U13 Everything

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U13 Everything

  1. 1. Everything is matter CONTENTS RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  2. 2. Contents Everything is matter States of matter Properties Changes of state Particle Theory Pure substances Elements and compounds Synthetic materials Synthetic materials Recycled waste Mixtures Types Solutions Separating mixtures HOME HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  3. 3. Resources HOME Properties of the states of matter How can matter change state? Particle Theory Types of mixtures What is a solution? Separating mixtures Pure substances What are synthetic materials like? What happens to recycled waste? HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Animation: Changes of state Interactive activity: Solids, liquids and gases Links
  4. 4. Principal properties of the states of matter SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES Physical state Shape Volume <ul><li>Fixed, if no pressure </li></ul><ul><li>is exerted </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Expand if heated or </li></ul><ul><li>contract if cooled </li></ul><ul><li>Not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt to shape of </li></ul><ul><li>container </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Expand if heated or </li></ul><ul><li>contract if cooled </li></ul><ul><li>Not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Occupy all available </li></ul><ul><li>space </li></ul><ul><li>Not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Expand to occupy </li></ul><ul><li>all available space </li></ul>HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  5. 5. How can matter change state? ºC ºC 0 100 FUSION (MELTING) VAPORISATION SOLIDIFICATION CONDENSATION melting point boiling point SOLID LIQUID GAS Specific properties: Substance Water Alcohol Iron Mercury Melting point (ºC) 0 -117 1,539 -38 Boiling point (ºC) 100 78 3,000 357 SOLID GAS HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  6. 6. How can matter change state? solid gas Sublimation of iodine Directly from solid to gas (sublimation) solid gas Formation of snowflakes Directly from gas to solid (regressive sublimation) GO BACK HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  7. 7. Animation: Changes of state HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  8. 8. Particle Theory Matter is made up of particles in constant motion. . STATES OF MATTER: Changes of state INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE FUSION (MELTING) SOLIDIFICATION SUBLIMATION REGRESSIVE SUBLIMATION VAPOURISATION CONDENSATION HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Liquid Solid Gas
  9. 9. Particle Theory Matter is made up of particles in constant motion. STATES OF MATTER: Changes of state INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE Solid <ul><li>The particles: </li></ul><ul><li>are very close together </li></ul><ul><li>have strong attraction </li></ul><ul><li>vibrate but do not change </li></ul><ul><li>position </li></ul>FUSION (MELTING) SOLIDIFICATION SUBLIMATION REGRESSIVE SUBLIMATION VAPORISATION CONDENSATION HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  10. 10. Particle Theory Matter is made up of particles in constant motion. STATES OF MATTER: Changes of state INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE Liquid <ul><li>The particles: </li></ul><ul><li>are close together </li></ul><ul><li>have some attraction </li></ul><ul><li>have limited movement </li></ul>FUSION (MELTING) SOLIDIFICATION SUBLIMATION REGRESSIVE SUBLIMATION VAPORISATION CONDENSATION HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  11. 11. Particle Theory Matter is made up of particles in constant motion. STATES OF MATTER: Changes of state INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE Gas <ul><li>The particles: </li></ul><ul><li>are far apart and move rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>in all directions </li></ul><ul><li>have no attraction </li></ul><ul><li>collide with each other </li></ul>FUSION (MELTING) SOLIDIFICATION SUBLIMATION REGRESSIVE SUBLIMATION VAPORISATION CONDENSATION HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  12. 12. Heterogeneous Types of mixtures granite Homogeneous sea water The components are clearly distinguishable. There is uniform composition. HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  13. 13. Any homogeneous mixture What is a solution? sea water Solutions solvent solute solution HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Types of solutions
  14. 14. Solutions solvent solute solution What is a solution? Types of solutions solid-liquid solid-solid gas-gas steel (iron and carbon) liquid-liquid gas-liquid alcohol in water HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK
  15. 15. Separating mixtures METHODS Filtration Decantation To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid To separate liquids of different densities Distillation Others To separate two mutually soluble liquids HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK TO SEPARATE A MIXTURE OF SOLIDS TO SEPARATE A SOLUTION OF A SOLID AND A LIQUID
  16. 16. Separating mixtures METHODS Separating iron particles with a magnet HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Filtration Decantation To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid To separate liquids of different densities Distillation Others To separate two mutually soluble liquids TO SEPARATE A SOLUTION OF A SOLID AND A LIQUID TO SEPARATE A MIXTURE OF SOLIDS
  17. 17. Separating mixtures Fuencaliente, Canary Islands Evaporating water to obtain salt METHODS HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK Filtration Decantation To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid To separate liquids of different densities Distillation Others To separate two mutually soluble liquids TO SEPARATE A MIXTURE OF SOLIDS TO SEPARATE A SOLUTION OF A SOLID AND A LIQUID
  18. 18. Compounds (2 or more elements) Elements Pure substances hydrogen oxygen water Types of change electricity CLICK TO SEE CHANGE tin water HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK salt
  19. 19. Pure substances ice Physical change When water changes into ice, it is still water. Compounds (2 or more elements) Elements hydrogen oxygen water electricity GO BACK HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK tin salt
  20. 20. Pure substances Chemical change A new substance is formed: iron oxide Compounds (2 or more elements) Elements hydrogen oxygen water electricity Rust on a tin HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK water salt GO BACK
  21. 21. Pure substances Physical change Salt dissolved in water The water and salt have not changed their composition. Compounds (2 or more elements) Elements hydrogen oxygen water electricity HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK tin water GO BACK
  22. 22. What are synthetic materials like? OIL Plastic Glass <ul><li>light </li></ul><ul><li>strong </li></ul><ul><li>impermeable </li></ul><ul><li>does not rust </li></ul><ul><li>flexible </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fragile but hard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>does not rust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transparent </li></ul></ul></ul>Fibreglass Optical fibre Carbon fibre <ul><li>flexible </li></ul><ul><li>strong </li></ul><ul><li>does not rust </li></ul><ul><li>excellent conductor of light </li></ul><ul><li>does not rust </li></ul>HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  23. 23. What happens to recycled waste? Treatment of urban solid waste waste collection domestic consumption transport processing and manufacturing waste classification rubbish dump incineration toxic waste recycling process raw materials compost plastic metal paper glass SEE COMPOSITION HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  24. 24. What happens to recycled waste? What can you do? R euse R ecycle R educe consumption Composition of urban solid waste 30 % 25 % 7 % 8 % 10 % 10 % 10 % paper organic matter other metals textiles glass plastics GO BACK HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK
  25. 25. Interactive activity: Solids, liquids and gases HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK HOME
  26. 26. Links HOME HOME RESOURCES ACTIVITY LINKS CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO TO WEBSITE Matter Particles GO TO WEBSITE

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