Language, Dialect and AccentDr. K. Lakehal-AyatMentouri University Constantine2011
Nature of a language • The linguist makes no value judgment. S/he LANGUAGE recognizes and accepts the existence of language varieties. • School traditions emphasize a single “correct” standard form.Regional dialects DIALECTSocial dialects • Linguistics acknowledges that a certainEnglish, may or St Br dialect be treated as a standard form Sociolects St Am English • Or is treated as PRESTIGIOUS by some members of society. Queen’s English Oxford Accent
• Linguists in recent decades have become more interested in the language of the people who (by a rigid conception of a St. Language) do not talk “properly”: language of small children and foreigners.• The language of children has therefore a linguistic interest quite apart from its psychological interest as the development of speech in infancy.• The mixed languages of former colonies (Jamaican Creole or Haitian Creole) have been studied with the same interest as can be studied Fr or Eng.
Language and Dialect• Both terms are often used interchangeably.• Principle of mutual intelligibility differentiates between them.• In most cases,Any 2 varieties one dialect A language is a or another depends the use of which are NOT on linguistic bases, but rather an socio-political mutually a navy are taken to Hindi withthey are mutually on If intelligible and Urdu factors. army. UNintelligible , then they are constitute two dialects of the separate languages. Weinreich, 1945:13. same language.
Solely because they are not (or notrecognized as) literary languages Dialect the Arab worldterm Subordinate In of the givenBecause the speakers Language ARABIClanguage do not have a state of their ownBecause they are not used in press or Language Super ordinate termliterature, or veryAlgerian A., Moroccan A., Dialect little, Syrian A., etc.Or because their language lacks prestige.
• Anthropological linguists define dialect as the specific form of a language used by a speech community.• No one speaks a language ; everyone speaks a dialect of a language describes a more or less Speech community sociolinguistics that is a concept in• Those discrete identify a particular dailect a the who group of people who use language in as unique and mutually accepted way among standard or proper version of a language, are themselves. in fact using these terms• TO EXPRESS A SOCIAL DISTINCTION
Dialect is also the term used to describe differences in speech that are associated with different regions or different social groups or classes.• As we move around a speech community, we find variation in the speech of its members that is associated with their place of living or their social grouping.
Accent• Differences in pronunciation between varieties• Oxford accent: certain phonological characteristics particular to English spoken in that town.• Term is used also to refer to some foreign non native features in the speech of a person (foreigner)• You speak English with an accent
Am Eng Br Eng /ka:r/ Pronunciation Pronunciation /ka:/ Lexis Lexis gas petrol Morphology Morphology dove dived I don’t have a I haven’t Syntax Syntax book a book
Linguistic variable• As a basic tool for distinguishing social variation• It is a linguistic item which has at least “variant forms the choice of which depends on other (non linguistic ) factors such as age, social status and situation”.• /j/ -> /dz/, /ʔ/, /g/, /y/• /q/ -> /q/, /g/, /k/, /ʔ/