Does animal testing help human medicine


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Does animal testing help human medicine

  1. 1. Does animal testing help humanmedicine?33 facts to consider.1) Less than 2% of human illnesses (1.16%) are ever seen inanimals. Over 98% never affect animals.2) According to the former scientific executive of HuntingdonLife Sciences, animal tests and human results agree"5%-25% of thetime."3) Among the hundreds of techniques available instead of animalexperiments, cell culture toxicology methods give accuracy rates of 80-85%4) 92% of drugs passed by animal tests immediately fail when first triedon humans because they’re useless, dangerous or both.5) The two most common illnesses in the Western world are lung cancerfrom smoking and heart disease. Neither can be reproduced in labanimals.6) A 2004 survey of doctors in the UK showed that 83% wanted aindependent scientific evaluation of whether animal experiments hadrelevance to human patients. Less than 1 in 4 (21%) had moreconfidence in animal tests than in non-animal methods.7) Rats are 37% effective in identifying what causes cancer to humans –less use than guessing. The experimenters said:“we would have beenbetter off to have tossed a coin."8) Rodents are the animals almost always used in cancer research. Theynever get carcinomas, the human form of cancer, which affectsmembranes (eg lung cancer). Their sarcomas affect bone and connectivetissue: the two arecompletely different.9) The results from animal tests are routinely altered radically by diet,light, noise, temperature, lab staff and bedding. Bedding differencescaused cancer rates of over 90% and almost zero in the same strain ofmice at different labs.10)Sex differences among lab animals can cause contradictory results.This does not correspond with humans.
  2. 2. 11) 75% of side effects identified in animals never occur.12) Over half of side effects cannot be detected in lab animals.13) Vioxx was shown to protect the heart of mice, dogs, monkeys andother lab animals. It was linked to heart attacks and strokes in up to139,000 humans.14) Genetically modified animals are not like humans. The mdx mouse issupposed to have muscular dystrophy, but the muscles regenerate withno treatment.15) GM animal the CF- mouse never gets fluid infections in the lungs –the cause of death for 95% of human cystic fibrosis patients.16) In America, 106,000 deaths a year are attributed to reactions tomedical drugs.17) Each year 2.1 million Americans are hospitalised by medicaltreatment.18) In the UK an estimated 70,000 people are killed or severely disabledevery year by unexpected reactions to drugs. All these drugs havepassed animal tests.19) In the UKs House Of Lords questions have been asked regarding whyunexpected reactions to drugs (which passed animal tests) kill morepeople than cancer.20) A German doctors congress concluded that 6% of fatal illnesses and25% of organic illness are caused by medicines. All have been animaltested.21) According to a thorough study, 88% of stillbirths are caused by drugswhich passed animal tests.22) 61% of birth defects were found to have the same cause.23) 70% of drugs which cause human birth defects are safe in pregnantmonkeys.24) 78% of foetus-damaging chemicals can be detected by one non-animal test.25) Thousands of safe products cause birth defects in lab animals –including water, several vitamins, vegetable oils, oxygen and drinkingwaters. Of more than 1000 substances dangerous in lab animals, over97% are safe in humans.
  3. 3. 26) One of the most common lifesaving operation (for ectopicpregnancies) was delayed 40 years by vivisection.27) The great Dr Hadwen noted "had animal experiments been reliedupon...humanity would have been robbed of this great blessing ofanaesthesia."28) Aspirin fails animal tests, as do digitalis (heart drug), cancer drugs,insulin (which causes animal birth defects), penicillin and other safemedicines. They would be banned if vivisection were believed.29) Blood transfusions were delayed 200 years by animal studies.30) The polio vaccine was delayed 40 years by monkey tests.31) 30 HIV vaccines, 33 spinal cord damage drugs, and over 700treatments for stroke have been developed in animals. None work inhumans.32) Despite many Nobel prizes going to vivisectors, only 45% agree thatanimal experiments are crucial.33) The Director of Research Defence Society, (which serves only todefend vivisection) was asked if medical progress could have beenachieved without animal use. His written reply was "I am sure it couldbe."See 50 disasters of animal testing here.References1) Page, Dr T, "Vivisection Unveiled", John Carpenter, 1997, p62) Animal Toxicity Studies:Their relevance to man Lumley & Walker (ed) pp57-67, Quay, 19893) Clemedson C, McFarlane-Abdulla E, Andersson M, et al. MEIC Evaluation of Acute SystemicToxicity. ATLA 1996;24:273-311, Nature Biotechnology 1998; 16:12945) Heart disease: Gross, D, Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research, MartinusNijhoff Pub 1985.Smoking: New York Times, December 6 19936) GP survey (2004) commissioned by patient safety group Europeans for Medical Progress( F J Di Carlo, Drug Metabolism reviews15, p409-138) R Peto, World Medicine Vol 79, 19799) D.Spani, M. Arras, B. Konig and T. Rulicke, Higher heart rate of laboratory mice housedindividually vs in pairs, Laboratory Animal Welfare, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan 2003, ScienceMagazine Volume 298, Number 5602, Issue of 20 Dec 2002, p. 232110) EJ Calabrese, Toxic Susceptability: Male/female differences, quoted in Page "VivUnv.", p4111) AP Fletcher in Proc R Soc med, 1978;71, 69312) ClinPharmacolTher 1962; pp665-672
  4. 4. 13) Current Opinions in Lipidology, BMJ 2005;330:21214) Fletcher, AP et al, 1976 Stroke, vol 7, pp135-14215) Collins,PS. Wilson,JM. 1992. Nature. vol 358. p708 9) Barinaga,M. 1992. Science.vol 257.p1047. Snouwaert,J N. Brigham,KK et al. 1992. Science.vol 257. pp1083-1088. Snouwaert,J N.Brigham,KK et al. 1992. Science.vol 257. pp1083-108816) Journal of the American Medical Association 14/4/9817) Journal of the American Medical Association 14/4/9818) Nature Medicine 2000; 6:502-50319) Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, Lords Hansard report 2/12/9820) Professor Hoff, Congress of clinical medicine, Wiesbaden, 197621) MunchnerMedizinischeWochenschrift, no 34 1969 quoted in Hans Reusch "Slaughter of theInnocent", p36522) MunchnerMedizinischeWochenschrift, no 34 1969 quoted in Hans Reusch "Slaughter of theInnocent", p36523) Developmental Toxicology: Mechanisms and Risk JA McLachlan, RM Pratt, C L Markert (Eds)1987 p31324) Biogenic Amines (Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 97–145 (2005)25) Lewis, R. J., Sr. (1989). Sax’s Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 7th edn. John Wiley,New York. Turbow, M. M., Clark, W. H. and Dipaolo, J. A. (1971). Embryonic abnormalities inhamsters following intrauterine injection of 6-aminonicotinamide, Teratology4 (4), 427–431 Beall,J. R. and Klein,M. F. (1977). Enhancement of aspirin-induced teratogenicity by food restriction inrats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 39, 489–495. Klein, K. L., Scott, W. J. and Wilson, J. G. (1981).Aspirin-induced teratogenesis: a unique pattern of cell death and subsequent polydactyly in the rat, J.Exper. Zool. 216, 107–112. Slone, D., Siskind, V., Heinonen, O. P., Monson, R. R., Kaufman, D.W. and Shapiro, S. (1976). Aspirin and congenital malformations, Lancet 1, 1373–1375. Werler, M.M., Mitchell, A. A. and Shapiro, S. (1989). The relation of aspirin use during the first trimester ofpregnancy to congenital cardiac defects, New Engl. J. Med. 321, 1639–1642. Wilson, J. G. (1977).Current status of teratology. General principles and mechanisms derived from animal studies,in: Handbook of Teratology, pp. 1–47. Plenum Press, New York.26) Birmingham Daily Post, 4/10/189227) Dr Hadwen The difficulties of Deguerre, p357, & General Anaesthesia, Gray/Utting/Nunn, p15228) Aspirin & Insulin Hans Reush, "Slaughter..", p364:Cancer, NAVS Campaigner 1988Jab/Feb):Digitalis, Page "Viv. Unv." p9 Penicillin , Mark Matfield, r2, Brian Hayes Show,19/4/9429) K. Walker, The Story of Medicine, Hutchinson, 1954. R. McGrew, Encyclopedia of MedicalHistory, MacMillan Press, 1985. A. Gastiglioni, A History of Medicine, (1947 edition translated byE.B. Krumbhaer) Ryerson Press, 194130) Paul, JR, 1971 A History of Poliomyelitis. Yale University Press, p38531) Spinal cord: Journal of the American Paralegic Society11;23-25, 1988Stroke: Nature Medicine 2002; 8 (1):5 Future of neuroprotective drugs in doubt, also Stroke 1990 21: 1-3.HIV: Poignard P, Sabbe R, Picchio GR, et al. (April 1999). "Neutralizing antibodies have limited effects on thecontrol of established HIV-1 infection in vivo". Immunity 10 (4): 431–8. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80043-6. ISSN 1074-7613. PMID 10229186.Berman PW, Gregory TJ, Riddle L, et al. (June 1990). "Protection of chimpanzees from infection by HIV-1 aftervaccination with recombinant glycoprotein gp120 but not gp160". Nature 345 (6276): 622–5.doi:10.1038/345622a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 2190095.
  5. 5. Connor RI, Korber BT, Graham BS, et al. (February 1998). "Immunological and virological analyses of personsinfected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 while participating in trials of recombinant gp120 subunitvaccines". Journal of virology 72 (2): 1552–76. ISSN 0022-538X.PMID 9445059. PMC 124637. C, Marthas M, Miller C, et al. (August 2008). "The use of nonhuman primate models in HIV vaccinedevelopment". PLoS Med. 5 (8): e173. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050173. ISSN 1549-1277.PMID 18700814. PMC 2504486. Research Defense Society Website, 199833) Written reply to enquiry by member of the public quoted in "Viv. Unv.", p101