This domain aims at strengthening and diversifying livelihood options by
increasing income through creating economic options, adapting productive
systems to climate change and rebuilding basic rural infrastructure, which was
partly or completely damaged by natural disasters.
Agriculture is the largest sector of Pakistan’s
economy as it contributes 21 % share in the GDP
and directly or indirectly supports 75 % of total
population. It is also absorbs, directly or
indirectly, 45 percent of the total workforce of
the country and provides food for its population,
original products for export, and raw materials
for Agro-allied industries.
Out of the total 47.58 million acre farm area of
Pakistan, 30.5 million acre area is occupied by
the farms not exceeding 12.5 acres in size.
Small farmers (<12.5 acres) constitute 93.12
percent of the total farms and account for 61.4
percent of total farm area.
Most of the land is arid, semi-arid or rugged, and
not easily cultivated.
Pakistan is struggling with low social development indicators,
ranking 146 out of 186 countries in the United Nation’s
Human Development Index and with a Gender Development
Index ranking of 123 out of 160 countries of the United
Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) 2013 Human
In 2008, it was estimated that 45 million people are severely
food insecure and almost 40
percent of children are underweight
1. Those who suffer most acutely from rural poverty are
small farmers with limited land and livestock, landless
farmers and especially women, who – as a result of
systemic gender discrimination – have little access to
resources, services or assets of their own.
2. A major cause of rural poverty in Pakistan is the
highly unequal distribution of assets, particularly land
and access to water. As a result, the direct gains in
income from crop production tend to accrue to a small
fraction of the population.
1. KPK is sheltering a population of more than 20 million
people , 83% is dwelling in rural areas
2. The province possesses 10.17 million hectares of land.
3. The cultivable area is 2.75 million hectare. Out of
cultivable area only 1.8 million hectare is cultivated
4. 1.08 million hectare is cultivable waste.
5. The major chunk of cultivated land is rain fed which
constitute 49% of the cultivated area.
6. 94% farms are now below the range of 12.5 acres, which
is a subsistence farm level.
7. The land tenure system in the KPK can be classified into
three categories, i.e. 58% farm area is operated by
owners while 27% and 15% farms area is cultivated by
owners-cum-tenants and tenants respectively
8 Due to great diversity in climate and soils, KPK grows
over 42 crops; the major ones being wheat, rice, barley,
maize, sugarcane, tobacco, rape & mustard, groundnut,
pulses, vegetables and fruits.
9 The major crops occupy nearly 90% of the total cropped
area and play an important role in sustaining the living of
the rural population.
1) Livestock farming is also a dominant occupation of the
farming community with more than 15 million animal
heads and about 22 million poultry birds’ habituating the
2) However, this occupation is mostly to supplement family
nutritional and cash requirement.
3) The capitalist trend in this sector is still lacking resulting
in weak & non-descriptive breeds with low level of milk
and meat productivity.
Poverty incidence and trends in NWFP reflecting 44% rural
population living below poverty line shows disappointing
results of recent economic growth, declining job
opportunities and a range of natural resource problems.
Small farmers have an area = 41% with 87% of the total
Medium Farms have an are = 17% With 8% of the total
Large Farmers have an area =42% with 5 % of the Toal
1. Focusing on small-farm agriculture fulfils the
2. objectives of economic growth and improved equity. In terms of
rural development, the small-farm first model led to a focus on
projects that provide some form of assistance, such as new
technologies, inputs, credit, etc. to small farmers in order to
improve their productivity.
3. The livelihoods approach, while similar to the bottom-up approach
of the small-farm first paradigm, takes as a starting point the
importance of households assets and the diversity of households
activities and is therefore fundamentally different from the small-
4. A number of livelihood sources were available to the rural
households. These include both farm and non farm sources. Most of
the householdss were resorting to both types of sources for their
livelihood. Among the farm Muhammad Israr and Humayun Khan et
al. An analysis of livelihood sources in hilly areas households’s
income from crops, livestock, forest, and rental land was important,
while the non-farm householdss were dependent on small scale
businesses, public/private sector services, to some extent on
remittances, and working as daily wage laborers.
1. To improve the livelihoods and economic security of
rural communities through in-kind support to restore
and/or protect the farm production capacities and off-
farm income generating activities of vulnerable peasant
families and well-targeted progressive landlords – which,
in turn, would have a positive impact on their disaster
2. To enhance the skills and knowledge base of men and
women peasant farmers, landless people and
unemployed youth through technical support in GAPs,
post-harvest management and vocational skills,
3. To empower peasant organisations, farmers
organisations, WUAs, farmers and women groups, etc
and their constituent hari members to enhance their
natural resource base (land, water, vegetation, etc)
while strengthening their resilience to future shocks.
S.No Problem Suggestion
1 Rainfed cultivated Land (50%) Irrigation to be developed through building of reservoirs through out
2 Cultivable waste land ( 1.08
Million Hectare Fragmented and un-
economical land holdings hectares)
Precision land leveling through different projects and department
Public private partnership
3 non-availability of good quality inputs
high cost of fertilizers and pesticides,
Subsidized cost for small farmers and provision of agriculture credit
to farmers through a simplified procedure Strengthening of FSC ,
4 inadequate technical capacity of
Agriculture Research and
Agriculture Extension Systems
Lack of information to farmers
Revitalization of agriculture Departments , the previous reports to be
revisited .Strengthening of service delivery system. Streamlining soil
testing labs in FSC . Strengthening of Agriculture information and
Outreach of ARS along with all other stake holder, establishment of
Farm Radio at suitable place .
S.No Problem Suggestion
5 Ecological Zones not notified and Wide-spread
Zones to be established and notified on basis of ecology
and topography .
6 in-efficient utilization of water resources Conservation of water resources through improvement and
lining of water courses with community participation ,
Water management project to be strengthened
7 Quick Rise in Population and increase in
From34m million to 200 million in Pakistan
8 Duplication in agriculture services,
mandate to be specified.
Mandate to be revisited and amendment in mandate of all
9 lack of agricultural marketing infrastructure, Regularized marketing system and implementation of
10 Absence of gender mainstreaming Gender mainstreaming and WID projects as 50 %
population is female
S.No Problem Suggestion
11 absence of rural based agricultural processing
Small processing units to be established at villages
with the concept one village on product.
12 Low Productivity of Livestock lack of health &
management coverage for animals
Change in breed through artificial insemination
13 Absence of an enabling environment for private
Private sector to be encouraged through provision of
Small Farmers are the major portion in kPK and
Farmer Organization not properly functioning
Small farmers to be organized through department to
frame farmers organizations , and steps to revitalize
the vo already framed.
15 Climate change Research in the field keeping in mind climate change
Disasters (Reduced biodiversity
Habitat destruction Deforestation
Water, air and soil pollution Salinisation,
desertification Decline in water
resourceand land subsidence
Preparedness for disasters
S.No Problem Suggestion
17 Less preference to Organic farming
and Biopesticides IPM ,ICM,IFM and
Good Agriculture Practices . through FFS. Establishment of
biological control labs , Biopesticides , promotion of organic
18 Post harvest losses Study to be conducted and cold storage and cool chain
facilities be provided
19 Lack of capacity of farmers and Lack of
Training to farmers , Awareness through mass media
20 Less Export of agriculture products Arrangement to encourage exporters through SMEDA and
Export Promotion Bureau
21 Less attention to Olive and tea crops Committee to be framed to look the problems faced in
promotion of theses special crops.
22 Acts not implemented Updating and strengthening of existing legislation
Seed Act, Pesticides Act, Fertililizer Act, breeders Act,
Tobacco Cess , Sugarcane Cess, Sugarcane Factories Act
S.No Problem Suggestion
23 Energy crisis Development of alternate sources , plant Ethanol,
biodiesel , wind , solar , biogas , coal
24 Ailment of soil diseases,soil
Schemes for control of salinity and alkalinity
25 Defunct Projects Revival of defunct Projects, PODB, CMPII , Water
management Projects , LDDB
26 Agriculture Machinery Latest machinery should be provided to the farmers to
increase the per acre yield. This provision should be on
easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the
burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by
the government of modern m.-
S.No Problem Suggestion
27 lack of gender mainstreaming, 1. These should be proper quota system for female in
the agriculture department, especially at filed level
and they should work closely with women farmers.
2. Government needs to promote Kitchen gardening to
ensure the contribution of women farmers in food
security and other relatedtraining in agriculture
3. Micro credit program, agriculture department needs
to design special program for the credit provision
(interest free) to enable women farmers for
28 Lack of Credit Facilities to Small
Provision of credit on priority
S.No Problem Suggestion
1 Lack of female
staff in LDD
Female officer, in the live stock extension their should be at least two officers who can visit the
field and provide technical inputs to women as the majority of women in KP are committed
directly with live stock management.
Government needs special attention on Feed management
Lack of Budget
Budget allocation, government needs to allocate 30% of its budget to live stock management
Lack of Devt
Government needs to design special program on breed improvement
Back yard poultry farming, Government should promote poultry farming with back yard support
in the rural areas of the province
Compost promotion, Government needs to capacitate the women farmers on compost making to
ensure proper utilization of natural resource management.
Chilling plants and other infrastructure facilities needs to be created to handle storage and
marketing of milk and other livestock products.
No Feed Mills Feed mill should be developed for easy availability of animal feed
Weak VES Veternary extension service needs to be strengthened
HRD Trainings on livestock management for men and women
Trainings on poultry farming with back yard support especially for women
Live stock vaccination
Trainings on compost making and effective storage of animal waste
Lack of Fisheries information
And production technology
And lack of ponds
Fisheries extension service should be revamped and strengthened so that
technology available can be properly disseminated to farmers.
Production of fish seed especially to meet the demand of private fish farmers
There is scope to develop sizeable area from cultivale wasteland and part of
which shouldbe taken up for fishery farming
Development of fish ponds
AGRICULTURE IS the bread and butter for small landholders. They face numerous
problems which have not been resolved by approaches pursued so far. It is a dire need to
shift to sustainable agriculture approach, changing the priority from farms to farmers
The suggested approach relies on three fundamental components of extension activities
— dialogue with stakeholders, organisational development and knowledge management.
In addition, capacity building and awareness raising, monitoring and evaluation are the
additional building blocks.Sustainable Agriculture is the main tool for success which we
must remember .
Sustainable agriculture was addressed by Congress in the Food, Agriculture, Conservation,
and Trade Act of 1990. Under that law, the term sustainable agriculture means “an integrated
system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will,
over the long term:
1. Satisfy human food and fiber needs
2. Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the
agricultural economy depends
3. Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and
integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls
4. Sustain the economic viability of farm operations
5. Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole."
Development of water resources
Waste use as compost
Integrated Farm System
Integrated Crop Management
Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Weed Management
Integrated Nutrient Management
Alternate Energy sources
A. Crop rotation keeps the soil healthy.
B. Mixed farms allows the uses of livestock manure.
C. Conserving natural areas protects our environment.
D. Small changes in practices can help, rather than harm, the environment.
E. Grass-fed livestock control weeds without chemicals or mowing.
F. Science can determine the right amount of fertilizers and pesticides.
G. Farming removes nutrients and fertilizers or manures replace them.
H. Farming multiple crops allows farmers to reduce their financial risks by having
multiple products to sell.
Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of
soils, ecosystems and people.
It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local
conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.
Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit
the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality
of life for all involved.
Definition of Organic Agriculture
The four basic principles of organic agriculture
Endorsed by IFOAM, September 2005
Is organic environmentally friendly?
Soil OM increased
Water quality improved
Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm system providing efficient and profitable
production that is environmentally responsible. IFM works by integrating beneficial
natural processes into modern farming techniques and ensures that high standards of
stewardship and environmental care are practiced.
There are many variants of IPM philosophy. These differences form a continuum from
simply using knowledge of pest biology to apply pesticides with timing that is optimal
for managing pests, while minimizing applications of pesticides, to the total exclusion
of "hard" pesticides in favor of "soft" or naturally derived materials that are less
disruptive to nontarget organisms and the environment ("bio-intensive" or "bio-based"
Tactics of Pest Management
1. Chemical Control
2. Biological Control
3. Cultural Control
4. Mechanical & Physical Controls
5. Host Plant Resistance
6. Genetic Control
7. Behavioral Control
8. Regulatory Control
There is an inclination towards FFS because the extension
service is perceived having a much broader coverage
That goes beyond the educational processes and action learning
agenda of the FFS .
The Farmer Field School is a form of adult education, which evolved from
the concept that farmers learn optimally from field observation and
experimentation. It was developed to help farmers tailor their Integrated
Pest Management (IPM) practices to diverse and dynamic ecological
The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a group-based learning process that has
been used by a number of governments, NGOs and international agencies to
promote Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
Farmer Field School is a school without walls. Farmers and
extension workers are students. The Farmers Field is the class
room and the plant is the teacher. As the plant grows the students
gain knowledge in the light of their observations. The get together
at a fixed time every week once and make their own decisions
based on observations and data analysis for the health of the
1. Skill Development
3. Will power
4. Capacity of Decision Making
1. Ground working activities
2. Training of Facilitators
3. Establishment and running of FFS
4. Evaluating PTDs
5. Field days
8. Follow up by facilitators
Cucumber Cropping Calendar
Ismailia, Winter Season
October November December January February
Preplant Seedling Growth Flower Fruit-Set Harvest
Climate protect young plants
from strong winds
preferred temperature: day 24o
rH should not sink below40-50%
preferred temperature: day 20o
rH should not sink below40-50%
keep tunnels closed for
ventilate tunnels, particularly after sunrise to avoid water on the leaves at any time
keep tunnels closed at night
Soil use fine-structured, well
aerated organic soils
increase organic matter
add 50-100 kg sulfur to
plant 2-3 cm deep
keep soil warm to assist
Water use well drained soils
with high water holding
irrigate lightly and regularly, preferably in the morning hours
avoid water logging and periods of water stress
N 50 kg Ammon. Sulfate
P 100 kg Super Phosphate
Ca 50 kg Calcium Nitrate
Protection Favorable Conditions: Control Measures:
Downy Mildew 20-25o
Powd. Mildew 20-25o
75-85% rH Micronized Sulfur/water
Spider Mites warm and dry
do not growcucumber
repeatedly in the same
field to avoid nematodes
use 1.5 kg seeds/fd
clip tips to encourage
cut out old, diseased
50 kg Potassium Sulfate 50 kg Potassium Sulfate
50-100 kg Super Phosphate
Use TX6 Nozzles for best coverage
Crop Calendar L J
Schools Give a man a fish
…...and feed him for a
Teach him how to fish
…..and feed him for
1. Improved on-farm productivity through rehabilitation and development
of small scale irrigation and the design of improved agricultural practices
2. Improved food security in terms of availability of food crops and access
3. A broadened the range of income generating options particularly for
4. Reduced rate of land degradation, soil erosion and deforestation through
sustainable use of the natural resource base
5. Emergence of self-sustaining communities and self help groups including
women, and marginal farmers contributing to resource mobilization and
6. Improved well being of women through provision of income generating
activities, employment and reduced labour demands
7. Strengthened capacities of rural community members and village