U08 Atmosphere

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U08 Atmosphere

  1. 1. The Earth’s atmosphere CONTENTS RESOURCES LINKS HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS ACTIVITY
  2. 2. Contents The Earth's Atmosphere Composition Layers Origin Atmospheric dynamics Meteorology Atmospheric pressure and winds Humidity and clouds Precipitation The sky Climate Weather and forecasts Impact on the atmosphere Human activities What can be done H ands on Make an anemometer HOME HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  3. 3. Resources Composition of the air The layers of the atmosphere The origin of the atmosphere What is meteorology? Atmospheric pressure and winds H Humidity and clouds Precipitation The sky Weather and forecasts How do human activities affect the atmosphere? Make an anemometer HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK What can be done to protect the atmosphere? ACTIVITY LINKS Links Interactive activity: Environmentally friendly Animation: Global warming
  4. 4. nitrogen (N 2 ) Composition of the air 78 % other gases 1 % 21 % oxygen (O 2 ) HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GREENHOUSE EFFECT ACTIVITY LINKS
  5. 5. Other gases: argon, ozone, CO 2 Composition of the air heat sunlight CO 2 acts like glass walls and traps heat. Greenhouse effect Greenhouse made of glass HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  6. 6. The layers of the atmosphere 0 km 10 km Tropopause Stratopause Mesopause 40 km 80 km 500 km <ul><li>Ionosphere </li></ul><ul><li>shooting stars </li></ul><ul><li>aurora borealis </li></ul><ul><li>satellites </li></ul>Mesosphere Troposphere 80 % of atmosphere - 55 ºC + - Temperature ozonosphere Stratosphere O 2 + UVA O 3 (ozone) 0 ºC - + - 100 ºC + - - + + 1000 ºC -70 ºC HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  7. 7. hydrogen oceans nitrogen water vapour ammonia Primitive atmosphere: carbon dioxide water vapour The origin of the atmosphere condensation Present Hydrosphere autotrophs Present atmosphere: - nitrogen - oxygen PHOTOSYNTHESIS oxygen limestone rocks methane carbon dioxide 4,600 million years ago EARTH WITHOUT LIFE HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  8. 8. The atmosphere of Venus Greenhouse effect Temperature: 480 ºC Composition of the atmosphere 98 % carbon dioxide Receiving data from Venus… GO BACK HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK water sulphuric + acid sulphur oxides clouds ACTIVITY LINKS
  9. 9. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols WEATHER INSTRUMENTS HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring atmospheric pressure measuring wind speed measuring the amount of rainfall measuring humidity in the air measuring temperature determining wind direction ACTIVITY LINKS
  10. 10. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Thermometer Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring atmospheric pressure measuring wind speed measure amount of rainfall measuring humidity in the air determining wind direction ACTIVITY LINKS
  11. 11. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Anemometer Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring atmospheric pressure measuring the amount of rainfall measuring humidity in the air measuring temperature determining wind direction ACTIVITY LINKS
  12. 12. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Barometer Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring wind speed measuring the amount of rainfall measuring humidity in the air measuring temperature determining wind direction ACTIVITY LINKS
  13. 13. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Rain gauge (pluviometer) Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring atmospheric pressure measuring wind speed measuring humidity in the air measuring temperature determining wind direction ACTIVITY LINKS
  14. 14. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Hygrometer Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring atmospheric pressure measuring wind speed measuring the amount of rainfall measuring temperature determining wind direction ACTIVITY LINKS
  15. 15. What is meteorology? CLICK BUTTONS TO SEE THE WEATHER INSTRUMENT USED FOR: Weather vane Meteosat photo Weather map Weather symbols HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK measuring atmospheric pressure measuring wind speed measuring the amount of rainfall measuring humidity in the air measuring temperature ACTIVITY LINKS
  16. 16. Atmospheric pressure and winds H ( anticyclones ): The pressure is higher than the surrounding area. wind L ( depressions ): The pressure is lower than the surrounding area. L H 996 1000 L 1012 H 1012 1008 1016 1004 1000 992 988 984 980 L 996 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK moving air ACTIVITY LINKS
  17. 17. Atmospheric pressure and winds HOT AIR COLD AIR Atmospheric pressure Higher Lower wind L H 996 1000 L 1012 H 1012 1008 1016 1004 1000 992 988 984 980 L 996 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  18. 18. Humidity comes from: Humidity and clouds <ul><li>Evaporation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>of living things </li></ul>Cloud types 3 1 4 5 2 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK CLICK ON THE NUMBERS ACTIVITY LINKS
  19. 19. Humidity comes from: Humidity and clouds <ul><li>Evaporation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>of living things </li></ul>Fog 3 1 4 5 2 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  20. 20. Humidity and clouds <ul><li>Evaporation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>of living things </li></ul>Nimbostratus Humidity comes from: 3 1 4 5 2 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  21. 21. Humidity and clouds <ul><li>Evaporation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>of living things </li></ul>Cirrus Humidity comes from: 3 1 4 5 2 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  22. 22. Humidity and clouds <ul><li>Evaporation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>of living things </li></ul>Cumulus Humidity comes from: 3 1 4 5 2 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  23. 23. Humidity and clouds <ul><li>Evaporation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>of living things </li></ul>Altostratus Humidity comes from: 3 1 4 5 2 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  24. 24. Precipitation Rain Droplets are heavy and fall. Snow Water vapour freezes quickly into ice crystals. Hail Water vapour freezes and goes through air above and below freezing. ºC ºC ºC HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK SEE HORIZONTAL RAIN ACTIVITY LINKS
  25. 25. Horizontal rain Canary Islands trade winds Laurel forest Mountains CONDENSATION Large drops: horizontal rain Vegetation acts as a sponge, condensing moisture in large drops NE GO BACK HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  26. 26. Night sky The sky Daytime sky HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  27. 27. Click on green buttons to see the forecast. Weather and forecasts L H Iberian Peninsula: depression west to east DEPRESSION ANTICYCLONE HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK L WHAT IS A CLIMOGRAPH? ACTIVITY LINKS
  28. 28. cloudy, rainy and windy Weather and forecasts L H Iberian Peninsula: depression west to east DEPRESSION ANTICYCLONE HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK L WHAT IS A CLIMOGRAPH? ACTIVITY LINKS
  29. 29. sunny, clear skies, dry weather Weather and forecasts L H Iberian Peninsula: depression west to east ANTICYCLONE DEPRESSION HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK L WHAT IS A CLIMOGRAPH? ACTIVITY LINKS
  30. 30. J F M A M J J A S O N D Rainfall in mm Temperature in ºC 200 180 150 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 50 40 30 20 10 0 Climograph Weather and forecasts DEPRESSION ANTICYCLONE HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK L GO BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  31. 31. How do human activities affect the environment? global warming carbon dioxide hurricane CFC gases a reduction of the ozone layer the greenhouse effect sulphur and nitrogen oxides acid rain pollution smog soot HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  32. 32. What can be done to protect the atmosphere? International protocols to prevent pollution Laws to prohibit the use of CFCs Campaigns to save fuel Governments Individuals Recycle paper, plastic and glass. Avoid aerosols with CFCs. <ul><ul><li>Use public transport. </li></ul></ul>Save energy. HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  33. 33. Make an anemometer STEPS Colour one of the cups with a pen. 1 Pin the plate to the eraser so it can spin easily. 3 Staple each cup to the plate. 2 Count the number of times the cup passes in one minute (RPM). 5 Take the anemometer outside. 4 Record the wind speed for one week. 6 HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS HOME
  34. 34. Animation: Global warming HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK ACTIVITY LINKS
  35. 35. Interactive activity: Environmentally friendly HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK HOME ACTIVITY LINKS
  36. 36. Links HOME HOME RESOURCES CONTENTS CLOSE BACK GO TO WEBSITE The Earth’s atmosphere GO TO WEBSITE Climate change ACTIVITY LINKS

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