Nutrition in Vegetables
• Calcium: broccoli, nuts, kale, legumes, greens veg.
• Iron: green leafy vegetables
• Zinc : Beans, peas
• Potash : Tomato
• Iodine : Potato skin
• Protein: peas, potato, sweet potato ,okra
• Vitamin A : Carrot
• Vitamin B-1, B-2, B-6 : Tomato , water melon
• Vitamin C: tomatoes, strawberries, broccoli, peppers, dark-green
leafy vegetables, potatoes, Brussels sprout
• Vitamin D : Mushrooms
• Vitamin E : Mustard and turnip greens
• Vitamin H or Biotin: Cauliflower
• Vitamin K : Broccoli, spinach and kale
Health Benefits of Vegetarian
Kidney disease/ renal stones
History of the Kitchen Garden
• While gardening has been a part of human culture for more than 10,000 years, the
idea of kitchen gardening is something unique.
• These small family plots have been called by a variety of names over the years:
kitchen gardens, victory gardens, portage gardens, cottage gardens, Roman
peristalses and horticulture gardens, and the Japanese tea garden.
• Though each of these grows vegetables, fruit, flowers, and herbs, they are all
adapted to their environments and the culture of the people tending them.
• The traditional kitchen garden, also known as a potager (in
French, jardin potager) or in Scotland a kailyaird, is a space
separate from the rest of the residential garden –
the ornamental plants and lawn areas. Most vegetable
gardens are still miniature versions of old family farm plots,
but the kitchen garden is different not only in its history, but
also its design. The kitchen garden may serve as the central
feature of an ornamental, all-season landscape, or it may be
little more than a humble vegetable plot. It is a source
of herbs, vegetables and fruits, but it is often also a structured
garden space with a design based on repetitive geometric
• The kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can
incorporate permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings
around (or among) the annuals
Purpose of kitchen Gardening
• The main purpose of a kitchen garden is to provide food for the
• To save the amount incurred on kitchen vegetables.
• The saving so made is utilized for other beneficial purposes.
• In ancient times, kitchen gardens were the sole source of food in a
mainly vegetarian diet.
• In the modern era, the kitchen garden supplements the food
budget and provides balanced nutrition in a hurried, ready-made-
Kitchen Gardening Serve as
• The kitchen garden may serve as the central feature of an
ornamental, all-season landscape, or it may be little more than a
humble vegetable plot.
• It is a source of herbs, vegetables, fruits, and edible flowers, but it
is often also a structured garden space with a design .
• The kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can
incorporate permanent perennials or woody shrub plantings
around (or among) the annuals.
Advantages of Kitchen Gardening
• 1. To Save Money , Vegetables from your own garden cost less.
• 2. Home Grown Vegetables are Healthier
• 3. You Know What Has Been Put On Them
• 4. Home Grown Vegetables and Herbs Taste Better
• 5. Growing Your Own Vegetables is Satisfying
• 6.Austhetic value
• 8. Exercise
• 9. You can grow fruits , vegetables
• and herbs on your own choice
What is vegetable Kitchen
Gardening vegetables is one of the
many past time activities that people
Apart from being entertaining, these
are profitable, as the garden later
provides you with some excellent
home grown vegetables.
However, before planning into the
activity of gardening vegetables, you
need to make sure of certain factors.
The place or site you choose should
receive 6-8 hours of sunlight a day and
also it should be near to a water supply.
Vegetables occupy an important place in our daily life particularly for
vegetarians. Vegetables are the only source to increase not only the
nutritive values of foods but also its palatability. For a balanced diet,
an adult should have an intake of 85 g of fruits and 300 g of
vegetables per day as per the dietary recommendation of nutrition
specialists. But the present level of production of vegetables in our
country can permit a per capita consumption of only 120 g of
vegetables per day.
Considering the above facts, we should plan to produce our own
vegetable requirements in our backyards using the available fresh
water as well as the kitchen and bathroom wastewater. This will not
only facilitate prevention of stagnation unused water which will be
hazardous to our health through environmental pollution, but can be
useful for successful production of our own requirement of vegetables
Cultivation in a small area facilitates the methods of controlling pests
and diseases through the removal of affected parts and non-use of
chemicals. This is a safe practice, which does not cause toxic residues
of pesticides in the vegetables produced
Kitchen Garden Site Selection
There will be limited choice for the selection of sites for kitchen
gardens. The final choice is usually the backyard of the house. This is
convenient as the members of the family can give a constant care to
the vegetables during leisure and the wastewater from the bathrooms
and kitchen can easily be diverted to the vegetable beds. The size of a
kitchen garden depends upon the availability of land and number of
persons for whom vegetables are to be provided. There is no
restriction in the shape of the kitchen garden but wherever possible
rectangular garden is preferred to a square one. With succession
cropping and intercropping, five cents of land would be adequate to
supply vegetables for an average family of four to five persons.
Firstly a through spade digging is made to a depth of 30-40
cm. Stones, bushes and perennial weeds are removed. 100 kg of well
decomposed farmyard manure or vermicompost is applied and mixed
with the soil. Ridges and furrows are formed at a spacing of 45 cm or
60 cm as per the requirement. Flat beds can also be formed instead of
ridges and furrows.
Sowing and planting
Ø Direct sown crops like bhendi, cluster beans and cowpea can be
sown on one side of the ridges at a spacing of 30
cm. Amaranthus (meant for whole plant pull out and clipping) can be
sown after mixing 1 part of seeds with 20 parts of fine sand by
broadcasting in the plots. Small onion, mint and coriander can be
planted/sown along the bunds of plots.
Seeds of transplanted crops like tomato, brinjal and chilli can be sown
in nursery beds or pots one month in advance by drawing lines. After
sowing and covering with top soil and then dusting with 250 grams
neem cake so as to save the seeds from ants. About 30 days after
sowing for tomato and 40-45 days for brinjal and chilli and big onion
the seedlings are removed from nursery and transplanted along one
side of the ridges at spacing of 30-45 cm for tomato, brinjal and chilli
and 10 cm on both the sides of the ridges for big onion. The plants
should be irrigated immediately after planting and again on 3rd day.
The seedlings can be watered once in two days in the earlier stages
and then once in 4 days later.
The main objective of a kitchen garden is the maximum output and a
continuous supply of vegetables for the table throughout the year. By
following certain procedures, this objective can easily be achieved.
Ø The perennial plants should be located on one side of the
garden, usually on the rear end of the garden so that they may not
shade other crops, compete for nutrition with the other vegetable
Ø The adjacent to the foot path all around the garden and the
central foot path may be utilised for growing different short duration
green vegetables like Coriander, spinach, fenugreek, Alternanthera,
Economic benefits of gardening
Ø Gardeners feed their families first and then sell, barter or give
away surplus garden foods. In certain contexts, however, income
generation may become the primary objective of the home garden. In
any case, it is counterproductive to impose the nutrition objective to
the exclusion of the income generation objective, since in most
contexts they are linked and compatible.
Ø The potential economic benefits of home gardening, include the
Ø gardening gives dual benefits of food and income generation;
Ø gardens provide fodder for household animals and supplies for
other household needs (handicrafts, fuel wood, furniture, baskets,
Ø marketing of garden produce and animals is often the only
source of independent income for women.
• A vegetable garden (also known as a vegetable patch or vegetable
plot) is a garden that exists to grow vegetables and other plants useful
for human consumption, in contrast to a flower garden that exists for
• A vegetable garden typically includes a compost heap, and several
plots or divided areas of land, intended to grow one or two types of
plant in each plot.
• It is usually located to the rear of a property in the back garden or
• The herb garden is often a separate space in the garden, devoted to
growing a specific group of plants known as herbs.
• Annual culinary herbs: aromatic plant, dill,
• Perennial culinary herbs: mint
• Herbs used for potpourri: lemon verbena
• Herbs used for tea: mint, lemon verbena, chamomile, bergamot, Hibiscus
• Herbs used for other purposes: stevia for sweetening,
• Fever few for pest control in the garden.
• The best advice I can give anyone when they want to
start growing vegetables is to invest some time and
effort in preparation at the vegetable garden planning
Why do people vegetable
Purpose is to supply food for
Find in all cultures, traditions
and gardening styles
Size and design depend on
need, location, and choice of
Name of Veg Name of Veg
Gourds Sweet Pepper
Squashes Hot Pepper
Bitter Gourd Kulfa
Brinjal Water Melon
Name of Veg Name of Veg
Turnip Ice Berg Salad
Kuram Sag Garlic
Cauli Flower Peas
Off Season Vegetables/Tunnel Tech
Name of Veg Name of Veg
Cucumber Sponge Gourd
Tinda Ridge Gourd
Bitter Gourd Bottle Gourd
Name of Veg
Ice Berg Salad
Types of Tunnels
1. High Tunnels - 11 feet or above high
2. Walk-In Tunnels - 6 feet high
3. Low tunnels - 3 feet high
(30 W x 12 ft H)
Zn galvanized steel pipes of
about 1.5 inch dia and of
medium thickness bent in the
shape that it gives 30 ft wide
and 12 ft high tunnel. It
should be at least 6 to 7 ft high
at the sides.
WALK IN TUNNEL
(12 W x 6 ft H)
Zn galvanized steel pipes of 0.75 inch
dia and of medium thickness bent in
the shape that it gives 12 ft wide and 6
ft high tunnel. It should be at least 2.5
ft high at the sides.
LOW TUNNEL(5 x 2.5 ft)
Steel rods of 6mm dia and 10 feet long
bent in the shape of half moon.
Sticks of different plants can also be
used but often create problems.
Plastic need to be removed at
flowering for pollination.
Make the crop about 1.5 month early.
Problem of weeds if not controlled.
Choose Location/site selection
The first and foremost requirement in setting up a kitchen garden is to
have some space . If space is a constrain set up a kitchen garden in
pots, window baskets or growing bags.
A back yard or some other plot near your home in full sunlight is the
most convenient spot for a home vegetable garden. However, poor
drainage, shallow soil, and shade from buildings or trees may mean
the garden must be located in an area farther from the house.
Soil Drainage, and Sunshine
Fertile, deep, friable, well-drained soil is necessary for a
The exact type of soil is not so important as that it be well
drained, well supplied with organic matter, retentive of
moisture, and reasonably free of stones.
Good drainage of the soil is essential.
Soil drainage may often be improved by installing agricultural
tile, digging ditches, and sometimes by plowing deep into the
The garden should get the direct rays of the sun all day if
possible. Some crops can tolerate partial shade, but no
amount of fertilizer, water, or care can replace needed
Even where trees do not shade garden crops, tree
roots may penetrate far into the soil and rob crops of moisture
and plant food.
To set up a kitchen garden adequate sunlight of at least 4
hours each day is essential. There are a few vegetables that
cannot grow without adequate sunlight.
Usually, the garden should be surrounded by
a fence sufficiently high and close-woven to
keep out dogs, rabbits, and other animals.
The damage done by stray animals during a
season or two can equal the cost of a fence.
A fence also can serve as a trellis for beans,
peas, tomatoes, and other crops that need
Prepare the site
The first step would
be to dig the garden
area to a depth of
about 8-10 inches.
However, make sure
that you do not start
the digging process,
when the soil is too
To improve the quality of the soil, add some
organic matter to it. This would help release
nitrogen, minerals, and other nutrients for
plant use. Thereafter, add some well-rotted
compost or manure into the soil.
This would help to keep the soil surface in
good condition and also slows down the
process of water evaporation from the soil.
Lay out of vegetables
Normally, the crops are planted
in a row of eighteen inches apart
or just wide enough, allowing
you room to move about.
An alternative to this would be
to create a raised or wide bed.
In such a situation, the site is
divided into a number of beds of
about four feet wide, with a
narrow path in between.
This way you can reach the
middle of the bed without
treading on the soil.
Choosing Seeds and
Next in line comes
choosing the seeds.
The best option
would be to choose
Methods of seeding
Planting Seeds One by One
The Scatter Method/ broadcast
Transplanting Seedlings/ nursery
Once you have completed with the initial process of planting vegetables, all
you need to do is water them regularly. Generally, vegetables require at
least one inch of water per week.
In case, you live in an area that does not receive much rainfall, you need to
water the plants yourself.
Early mornings serve as the best time to water the vegetable plants.
To control the weeds, tidy your bed regularly and make sure to leave the soil
in a loose, friable condition to absorb rainfall.
Look out for weeds and pests.
These can ruin your kitchen garden.
Adopt practices such as companion gardening.
For instance, try growing tomato plants interspaced with basil
The bugs get attracted to aromatic plant plants.
Your tomatoes are protected. Or else, get good organic sprays to
To set up a kitchen garden learn the right techniques to have a
Mulching the Vegetable Garden
• Planning to mulch the vegetable garden involves placing a layer of
mulch material over the soil to prevent evaporation of moisture, to
discourage weeds, and in general to help keep the soil in good
• A variety of mulching materials can be used, from organic substances
to plastic sheeting. Compost, manure, leaf mold, and other organic
mulches have the additional advantage in that water will pass through
them, collecting plant-feeding matter on the way.
• Mulches are usually applied in spring; always water the soil before
applying an impervious mulch such as plastic.
Value Addition of Vegetables
• Low Cost Methods of Preservation and Processing
Fruit pulps, juices and beverages
Pickles, chutneys and sauces
Preservation of vegetables by lactic fermentation
Drying and dehydration
Jams, jellies, marmalades
• The juices extracted from fresh raw vegetables are highly beneficial as
they furnish all the cells and tissues of the body with the elements and
the nutritional enzymes which they need.
• Vegetable juices may be divided into three main types.
• These are (i) Juices from vegetable fruits, that is, tomatoes and cucumber
(ii) Juices from green leafy vegetables such as cabbage, celery, lettuce,
spinach and parsley and (iii) Juices from root vegetables like beetroot,
carrot, onion, potato and radish
• Solar drying technology offers an alternative which can
process the vegetables and fruits in clean, hygienic and
sanitary conditions to national and international standards
with zero energy costs.
• It saves energy, time, occupies less area, improves product
quality, makes the process more efficient and protects the
• In hydroponic vegetable gardening, the seeds are planted in
some type of container or tray, sprayed with a nutrient-enhanced
solution and exposed to artificial light instead of natural sunlight
• Mushrooms are fungi, and
are usually placed in a
Kingdom of there own apart
from plants and animals.
Mushrooms contain no
chlorophyll and most are
That is, they obtain their
nutrition from metabolizing
non living organic matter.
This means they break down
and "eat" dead plants, like
your compost pile does.