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CROP ROTATIONS & COVER CROPS: KEYS
TO SUSTAINABLE CROPPING
SYSTEMS
By Mr. Allah Dad Khan
Former DG Agriculture Extensio...
CROP ROTATIONS & COVER CROPS : KEYS
TO SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS
SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS
• Conservation Crop Rotation
• Supporting Practices and Management
Activities
1. Cover Crops
...
CROP ROTATIONS & COVER CROPS : KEYS
TO SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS
Points for Discussion
• Benefits of Crop Rotations
• M...
SUSTAINABLE CONSERVATION
CROP ROTATIONS
• Insure Long-term Productivity
• Treat Natural Resource Concerns within
the Field...
Options for Crops /Covers in Crop
Rotations
• Plant type: Grasses, Legumes, other Broadleaf Crops
• Single Crop Annually –...
Potential Benefits through
Sustainable Crop Rotations
• Improved Yields and Crop Quality
• Enhanced Erosion Protection
• R...
Barriers to Adopting/Changing
Crop Rotations
1.Income Potential and Markets
2.Equipment and Storage Needs
for Additional C...
Barriers to Adopting/Changing Crop
Rotations
5. Increased Requirement in
Management Skills and
Information
6.Crops that Ar...
Impacts of Sustainable Crop
Rotations on Soil Quality
• High residue crops and perennials (sod) increase
SOM.
• High resid...
Impacts of Sustainable Crop
Rotations on Water Quality
• High residue crops and perennials reduce
the amount of sediment a...
Some Insects Controlled Partially or
Entirely by Rotation
Insect Susceptible Crop
Alfalfa Weevil Alfalfa
Corn Rootworm Cor...
Some Plant Diseases Controlled
Partially or Entirely by Rotation
Disease Major Crops Attacked
Bacterial Blight Wheat, Barl...
Benefits of Cover Crops in Crop
Rotations
• Increase Cover and SOM
• Leguminous Cover Crops
Produce Nitrogen for Subsequen...
Benefits of Cover Crops in Crop
Rotations
• Can Serve as a Trap Crop for
Control of Insect Pests
• Can Reduce Soil Compact...
Concerns with Cover Crops in Crop
Rotations
• Species Selection
• Termination of the Cover Crop
• Planting into the Residu...
Examples of Nitrogen Provided by
Legumes at Full Biomass
Legume
Range of Nitrogen
Contribution
Berseem Clover 100 – 200 lb...
Contributions of Cover Crops to Weed
Management
• Allelopathic Effects
• Suppression by Residue Cover
1. Increases with in...
Contributions of Cover Crops to Weed
Management
• Allelopathic Effects
• Suppression by Residue Cover
1. Increases with in...
Crops with Demonstrated
Allelopathic Effects
• Rye (cereal)
• Sudangrass
• Sorghum x sudangrass Hybrids
• Sweet Clover (Ye...
Terminating Cover Crops
• Incorporation
• Flat Sweeps
• Mowing
• Winterkill
• Herbicides
• Rolling/crimping
Characteristics of Sustainable Crop
Rotations
• Provide satisfactory erosion control and
enhancement of soil condition.
• ...
Characteristics of Sustainable Crop
Rotations
• Include a diversity of crops/vegetative types.
• Use a combination of spec...
Comments - Questions
Thank you very muchThank you very much
Crop rotations and cover crops for diversity presentation A Lecture By Mr Allah dad Khan
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Crop rotations and cover crops for diversity presentation A Lecture By Mr Allah dad Khan

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Crop rotations and cover crops for diversity presentation A Lecture By Mr Allah dad Khan

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Crop rotations and cover crops for diversity presentation A Lecture By Mr Allah dad Khan

  1. 1. By CROP ROTATIONS & COVER CROPS: KEYS TO SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS By Mr. Allah Dad Khan Former DG Agriculture Extension KPK Province Allahdad52@gmail.com 03329221298
  2. 2. CROP ROTATIONS & COVER CROPS : KEYS TO SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS
  3. 3. SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS • Conservation Crop Rotation • Supporting Practices and Management Activities 1. Cover Crops 2. Residue Management 3. Nutrient Management 4. Pest Management 5. Controlled Traffic 6. Precision Ag.
  4. 4. CROP ROTATIONS & COVER CROPS : KEYS TO SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS Points for Discussion • Benefits of Crop Rotations • Managing Cropping Systems for Resource Protection and Profitability • Sod Based Rotations • Enhancing Crop Rotations with Cover Crops • Tips for Assisting with the Planning and Refinement of Conservation Crop Rotations
  5. 5. SUSTAINABLE CONSERVATION CROP ROTATIONS • Insure Long-term Productivity • Treat Natural Resource Concerns within the Field (at the source). • Provide for Continued Profitability. • Maximize Benefits through Inclusion of Management and Supporting Practices.
  6. 6. Options for Crops /Covers in Crop Rotations • Plant type: Grasses, Legumes, other Broadleaf Crops • Single Crop Annually –Multiple Crops Annually • High Residue vs. Low Residue • Perennials: (Sod Based Rotations) • Cover Crops • Fallow • Living Mulches, e.g. in orchards and with other perennial crops.
  7. 7. Potential Benefits through Sustainable Crop Rotations • Improved Yields and Crop Quality • Enhanced Erosion Protection • Reduced Runoff and Pollutants in Runoff • Increased Soil Organic Matter • Increased Biological Activity in the Soil • Improved Efficiency of Nutrient Cycling and Utilization • Reduced Soil Compaction and Improved Soil Condition
  8. 8. Barriers to Adopting/Changing Crop Rotations 1.Income Potential and Markets 2.Equipment and Storage Needs for Additional Crops Produced 3.Need for Livestock to Utilize forages Produced 4.Rental Arrangements and/or Land Availability 5.Pesticide, particularly herbicide, Carry - Over
  9. 9. Barriers to Adopting/Changing Crop Rotations 5. Increased Requirement in Management Skills and Information 6.Crops that Are Pest Hosts or Have Allelopathic Effects 7.Suitability of Soils for Production of Alternative Crops 8.Suitability of Climate for Production of Alternative Crops
  10. 10. Impacts of Sustainable Crop Rotations on Soil Quality • High residue crops and perennials (sod) increase SOM. • High residue crops and perennials (sod) reduce soil erosion. • Diversity in crop rotations increases biological activity in the soil and diversity of soil biota. • Many perennial species and some annuals have deep extensive root systems that reduce soil compaction and improve soil condition.
  11. 11. Impacts of Sustainable Crop Rotations on Water Quality • High residue crops and perennials reduce the amount of sediment and other particulate matter leaving a field. • Live vegetation captures and cycles excessive nitrates and other nutrients in the soil. • Crop residues and perennial vegetation help reduce and filter runoff.
  12. 12. Some Insects Controlled Partially or Entirely by Rotation Insect Susceptible Crop Alfalfa Weevil Alfalfa Corn Rootworm Corn Colorado Potato Beetle Potatoes, Tomatoes Wheat Stem Maggot Wheat Pepper Maggot Peppers Squash Cucurbits Hessian Fly Wheat
  13. 13. Some Plant Diseases Controlled Partially or Entirely by Rotation Disease Major Crops Attacked Bacterial Blight Wheat, Barley Bacterial Wilt Alfalfa Black Dot Potato Black Shank Tobacco Granville (Bacterial) Wilt Tobacco, Potato, eggplant Northern Corn Leaf Blight Corn Smut (corn) Corn Stem Rot Peanuts Verticillium Wilt Potato, Sunflower White Mold Peanuts, Potato, Soybean
  14. 14. Benefits of Cover Crops in Crop Rotations • Increase Cover and SOM • Leguminous Cover Crops Produce Nitrogen for Subsequent Crops • Attract Beneficial Insects and other Predators of Insect pests • Can Provide Weed Suppression and Allelopathic Effects
  15. 15. Benefits of Cover Crops in Crop Rotations • Can Serve as a Trap Crop for Control of Insect Pests • Can Reduce Soil Compaction (e.g. forage radishes) • Can Capture and Cycle Residual Nitrogen or Nitrogen Released from Decaying Residues (cereal rye and forage radishes) • Some Species, e.g. certain Brassicas, provide a Biofumigation Effect. • Enhance Biological Activity in the Root Zone
  16. 16. Concerns with Cover Crops in Crop Rotations • Species Selection • Termination of the Cover Crop • Planting into the Residues • Nutrient Management for the Cover Crop and the Following Crop. • Species that Can Become Weed Pests.
  17. 17. Examples of Nitrogen Provided by Legumes at Full Biomass Legume Range of Nitrogen Contribution Berseem Clover 100 – 200 lbs./ac. Cowpeas 100 – 150 lbs./ac. Crimson Clover 70 – 150 lbs./ac. Hairy Vetch 120 - 180 lbs./ac. Red Clover 70 – 150 lbs/ac. Sweet Clover 100 – 200 lbs./ac. Winter Peas 100 – 160 lbs. ac. Managing Cover Crops Profitably
  18. 18. Contributions of Cover Crops to Weed Management • Allelopathic Effects • Suppression by Residue Cover 1. Increases with increasing quantity 2. Declines with decomposition of residue 3. Provides greatest control of small-seeded species that require light for germination. • Maximize effects by use of cover crops that produce large amounts of biomass and use of implements that pack or compress mulch.
  19. 19. Contributions of Cover Crops to Weed Management • Allelopathic Effects • Suppression by Residue Cover 1. Increases with increasing quantity 2. Declines with decomposition of residue 3. Provides greatest control of small-seeded species that require light for germination. • Maximize effects by use of cover crops that produce large amounts of biomass and use of implements that pack or compress mulch.
  20. 20. Crops with Demonstrated Allelopathic Effects • Rye (cereal) • Sudangrass • Sorghum x sudangrass Hybrids • Sweet Clover (Yellow Blossom) • Sunflowers • Black Mustard • White Mustard • Rapeseed • Hairy Vetch • Wheat • Other Examples: Little Bluestem, Black Walnut, Some Oak Species. Problem: May also affect some crops.
  21. 21. Terminating Cover Crops • Incorporation • Flat Sweeps • Mowing • Winterkill • Herbicides • Rolling/crimping
  22. 22. Characteristics of Sustainable Crop Rotations • Provide satisfactory erosion control and enhancement of soil condition. • Utilize supporting management and practices as needed, e.g. residue mgt., cover crops, & controlled traffic. • Use longer periods of perennial crops and high residue crops on highly erodible soils and on soils with low inherent SOM. • Are built around the priority crops. • Provide an opportunity for continued profitability, at least in the long term . • Maintain compatibility with the total farm operation.
  23. 23. Characteristics of Sustainable Crop Rotations • Include a diversity of crops/vegetative types. • Use a combination of species (crops and covers) and a sequence to minimize pest problems, break pest cycles, and promote healthier crops. • Maximize benefits and sustainability by keeping live cover on the land to the extent feasible. • Provide for nutrient needs of all crops, including covers. • Include deep rooted grass cover crops, as needed, to capture and cycle nitrates in the soil and to reduce soil compaction.
  24. 24. Comments - Questions
  25. 25. Thank you very muchThank you very much

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