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Role of agriculture extension in ipm A Lecture By Mr.Allah Dad Khan Visiting Professor the university of Agriculture Peshawar

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Role of agriculture extension in ipm A Lecture By Mr.Allah Dad Khan Visiting Professor the university of Agriculture Peshawar

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Role of agriculture extension in ipm A Lecture By Mr.Allah Dad Khan Visiting Professor the university of Agriculture Peshawar

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  2. 2. Agricultural Extension role in Integrated Pest Management By Mr. Allah Dad Khan Visiting professor The University of Agriculture Peshawar
  3. 3. In this class we will learn about: Definition of Extension Importance of Extension in Ag. Development Elements for a Effective Agricultural Extension Service Alternative models in organizing Agricultural Extension in developing countries
  4. 4. 4 Agricultural research is important because: Help to improve development economic growth poverty alleviation rural development improve management of natural resources Ag research is central for boosting productivity It is the primary engine of the economic growth
  5. 5. 5 Importance of Agriculture in Economic Development Increase the supply of food for consumption Release labor for industrial employment Enlarge the size of the market for industrial output Increase the supply of domestic savings; and Earn foreign exchange Eicher and Staatz, 1998
  6. 6. 6 Definition of Extension Extension is an on-going process that have two dimensions: Communication Educational Communicate useful information to people Assist people to acquire the knowledge to use the information or technology Extension or non-formal education can be used in agriculture and non-agric. programs Swanson and Claar, 1984
  7. 7. 7 Agricultural Extension Agricultural Extension is an on-going process that Communicate useful information to the people and assist them to use the information or technology to improve the quality of their life, their families and communities. Swanson and Claar, 1984
  8. 8. 8 The Adoption Process (AKAP sequence) A: Farmer awareness K: Farmer knowledge Testing, and Experimenting A: Farmer adoption of technology or practices P: Changes in farmers’ productivity
  9. 9. 9 Conditions for a successful Agricultural Extension Service Organized Information based on accumulated knowledge and/or research, suitable for a particular environment. Information used to educate professional agriculturists. (higher education in Ag) Appropriate funds and administrative organization structure Legislative or official mandate that prescribes Agricultural Extension
  10. 10. 10 Elements for an Effective Agricultural Extension Service Extension Agent Good communication skills Good technical knowledge Teaching method Demonstration • Methods • Results • Type Supporting Funds Infrastructure
  11. 11. 11 How is Extension doing in Developing countries?
  12. 12. 12 The Many Faces of Extension in Developing Countries Because extension is a process it can be organized in different ways. Extension may be implemented by the public or private sector Public sector has more Educational purposes (broader) Private extension service main purpose is to transfer technology (narrow)
  13. 13. 13 Agricultural Extension is not a one-shot effort. It entails a continuos, long term process of contact with farmers to understand their production conditions and to guide research to develop recommendations that respond to farmers’ needs. Benor D., Harrison J. Q., Baxter M. 1984
  14. 14. 14 General Problems with Extension in Developing Countries Organization Dilution of Effort Coverage and Mobility Demonstrations Training Unspecialized Staff Lack of Ties with research Status of Extension Personnel Duplication of Services
  15. 15. 15 Who does Extension in Developing countries? Federal government trough Ministry of Agriculture conducted most of the extension work in Developing Countries But, other institutions could be involved: Private Sector Agricultural Universities Non-governmental Organizations
  16. 16. 16 Alternative Models to Organizing Extension General models Ministry-Based General Extension Training and Visit Extension (T&V) World Bank University-Based Extension Agricultural Universities (Land grant system)
  17. 17. 17 Alternative Models to Organizing Extension Extension to selected clientele Commodity based Extension Extension as a Commercial Service Participatory Extension services
  18. 18. 18 Training & Visit system Its goal was to improve Ministry based Extension system in developing countries Developed by Daniel Benor in 1970’s Supported by World Bank loans A professional system of extension based on frequently updated training of extension workers and regular field visits. (T&V)
  19. 19. 19 Commodity based Extension an example of private Extension service in Mexico Nestle Dairy Company Extension service Goal: improve quality of milk supplied to Nestle factory Extension agent: Nestle employee Clientele: small and medium dairy producers Company provides some inputs ( feed, vet medicine, as loan
  20. 20. 20 IPM is not a new philosophy. The concept has been around since the 1920’s when a cotton pest management program was developed. However, the development of inexpensive pesticides caused us to get on what is commonly referred to as the “Pesticide Treadmill”. That is, because these new pesticides were extremely effective and inexpensive, we used them as the answer to all pest problems.. This overuse led to specific problems like: Pesticide resistance
  21. 21. Pre plant - Post harvest IPM Weed Management Key weeds: Pigweed, Marestail, Cocklebur Lambsquarters, Black nightshade, G. Ragweed, Velvetleaf, Grasses, others (PP) Site selection and crop rotation, clean fields only (PP) Stale seedbed (AP) Use of Pre-emerge herbicides (IS) Cultivate conventional fields until vines run (IS) Post (spot spray) programs, hoe, hand pull (PH) Reduced tillage combined w/ cover crops
  22. 22. Multiple Approaches to IPM PAMS Prevention, Avoidance, Monitoring, Suppression VS. Seasonal Pre plant, At plant, In season, Harvest, Post harvest VS. Discipline Weeds, Insects, Disease, Culture, etc. Can couch IPM in various combinations or formats
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