Prospects 66. Marketing Because they are so perishable, strawberries are well suited to roadside stand and pick-your-own operations, where time from harvest to sale can be kept to a minimum. Roadside stands (either your own or another grower's) and pick-your-own operations provide opportunities to receive relatively high prices for your strawberries, but you may have some additional expenses for advertising, building Pakistan is producing a limited quantity of strawberries which are either eaten or used in preparing ice-cream, jam, jelly, pickle, cake or milk shake. The fruit fetches Rs180 to Rs260 per kg in big cities.
  52. 52. 52 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK and maintaining a facility, and providing service to your customers. With pick-your- own operations, you save on harvest costs, but you must also be willing to accept some waste. 67.Future of Strawberry in Pakistan The wholesale price of the fruit comes down to Rs 150 per kg during the second fortnight of March when the crop production touches its peak. The per acre income from strawberry crop is estimated to Rs100, 000 per season per acre. The crop is being increased in acres year by year in places mentioned earlier in Charsadda the area is increased from 170 acres last year to 200 acres in 2010. The marketing problems are their which are to be resolved by CMPII project and the VO, s would be linked with District, Provincial and National and International Markets. The wholesale price of the fruit comes down to Rs 150 per kg during the second fortnight of March when the crop production touches its peak. The per acre income from strawberry crop is estimated to Rs100,000 per season
  53. 53. 53 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK There are a number of reasons for restricted production, like the climate, size and taste. By overcoming problems related to quality, quantity and perishability of the fruit, Pakistan can also export it to Europe, the United States and Middle Eastern countries. Its saplings can be obtained from nurseries located in Mingora and Madayen (NWFP) at a rate of ReI per unit. There is no one variety of strawberry which possesses all the desirable characteristics. Some are superior to others only because of certain characteristics. In general, the differences in tastes between different varieties are not given as much weight as in case of some other fruits. Some of its superior varieties enjoy colour that is very attractive. Its varieties grown in Pakistan are Chandelier, Corona and Stuff. These are mostly sour and small in size. 68.Preparation and serving tips To wash strawberries, dip them in cold water in a large bowl for few seconds and swish gently few times. It helps to remove any sand and insecticide/fungicide residues. Then, gently pat them dry using a paper towel or cloth. This method also helps berries bring back to normal room temperature and enriches their flavor and taste. Remove stems and caps by simply snipping off with your fingers or using a paring knife. Here are some serving tips:  Sliced fresh strawberries can be a great addition to fruit or green salad.  They can be a great snack between meals. Dried strawberry slices can be added in muffins, pie, cakes and are used in cereal flakes as a breakfast meal.  The berries are a popular addition to dairy products; as in strawberry flavored ice cream, milkshakes, smoothies, and yogurts
  54. 54. 54 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK 69. Safety profile Strawberries may cause serious allergic reactions in some sensitized individuals. Some of the most common symptoms of strawberry allergy include swelling and redness of mouth, lips and tongue ,eczema, hives, skin rash, headache, runny nose, itchy eyes, wheezing, gastrointestinal disturbances, depression, hyperactivity and insomnia. Individuals who suspect allergy to these fruits may want to avoid them
  55. 55. 55 Straw Berry Production in Pakistan Author Allah Dad Khan Agriculture specialist KPK Keep Calm and Eat Strawberry Author Mr. Allah Dad Khan Agriculture Expert Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Peshawar Pakistan

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