Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY ANDTECHNOLOGY AND
PROCESSING OFPROCESSING OF
SAFFRON (CROCUSSAFFRON (CROCUS
SATIVUS L.)SAT...
Saffron Production in World 2009
Country Production in Tons
Iran 300Tons
India 6 tons
Greek 5 tons
Azerbaijan 3.7 tons
Mor...
Major Exporter of Saffron
 Major importer countries of Iran’s saffron are The United
Arab Emirates (UAE), Spain, Torkmeni...
Saffron Name
 The English word saffro n stems from the Latin word safranum  via
the 12th-century Old French term safran.
...
Saffron Greek mythology
 According to Greek mythology, handsome mortal
Crocos fell in love with the beautiful nymph Smila...
Introduction
Saffron's bitter taste and an iodoform- or hay-like fragrance result from the
chemicals picrocrocin and safra...
Varieties of saffron
 Sargol Iranian Variety
 Mancha Spain
 Rio Spain
 Sierra Spain
 Indian Saffron
 Italian Variety...
History
 Saffron was first documented in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical
reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Since...
Main obstacles to saffron
 Indeed, the production are: (1) the limited areas
of cultivation in countries where it is trad...
Environment :
Favorable in snowy and mild winters, hot and dry summers
Moisture: water requirement 300 mm rainfall in grow...
Soil
 Saffron is cultivated in light and alluvial soils, but it thrives well in sandy
loam soil . Hard and sandy soils ar...
Land Preparation
In the month of august the land may be
ploughed twice or thrice gently and add about 4
to 5 trucks of wel...
Corms required per acre
85000 corms per acre.
Time of planting
Time of planting is from September to October
first week. Once the corms are planted , the
corms grows an...
The distance between corm to corm 12 cm and from row to
row 25 cm.Recommended planting depths for corms vary
from 7.5-10 c...
Fertilizer use
In traditional saffron culture, large amounts of farm yard manure were
applied to the saffron fields before...
Irrigation
Saffron requires very less numbers of irrigations.After cultivation they may
be irrigated twice or thice 15 to ...
Hoeing
After first irrigation when there is some
moisture in the soil a little hoeing is necessary
so that the flowers bec...
Development of flower and different stages of growth during
an annual time: complete plant
Flower bud ,mid April to June, ...
Weed control
Sawdust mulch helped reduce weed problems. During
the dormant phase, when the tops died off, we used
the herb...
Pests and diseases
Rabbits, rats and birds can cause problems in
Saffron fields by eating or lifting the corms.
Many pests...
Harvesting
Flowers are usually picked daily in the morning
After the dew has evaporated but before flowers
wither. The flo...
Drying
Following the separation of the stigmas from the flowers, it is
essential to dry the flower heads immediately. Dryi...
Yield
The average yield varies from 2 to 2.5 kg/ha,
where 1 kg of intact flowers yields 72 g of fresh
stigmas or 12 g of d...
Grading
 Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour),
picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (fragrance) c...
OurSargol Iranian saffron & Spanish saffron grading standards comparison
Type
ISOGrade
(category)
Saffron Grading
Standard...
Quality
The quality of saffron is dependent on its coloring
power (crocin concentration), odor (safranal) and taste
(picro...
Market
 ]
 Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5,000 per
pound (US$1,100–11,000/kg)—equi...
How to recognize Fresh Saffron
 The fresh saffron is bitter in taste
 The fresh saffron if rubbed in
 between two finge...
Saffron Storage:
 Store saffron in an airtight container in a cool, dark place
for up to six months for maximum flavor. S...
Chemical Analysis
 Saffron, contains minerals, mucilage, fat, wax and aromatic
Terpenic Essential oil with a few cineol, ...
SaffronShelf Life
 Properly stored you can keep saffron for
minimally 4 years. It won’t go bad but the
flavor will dimini...
The taste of saffron 

Taste of Saffron is formed by a major component--bitter taste glucose, by
means of crystallization...
Uses of saffron
 1. Medicines
 2.Foods
 3. Confectionary
 4. Coloring/ dye of textile
 5. Cosmetics
 6. Medicinal us...
Medicines
 Historically it was used mainly for treating depression. Clinical tests in the
Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital in...
Food

The stigma are soaked in water, milk or
alcohol before used in food, to release the
flavour and colour. Well-known ...
Confectionary
 A saffron bun, in Swedish lusse katt (literally "Lucy cat", after Saint Lucy)
or lusse bulle , is a rich y...
Dye
This was the primary use centuries ago and
the pigments that cause the intensive yellow
colour have been isolated and ...
Cosmetics
 Saffron is thought to clear skin, even acne,
and is usually applied in the form of a mask.
Traditionally it wa...
Why Saffron ?
Saffron production requires about 10% of the water
needed to produce cotton. The plant germinates
naturally ...
TThankshanks
everybody foreverybody for
patiencepatience
Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extensio...
Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extensio...
Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extensio...
Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extensio...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extension KPK Province Pakistan

7,324 views

Published on

Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extension KPK Province Pakistan

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Login to see the comments

Production technology and processing of saffron (crocus) by Mr Allah Dad Khan Former Director General Agriculture Extension KPK Province Pakistan

  1. 1. PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ANDTECHNOLOGY AND PROCESSING OFPROCESSING OF SAFFRON (CROCUSSAFFRON (CROCUS SATIVUS L.)SATIVUS L.) IN PAKISTANIN PAKISTAN Title: Allah Dad Khan
  2. 2. Saffron Production in World 2009 Country Production in Tons Iran 300Tons India 6 tons Greek 5 tons Azerbaijan 3.7 tons Morocco 0.8 tons Italy 100 kg Turkey 10 kg France 5 kg Switzer land I kg
  3. 3. Major Exporter of Saffron  Major importer countries of Iran’s saffron are The United Arab Emirates (UAE), Spain, Torkmenistan, France and Italy, and 90% of Iran’s saffron exports are in bulk.
  4. 4. Saffron Name  The English word saffro n stems from the Latin word safranum  via the 12th-century Old French term safran. Meanwhile, Safranum  derives via Persian ‫( زعفران‬za'ferân). Some argue that it ultimately came from the Arabic word ‫ران‬َ‫نا‬ ‫ف‬َ‫نا‬‫ع‬ْ‫َف‬ ‫ز‬َ‫نا‬  (za'far nā ), which is itself derived from the adjective‫فر‬َ‫نا‬‫ص‬ْ‫َف‬ ‫أ‬َ‫نا‬ (a farṣ , "yellow").[7][8]  However, some give an alternative derivation arguing that ‫ران‬َ‫نا‬ ‫ف‬َ‫نا‬‫ع‬ْ‫َف‬ ‫ز‬َ‫نا‬  (z a'far nā ) is the arabicized form of the Persian word ‫ زرپران‬ (zarpar nā ) - "having yellow leaves".[9]  Latin safranum  is also the source of the Italian z affe rano  and Spanish az afrán. Saffron (pronounced /ˈsæfrɒn/) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Cro cus sativus ), a species of crocus in the  Iridaceae. A C. sativus  flower bears three stigmas, each the distal end of a carpel. Together with their styles—stalks connecting stigmas to their host plant—stigmas are dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent.
  5. 5. Saffron Greek mythology  According to Greek mythology, handsome mortal Crocos fell in love with the beautiful nymph Smilax. But alas, his favors were rebuffed by Smilax, and he was turned into a beautiful purple crocus flower.
  6. 6. Introduction Saffron's bitter taste and an iodoform- or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[4][5]  A carotenoid dye, crocin, allows saffron to impart a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles.
  7. 7. Varieties of saffron  Sargol Iranian Variety  Mancha Spain  Rio Spain  Sierra Spain  Indian Saffron  Italian Variety  Iranian Standard Variety
  8. 8. History  Saffron was first documented in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal. Since then, documentation of saffron's use over a span of 4,000 years in the treatment of some ninety illnesses has been uncovered.[6]  Saffron slowly spread throughout much of  Eurasia, later reaching parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania. Saffron is native to Southwest Asia  Saffron-based pigments have been found in 50,000 year-old depictions of prehistoric places in northwest Iran.  One of the first historic references to the use of saffron comes from Ancient Egypt , where it was used by Cleopatra and other Pharaons as an aromatic and seductive essence, and to make ablutions in temples and sacred places.   Saffron was also highly appreciated in the Classic Greece for its coloring and aromatic properties. It was used as a remedy to sleeplessness and to reduce hangovers caused by wine. It was also used to perfume bathing and as an aphrodisiac.  Arabs used saffron in medicine for its anaesthetic properties. It was the Arabs who introduced the cultivation of saffron in Spain in the X century. Evidence of different kinds assure that saffron was an irreplaceable ingredient in the hispanic-arabic cooking of that age.
  9. 9. Main obstacles to saffron  Indeed, the production are: (1) the limited areas of cultivation in countries where it is traditionally grown, (2) the great amount of sophisticated spice, (3) management techniques executed by hand, and (4) the very high price of the spice.
  10. 10. Environment : Favorable in snowy and mild winters, hot and dry summers Moisture: water requirement 300 mm rainfall in growing season Temperature: Min. coldness tolerable: -18°C Max. tolerable temp: +40 °C Soil: loamy sand texture and plenty of Calcium pH: Neutral Inoculation of corms with mycorrhiza increasing 26% corm growth latitude : 32 to 36°N Altitude:1000 meters from sea level
  11. 11. Soil  Saffron is cultivated in light and alluvial soils, but it thrives well in sandy loam soil . Hard and sandy soils are not recommended for its cultivation  1. In hard soil it cannot push its roots into deeper layer of the soil.  2.Sand in summer become warmer and in winter cooler.
  12. 12. Land Preparation In the month of august the land may be ploughed twice or thrice gently and add about 4 to 5 trucks of well rotted farm yard manure to maintained soil fertility , and then irrigate it and when there is some moisture level, prepare the plots.
  13. 13. Corms required per acre 85000 corms per acre.
  14. 14. Time of planting Time of planting is from September to October first week. Once the corms are planted , the corms grows and as soon as the flowers harvested.The plants be left there the leaves dry up and the corms matures . The corms so produced are valueable produce for 12 to 15 years.
  15. 15. The distance between corm to corm 12 cm and from row to row 25 cm.Recommended planting depths for corms vary from 7.5-10 cm to 15-22 cm. Planting depth of 15 cm gave better yields than shallower or deeper planting. Planting depth affects corm production; more buds sprout from shallow planted corms than from deep planted ones, resulting in more daughter corms.
  16. 16. Fertilizer use In traditional saffron culture, large amounts of farm yard manure were applied to the saffron fields before planting, and typically 20-30 tons per hectare are incorporated during cultivation. This material supplies nutrients, but its other major role is to improve soil moisture holding capacity and structure under non irrigated conditions. Under traditional growing systems no further fertilizer was applied after corm planting. However, recent data suggest that at least some annual fertilizer applications are beneficial and a base dressing of 80 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha followed by a split application of 20 kg N/ha in autumn and again immediately after flowering is recommended.
  17. 17. Irrigation Saffron requires very less numbers of irrigations.After cultivation they may be irrigated twice or thice 15 to 20 days interval In summer from April to october they do not required any irrigation because they become dormant . The most important point is that the saffron must be irrigated 10 days before flowering i.e 15th october and the second irrigation after the flowers are picked . . In the month of December January and February, if there are rains and snow fall no irrigation is necessary otherwise once in a month.
  18. 18. Hoeing After first irrigation when there is some moisture in the soil a little hoeing is necessary so that the flowers become easily.
  19. 19. Development of flower and different stages of growth during an annual time: complete plant Flower bud ,mid April to June, complete dormancy June to July, leaves develop July to August, flower and reproductive organs develop  Primitive period: 50 days  Development: 55 days  Middle : 105 days  Final: 30 days JulyJuneMayAprMarFebJanDecNovOct corm Whole plant Solid Surface
  20. 20. Weed control Sawdust mulch helped reduce weed problems. During the dormant phase, when the tops died off, we used the herbicides Roundup® or Buster® to clean up the beds prior to the new season’s flowering and growth. The choice of chemical depended on the weeds present. The old top growth, which dies in the summer, needs to be raked off the beds prior to the autumn flowering.
  21. 21. Pests and diseases Rabbits, rats and birds can cause problems in Saffron fields by eating or lifting the corms. Many pests (e.g. nematodes) and diseases (e.g. corm rots, leaf rusts) attack saffron, and the incidence is greatly affected by the growing environment
  22. 22. Harvesting Flowers are usually picked daily in the morning After the dew has evaporated but before flowers wither. The flower is cut at the base of the flower stem with a slight twisting movement or by cutting with the finger nail.
  23. 23. Drying Following the separation of the stigmas from the flowers, it is essential to dry the flower heads immediately. Drying experiments show that drying at temperatures up to 110o C can be used. The critical issue is the length of drying time (e.g. at 110 o C for 2 minutes). Recent Spanish research shows drying in a hot air flow at 70 o C for 6 minutes will give quality saffron. Brightness of colour is aided by quick high temperature drying. Slow drying gives a poor quality product. Another method is to use a dehydrator at 48 o C for 3 hours. irrespective of the drying method, it is important not to over dry. A final dry matter close to 10% moisture is adequate for long-term storage.
  24. 24. Yield The average yield varies from 2 to 2.5 kg/ha, where 1 kg of intact flowers yields 72 g of fresh stigmas or 12 g of dried stigmas .The size of individual stigmas and the amount of style collected influence the total yield and quality of saffron. Between 70 000 and 200 000 flowers (0.3-1 g each) are needed to produce 1 kg of Saffron.
  25. 25. Grading  Saffron is graded via laboratory measurement of crocin (colour), picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (fragrance) content. Determination of non-stigma content ("floral waste content") and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material ("ash") are also key. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization, a federation of national standards bodies. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes four empirical colour intensity grades: IV (poorest), III, II, and I (finest quality)
  26. 26. OurSargol Iranian saffron & Spanish saffron grading standards comparison Type ISOGrade (category) Saffron Grading Standards by ISO 3632 FlowerWaste Saffron Style OurSargol I 259.3 - - Coupe I >190 Up to 5% - Mancha II 180-190 Up to 5% 10-15% Rio II 150-180 Up to 10% 15-20% Standard III 145-150 Up to 10% 20-25% Sierra IV 80-110 Up to 15% 25-30% Iranian / Persian Saffron & Spanish Saffron Grading Comparison
  27. 27. Quality The quality of saffron is dependent on its coloring power (crocin concentration), odor (safranal) and taste (picrocrocin). The best quality saffron has a high safranal content. Saffron is dry, glossy and greasy to the touch when freshly dried, turning dull and brittle with age. It is easily bleached if not stored in the dark, and also Stores better under conditions of low temperature and low relative Humidity.
  28. 28. Market  ]  Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5,000 per pound (US$1,100–11,000/kg)—equivalent to £2,500/€3,500 per pound or £5,500/€7,500 per kilogram.  The price in Canada recently rose to CAN$18,000 per kilogram. In Western countries, the average retail price is $1,000/£500/€700 per pound (US$2,200/£1,100/€1,550 per kilogram).[2]    A pound comprises between 70,000 and 200,000 threads. Vivid crimson colouring, slight moistness, elasticity, and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.
  29. 29. How to recognize Fresh Saffron  The fresh saffron is bitter in taste  The fresh saffron if rubbed in  between two fingers the fingers  become oily and yellowish.
  30. 30. Saffron Storage:  Store saffron in an airtight container in a cool, dark place for up to six months for maximum flavor. Saffron, like other herbs and spices, is sensitive to light, so wrap the packet in foil to protect it further. It will not spoil, but it will lose increasingly more and more of its flavor with age.
  31. 31. Chemical Analysis  Saffron, contains minerals, mucilage, fat, wax and aromatic Terpenic Essential oil with a few cineol, such as picroretine, picrocrocine and crocine. There are 10 to 16 percent water, 5 to 7 percent minerals, a few Gloside, 5 to 8 percent fat and wax, 12 to 13 percent protein with a few essential oil that make Saffron more delightful and produces a stronger smell. Main color substance of Saffron is a compound called crocine,  Besides crocine, Saffron contains free aglycone crocine and a few anthocyanin pigment, as well as oil soluble pigments in terms of lycopene, alpha carotene, beta carotene and zeaxanthin. Saffron coloring power is one of the main determining parameters in deciding quality of Saffron and is evaluated by the quantity of its colorant components with a spectrophotometer at the wave length of 443 nanometers.
  32. 32. SaffronShelf Life  Properly stored you can keep saffron for minimally 4 years. It won’t go bad but the flavor will diminish as it ages.
  33. 33. The taste of saffron   Taste of Saffron is formed by a major component--bitter taste glucose, by means of crystallization under the title of picrocrocin with C16 H26 O7 chemical formula, acid hydrolysis produces glucose and aldehyde that namely Safranal. Safranal is the main aromatic substance and makes up about 60 percent of volatile components of Saffron. It is free as nonvolatile picrocrocin in fresh Saffron, but due to heat and time, it will be volatile aldehyde of Safranal. Safranal is a volatile, oily liquid with light yellow spot. This oily liquid dissolves easily in ethanol, methanol, ether and oil. By means of distillation under releasing CO2 gas, ether oil is separated and evaporated finally, the remained oil is yellow liquid that has strong aroma of Saffron. As this substance is part of terepenes, it is very sensitive against oxidation, therefore, must be kept in special condition.
  34. 34. Uses of saffron  1. Medicines  2.Foods  3. Confectionary  4. Coloring/ dye of textile  5. Cosmetics  6. Medicinal use for cancer.
  35. 35. Medicines  Historically it was used mainly for treating depression. Clinical tests in the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences have indicated that it is a safe antidepressant. It can also be used to treat epilepsy, digestive disturbances, asthmatic breathing, fever, etc. These uses should not be attempted without medical advice.  Saffron is as important ingredient of large number of Ayurvedic medicines. On account of its strong antipoisonous, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, stimulant, lactogogue, livotonic, nervine tonic, sedative and styptic properties it is highly valued in Ayurveda Saffro n is bitte r, g re asy and it cure s he ad ailm e nts and he als wo unds. It is pung e nt, sto ps vo m iting and g ive s brig htne ss to the bo d.  Saffro n is bitte r, pung e nt and he aty. It sto ps phle g m and cure s g astric pro ble m s. It he als wo unds, e ye and he ad ailm e nts. It se rve s as an anti-ve no m . It also g ive s brig htne ss to the bo dy y as we llas cure s the thre e ailm e nts Dise ase s such as le pro sy, he ad ailm e nts, inse ctbite s are allcure d by saffro n which also unifie s the thre e bo dy hum o urs
  36. 36. Food  The stigma are soaked in water, milk or alcohol before used in food, to release the flavour and colour. Well-known dishes are paella, bouillabaisse, breyani and "yellow rice" (pulao). It goes particularly well with dairy products and most grains. It has a slightly bitter taste on its own, but taste is greatly influenced by the pairing with ingredients, as well as its cultivation.
  37. 37. Confectionary  A saffron bun, in Swedish lusse katt (literally "Lucy cat", after Saint Lucy) or lusse bulle , is a rich yeast dough bun that is flavoured with saffronand cinnamon or nutmeg and contains currants. In Sweden, no cinnamon or nutmeg is used in the bun, and raisins are used instead of currants. The buns are baked into many traditional shapes, of which the simplest is a reversed S-shape. They are traditionally eaten duringAdvent, and especially on Saint Lucy's Day, December 13. In England, the buns were traditionally baked on sycamore leaves and dusted with powdered sugar. This "revel bun" from Cornwall is baked for special occasions, such as anniversary feasts (revels), or the dedication of a church. In the West of Cornwall large saffron buns are also known as "tea treat buns" and are associated with Methodist Sunday Schooloutings or activities.
  38. 38. Dye This was the primary use centuries ago and the pigments that cause the intensive yellow colour have been isolated and their staining capacity chemically determined. The yellow robes of the Buddhist monks in Tibet and China are saffron-dyed.
  39. 39. Cosmetics  Saffron is thought to clear skin, even acne, and is usually applied in the form of a mask. Traditionally it was used by high-born Indian women to impart a golden hue to the skin.
  40. 40. Why Saffron ? Saffron production requires about 10% of the water needed to produce cotton. The plant germinates naturally around the village, therefore it requires minimum tending to produce a good crop. And being one of the most expensive spices of the world, farmers who switched to saffron could count on doubling their income. A small local enterprise was established to link the saffron producers to its consumers, which brought significant benefits to the community. New education and employment opportunities arose. Women played a major role in all these developments and thus improved their social status.
  41. 41. TThankshanks everybody foreverybody for patiencepatience

×