TCRP
                                       TRANSIT
                                       COOPERATIVE
                   ...
TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT                      TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2002 (Membership as of N...
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM




                            TCRP              REPORT 84

                        ...
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM                                    TCRP REPORT 84: Volume 3


   The nation’s growth ...
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol-
ars engaged in ...
TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Trans-
FOREWORD                    portation document...
expertise, but needing a solid common knowledge base. Further, the study noted that
WBT could be useful for providing trai...
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 84
ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs
CHRISTOPH...
CONTENTS OF CRP-CD-27


Section Number                                         Section Name                               ...
6. LESSONS LEARNED AND NEXT STEPS............................................................. 6-1
    6.1 Lessons Learned...
TABLES


Table Number                                         Table Name                                                  ...
1.   PREFACE: HOW TO USE THIS ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT


The electronic transit (i.e., e-transit) project was structured so tha...
•    Links are sometimes changed or eliminated by the webpage or document owner.
          This means links that work as o...
2.    SUMMARY

2.1    Overview of the Research Project


Recognizing that the transit industry should explore the potentia...
industry and can access resources and services for adding WBT to the training menu for
transit staff.

2.2       Recommend...
•   Evaluate WBT Implementation Procedures. The project team recommends
    funding further research to evaluate WBT imple...
facilitate competency-based learning, and increase the value of individual
           agency or industrywide WBT investmen...
knowledge sets for technical and professional employees and, to a lesser extent, for
operating and line staff. Transit ope...
2.7    WBT Applications


The ideal application of WBT would include instructors. Instructors could be involved
either in ...
2.9    WBT Value Creation


To maximize the value of WBT in the transit industry, it is critical that experienced WBT
expe...
have been cited. The situation is similar to that faced by transit agencies trying to develop
other e-business or Internet...
3.    RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY AND OBJECTIVES

        In 2001, the TCRP initiated Project J-09, “e-Transit: Electronic Busine...
e-learning in the United States will exceed $11 billion by 2003, up from $2.2 billion
                             2
     ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

TCRP Report 84 … e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies ...

515 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
515
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

TCRP Report 84 … e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies ...

  1. 1. TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 84 Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation Volume 3 Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification
  2. 2. TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2002 (Membership as of November 2002) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of October 2002) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: E. Dean Carlson, Secretary of Transportation, Kansas DOT J. BARRY BARKER Vice Chair: Genevieve Giuliano, Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles Transit Authority of River City Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MEMBERS DANNY ALVAREZ Miami-Dade Transit Agency WILLIAM D. ANKNER, Director, Rhode Island DOT KAREN ANTION THOMAS F. BARRY, JR., Secretary of Transportation, Florida DOT Karen Antion Consulting MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT GORDON AOYAGI JACK E. BUFFINGTON, Associate Director and Research Professor, Mack-Blackwell National Rural Montgomery County Government Transportation Study Center, University of Arkansas JEAN PAUL BAILLY SARAH C. CAMPBELL, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, DC Union Internationale des Transports Publics JOANNE F. CASEY, President, Intermodal Association of North America RONALD L. BARNES JAMES C. CODELL III, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Central Ohio Transit Authority JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads LINDA J. BOHLINGER ROBERT A. FROSCH, Sr. Research Fellow, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University HNTB Corp. SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Prof. of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University ANDREW BONDS, JR. LESTER A. HOEL, L. A. Lacy Distinguished Professor, Depart. of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia Parsons Transportation Group, Inc. RONALD F. KIRBY, Director of Transportation Planning, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments JENNIFER L. DORN FTA H. THOMAS KORNEGAY, Exec. Dir., Port of Houston Authority NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR. BRADLEY L. MALLORY, Secretary of Transportation, Pennsylvania DOT Metropolitan Atlanta RTA MICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of CONSTANCE GARBER Technology York County Community Action Corp. JEFF P. MORALES, Director of Transportation, California DOT FRED M. GILLIAM DAVID PLAVIN, President, Airports Council International, Washington, DC Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority JOHN REBENSDORF, Vice Pres., Network and Service Planning, Union Pacific Railroad Co., Omaha, NE KIM R. GREEN CATHERINE L. ROSS, Executive Director, Georgia Regional Transportation Agency GFI GENFARE JOHN M. SAMUELS, Sr. Vice Pres.-Operations Planning & Support, Norfolk Southern Corporation, SHARON GREENE Norfolk, VA Sharon Greene & Associates PAUL P. SKOUTELAS, CEO, Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA KATHERINE M. HUNTER-ZAWORSKI MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Exec. Dir., Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, Hampton, VA Oregon State University MARTIN WACHS, Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT H. IRWIN MICHAEL W. WICKHAM, Chairman and CEO, Roadway Express, Inc., Akron, OH British Columbia Transit M. GORDON WOLMAN, Prof. of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University CELIA G. KUPERSMITH Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute MIKE ACOTT, President, National Asphalt Pavement Association DAVID A. LEE MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT Connecticut Transit REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and CEO, American Transportation Research Institute, Atlanta, GA CLARENCE W. MARSELLA JOSEPH M. CLAPP, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Denver Regional Transportation District THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard FAYE L. M. MOORE JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation ELLEN G. ENGLEMAN, Research and Special Programs Administrator, U.S.DOT Authority ROBERT B. FLOWERS (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commander, U.S. Army Corps of STEPHANIE L. PINSON Engineers Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. HAROLD K. FORSEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads DMJM+HARRIS JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials JEFFERY M. ROSENBERG MICHAEL P. JACKSON, Deputy Secretary of Transportation, U.S.DOT Amalgamated Transit Union ROBERT S. KIRK, Director, Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, U.S. DOE RICHARD J. SIMONETTA RICK KOWALEWSKI, Acting Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT pbConsult PAUL P. SKOUTELAS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association Port Authority of Allegheny County MARGO T. OGE, Director, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. EPA LINDA S. WATSON MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT Corpus Christi RTA JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT JON A. RUTTER, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR ROBERT A. VENEZIA, Earth Sciences Applications Specialist, National Aeronautics and Space Administration APTA MARY E. PETERS TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM FHWA JOHN C. HORSLEY Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP AASHTO E. DEAN CARLSON, Kansas DOT (Chair) ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TRB GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, University of Southern California, Los Angeles LESTER A. HOEL, University of Virginia TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association LOUIS F. SANDERS JOHN M. SAMUELS, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA APTA ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board PAUL P. SKOUTELAS, Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA SECRETARY MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, Hampton, VA ROBERT J. REILLY TRB
  3. 3. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 84 e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation Volume 3 Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification MULTISYSTEMS, INC. Cambridge, MA with BRATTLE SYSTEMS, INC. Arlington, MA S UBJECT A REAS Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2003 www.trb.org
  4. 4. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 84: Volume 3 The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, Project J-09 FY’00 environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-06766-9 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2002112858 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is © 2003 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $15.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board’s judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. To save time and money in disseminating the research findings, the report is Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically essentially the original text as submitted by the research agency. This report has but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the not been edited by TRB. responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Special Notice Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare The Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they project. The process for developing research problem statements and are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Published reports of the Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the are available from: research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, Transportation Research Board and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. and can be ordered through the Internet at The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America
  5. 5. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board’s mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation by stimulating and conducting research, facilitating the dissemination of information, and encouraging the implementation of research results. The Board’s varied activities annually engage more than 4,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
  6. 6. TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Trans- FOREWORD portation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic By Gwen Chisholm business strategies for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as mul- Staff Officer tiple volumes; Volume 3: Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification pre- Transportation Research sents the results of an investigation into the potential of web-based training (WBT) as Board a means of providing effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. This report may be used by senior managers, operations managers, and technical and professional employees. The Internet and other new information and communication technologies are rev- olutionizing the way services are delivered and organizations are structured. Electronic business processes change the ways organizations operate and conduct business. Opportunities to lower transaction costs and improve efficiency have changed rela- tionships between transit agencies and their suppliers and customers, and electronic business processes are likely to change industry structures in the longer term. Portals for transactions in government-to-government and business-to-government market- places are offered through diverse organizations. Numerous transit agencies are prepar- ing to offer customized itinerary planning and fare media purchasing over the Internet. The declining costs of communications, data storage, and data retrieval are accel- erating the opportunities spawned by the Internet and other information and commu- nications technologies. Choosing and sequencing investments in technologies, processes, and people to reduce costs and increase productivity present challenges to the transit manager, who must weigh the costs, benefits, and risks of changing the ways services are delivered. To assist in meeting such challenges, TCRP Project J-09 is pro- ducing a multiple-volume series under TCRP Report 84. The research program will identify, develop, and provide flexible, ongoing, quick-response research designed to bring electronic business strategies to public transportation and mobility management. Volume 3: Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification is the third vol- ume in the TCRP Report 84 series; the report is in portable document (pdf) format on CRP-CD-27. Multisystems, Inc., prepared the report with assistance from Brattle Sys- tems, Inc. The objective of this task was to identify best practices and lessons learned regarding the potential of incorporating WBT into the transit industry. Volume 3 pro- vides an overview of the subject and identifies baseline resources for use by transit agen- cies. A key source of information in the study was a panel of subject matter experts (SMEs), each of whom has expertise and experience in some combination of trans- portation training, WBT, and intelligent transportation systems. These SMEs were iden- tified, recruited, and surveyed to provide views on potential transit applications of WBT and certification. The study findings reveal that WBT would be most beneficial when used to train a dispersed and diverse agency staff having differing areas and levels of
  7. 7. expertise, but needing a solid common knowledge base. Further, the study noted that WBT could be useful for providing training in well-defined skill and knowledge sets to technical professionals and, to a lesser extent, to operational staff. WBT was also felt to be useful for repetitive training of core competencies to all staff. The study concludes that WBT offers the potential to provide significant benefits to the transit industry. Volumes issued under TCRP Report 84 may be found on the TRB website at national academies.org/trb.
  8. 8. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 84 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager GWEN CHISHOLM, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Managing Editor ANDREA BRIERE, Associate Editor TCRP PROJECT J-09 PANEL Field of Special Projects PAUL A. TOLIVER, King County Metro, WA (Chair) GORDON AOYAGI, Montgomery County Government, MD RONALD L. BARNES, Central Ohio Transit Authority ROBIN CODY, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit RAYMOND H. ELLIS, AECOM Consulting Transportation Group, Inc., Fairfax, VA RICARDO ERNST, Georgetown University LAWRENCE J. HARMAN, Harman Consulting, Boston, MA EVA LERNER-LAM, Palisades Consulting Group, Inc., Tenafly, NJ SHAWN M. MARCELL, Gladwyne, PA PATRICIA S. NETTLESHIP, TNG, Inc., Santa Monica, CA DANIEL ROTH, Freightdesk.com, Bethesda, MD ROBIN STEVENS, New York, NY LINDA S. WATSON, Corpus Christi Regional Transit Authority, TX NIGEL H. M. WILSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ANTHONY M. KOUNESKI, APTA Liaison Representative THOMAS PALMERLEE, TRB Liaison Representative AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Task 6, “Web-Based Training and Certification,” of TCRP study. Dan Fleishman provided essential review and project sup- Project J-09 was performed by Multisystems, Inc., and Brattle Sys- port, especially during the reporting phase. Jim Hassett and Emily tems, Inc. Multisystems served as the primary e-contractor for the Marino of Brattle Systems assisted in the research. Ms. Marino study. finalized the survey instrument, performed the SME telephone Buck Marks of Multisystems served as Principal Investigator and interviews, and provided a preliminary analysis of the findings. The Project Manager of the study and so was responsible for the overall project team would like to express special thanks to the 11 SMEs supervision of the research. Mr. Marks led the design effort for the who participated in the research and made the project possible. The subject matter expert (SME) survey instrument, was the primary guidance of Stephan Parker and Gwen Chisholmthe TCRP Pro- author of this report, and was responsible for making this report a gram Officers for the projectand the J-09 Project Panel is also true e-document. Mike Bolton served as Senior Advisor for this acknowledged and appreciated.
  9. 9. CONTENTS OF CRP-CD-27 Section Number Section Name Page 1. PREFACE: HOW TO USE THIS ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT ............................ 1-1 2. SUMMARY............................................................................................................... 2-1 2.1 Overview of the Research Project ...................................................................... 2-1 2.2 Recommendations .............................................................................................. 2-2 2.3 Summary of Research Findings.......................................................................... 2-4 2.4 WBT Objectives ................................................................................................. 2-4 2.5 WBT Promise ..................................................................................................... 2-5 2.6 WBT Implementation Issues .............................................................................. 2-5 2.7 WBT Applications.............................................................................................. 2-6 2.8 WBT Technology ............................................................................................... 2-6 2.9 WBT Value Creation .......................................................................................... 2-7 2.10 Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 2-7 3. RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY AND OBJECTIVES................................................ 3-1 4. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS ........................................................................ 4-1 4.1 Review Prior Institutional Efforts....................................................................... 4-3 4.2 Perform Literature Search .................................................................................. 4-6 4.3 Create Transit Training Resource Webpage..................................................... 4-15 4.4 Develop SME Survey ....................................................................................... 4-17 4.5 Identify and Recruit Representative SMEs ...................................................... 4-17 5. SME SURVEY RESULTS AND FINDINGS........................................................... 5-1 5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 5-1 5.2 WBT Objectives ................................................................................................. 5-2 5.3 WBT Promise ..................................................................................................... 5-3 5.4 WBT Implementation Issues .............................................................................. 5-5 5.5 WBT Applications.............................................................................................. 5-7 5.6 WBT Technology ............................................................................................. 5-10 5.7 Value Creation of WBT.................................................................................... 5-12
  10. 10. 6. LESSONS LEARNED AND NEXT STEPS............................................................. 6-1 6.1 Lessons Learned ................................................................................................. 6-1 6.2 Next Steps........................................................................................................... 6-2 7. APPENDIX A: Bibliography of Key Sources ........................................................... 7-1 8. APPENDIX B: Contact Information for WBT SMEs ............................................... 8-1 9. APPENDIX C: SME Survey Outline ........................................................................ 9-1 10. APPENDIX D: Tally of SMEt Responses to Scale Questions ................................ 10-1 11. APPENDIX E: Summary of Responses to Selected SME Survey Questions ......... 11-1
  11. 11. TABLES Table Number Table Name Page Table 1: Transit Training Complexity Matrix ............................................................... 4-12 Table 2: Four Types of Web-Based Training ................................................................ 4-14 Table 3: List of Subject Matter Experts......................................................................... 4-18 FIGURES Figure Number Figure Name Page Figure 1: ITS Professional Capacity Building Page ...................................................... 4-4 Figure 2: NTI Online Course Page ................................................................................ 4-5 Figure 3: CUTA’s Traditional and Online Training Courses ........................................ 4-5 Figure 4: TransitTraining.com ....................................................................................... 4-6 Figure 5: USDOT Transportation Virtual University Course Locator ....................... 4-12 Figure 6: Transit Training Resource Page ....................................................... . . . . . . . . 4-16
  12. 12. 1. PREFACE: HOW TO USE THIS ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT The electronic transit (i.e., e-transit) project was structured so that task orders would produce e-documents for rapid distribution via the Internet. This e-document is designed to provide live links to webpages, online documents, and e-mail messaging. The design, which includes the use of footnotes rather than endnotes, allows readers to easily • Go directly to the online versions of webpages in readers’ web browsers (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer) so that readers can examine the pages and look at other parts of those websites; • Open links to online documents so that the full contents can be reviewed or downloaded; and • Launch e-mail software from within the e-document with a blank message already addressed to particular contacts, enabling readers to readily communicate with the subject matter experts involved in this effort. (These experts are found in Appendix B: Contact Information for WBT SMEs.) Links are identified by underlined blue text. In addition, most figures that show webpages are also formatted as links to the Internet. To check this, the reader should briefly hold his or her cursor over the image. If it is a “live” link to the Internet, the cursor should change to a hand icon, and a note about the link should appear at the upper left corner of the image. All links, including figures, should be clicked once to launch the online version. However, the reader should be aware of several potential limitations: • The directions above assume that the reader has a constant connection to the Internet, typically through one’s local area network. Readers using a dial-up connection will need to log into their Internet service provider (ISP) before the links will work. • For the links to work as described above, readers’ web browsers and e-mail programs must be configured properly. If they are not, readers will need to speak with software support staff or their network administrator. 1-1
  13. 13. • Links are sometimes changed or eliminated by the webpage or document owner. This means links that work as of the publication of this report may not function at a later datethat is the nature of the Internet. This e-document is in portable document format (PDF), which runs in Adobe Acrobat Reader® 5.0 (the Reader is included on CRP-CD-27). The user can employ the Adobe Acrobat Reader toolbars, which make it easy to browse and navigate this e-document. 1-2
  14. 14. 2. SUMMARY 2.1 Overview of the Research Project Recognizing that the transit industry should explore the potential of e-business, TCRP initiated Project J-09, “e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation” in 2001. This multitask study of the potential for electronic business activities in the transit industry has seven tasks, including Task 6, “Web-Based Training and Certification.” This research project was designed to explore the potential of web-based training (WBT) to provide cost-effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. Internet hardware and software technologies and applications are evolving rapidly to provide the tools needed to develop and supply training for an abundance of topics via the World Wide Web. These products, services, and resources enable staff persons in most sectors of the economy to engage in training without many of the constraints endemic to classroom courses. The resulting research findings reported here strongly support the perspective that the transit industry can and should move more fully into the WBT arena. WBT experts expect the training to provide significant benefits; however, the transit industry is generally slow in adopting and adapting to new technologies such as the Internet. Moreover, the research showed that the transit industry is constrained because it lacks a knowledge and resource base that transit agencies can use to identify WBT needs, approaches, requirements, and resources. As several research sources indicated, the transit industry needs to look at training as a business strategy. The Multisystems project team designed this e-documentwith its numerous Internet hyperlinks to transit industry and general business training resourcesto begin bridging the knowledge gap described by the research findings. This report and the Transit Training Resource (TTR) webpage developed during the project should serve as a first step in the effort to make WBT a reality for more transit agencies. Both research products will allow interested transit agency professionals to begin learning immediately about WBT. The reader can learn what others have already accomplished within and beyond the transit 2-1
  15. 15. industry and can access resources and services for adding WBT to the training menu for transit staff. 2.2 Recommendations The recommendations presented in this report range from immediate actions to next research steps. Because WBT is a broad, multifaceted topic with continually changing perspectives, applications, and technologies, identifying next steps to this research was as challenging as developing a suitable methodology for the project. Without losing sight of the important fact that WBT is grounded in adult education theory and instructional design, the recommendations include the following: • Create a Transit WBT Web Portal. Similar to TTR, a transit WBT web portal would be specifically designed for the needs of the transit industry at large as well as for individual transit agencies. The portal would provide a common link among various transit industry efforts to promote WBT courses. It could be similar in concept to APTA’s TransportMAX web portal for transit e-business and draw on many of the existing resources identified during the research. Of equal importance, the portal could provide a central location for coordinating and reporting on other recommendations listed below. • Survey Participants in an Existing Transit WBT Course. Closely related to the first recommendation, studying an existing WBT course would involve surveying participants who have already taken an existing WBT course for transit. Working through the course’s organizational sponsor, the research would be designed to measure overall satisfaction, the quality of course and relevance to work demands, use of Internet and WBT technologies, how much is actually learned, and what material is retained after the course. The survey could also assess the WBT mode or modes used in the course (e.g., web/electronic performance support systems, web/computer-based training, web/virtual asynchronous classes, web/virtual synchronous classes, blended courses, or other WBT models). 2-2
  16. 16. • Evaluate WBT Implementation Procedures. The project team recommends funding further research to evaluate WBT implementation in order to identify short-term steps to maximize the cost effectiveness of WBT for transit. This study could include several transit agencies of different sizes and types from across the country. It could begin by identifying the top training issues at each agency, including priorities of what is taught to which staff positions and organization levels. After priorities are identified, subject matter experts (SMEs) could evaluate how to address these key training issues with the smallest financial investment, such as using preexisting off-the-shelf courses and support systems where possible. The courseoff-the-shelf or customcould then be rolled out to all participating agencies and could include a campaign to promote its use. The research team would monitor course use and satisfaction and would study the factors that are related to the effectiveness of various types of WBT in addressing problems at different types of agencies. The results could guide future implementation programs and help maximize their effectiveness. Based on the findings, recommendations could be made regarding the WBT solutions that are likely to best serve the largest number and widest range of transit agencies. • Centralize and Coordinate Transit WBT Efforts. The transit industry is generally fragmented in its efforts to create, promote, and distribute WBT courses. Centralization and standardization of transit WBT development and distribution would help prevent duplicative efforts found in many other areas of the industry. It should promote interoperability and reusability of transit training resources. • Conduct Research into Reusable Learning Objects. Research into reusable learning objects (RLOs)an extension of the previous recommendationwould investigate how the concept of RLOs could be applied to create flexible WBT courses and content, make curriculum updates relatively easy, help adapt training to different environments, promote interoperability, 2-3
  17. 17. facilitate competency-based learning, and increase the value of individual agency or industrywide WBT investments by making WBT widely and easily available. The research would include evaluation of content and knowledge management systems and approaches that support standardization, centralization of content, and customization of new courses. Underlying these recommendations were the project team’s preliminary research findings, which led the team to change from a two-stage survey approach to a single SME survey. Originally, the SME survey results were to be used to create a second telephone survey of transit agency trainers and human-resources personnel. However, the literature review and first SME telephone surveys made it apparent that transit agency staff would most likely lack sufficient background in WBT, suggesting that a second survey would likely produce limited, if not misleading, findings. Instead, the project team increased the number of SMEs invited to participate in order to build a more substantial knowledge base from expert perspectives. The recommendations listed above reflect the fact that the transit industry must first develop some fundamental resources and fund several near-term research efforts. 2.3 Summary of Research Findings The project team’s review of prior institutional efforts and the literature search helped identify the 11 SMEs and provided the foundation for the telephone survey. All SMEs had experience in some combination of transit, general surface transportation training, or both; intelligent transportation systems (ITS); and WBT. These individuals represented the public, private, and educational sectors and contributed the essential information. The findings are summarized below. 2.4 WBT Objectives The primary, near-term objective for applying WBT should be teaching computer and information technology skills and related knowledge sets to technical and professional employees. This application of WBT should also be readily adaptable to testing resulting competencies. Similarly, WBT could be useful for certain well-defined skill and 2-4
  18. 18. knowledge sets for technical and professional employees and, to a lesser extent, for operating and line staff. Transit operations and planning skills, techniques, and technology could be the initial focus of training for technical and professional employees. 2.5 WBT Promise Technical and professional employees are not the only ones who could benefit from WBT. WBT could also be employed to train a large, diverse body of employees because it can handle different job requirements and levels of expertisefor example, WBT could be useful for repetitious training of core competencies such as customer service procedures or maintenance tasks. As for benefits, WBT could be preferential to traditional classroom training in some cases, especially when an agency’s training needs increase but its training budget does not. Course content is the starting point for WBT learning. A major promise for WBT is that, properly managed, it can address the needs of both individual agencies and larger sectors of the transit industry. 2.6 WBT Implementation Issues As with any new activity or technology, successful WBT implementation will require the transit industry to overcome internal and external obstacles. To do so, transit officials must carefully consider how and where to use WBT, must financially and managerially support development efforts and subsequent maintenance of courses over time, and must employ WBT professionals for course development and initial training of transit human-resources staff. The transit industry must pay special attention to selecting appropriate applications, rather than to paying for bells and whistles that do not add to any particular training objective. Upper management support is essential, as is middle management participation and oversight, to ensure that student involvement and progress that has been enabled via WBT is tracked and evaluated for results. In other words, the transit industry must realize an appropriate return on its WBT training investment. 2-5
  19. 19. 2.7 WBT Applications The ideal application of WBT would include instructors. Instructors could be involved either in real-time over the Internet as an “in-class trainer,” or virtuallythe instructor is not “present” but is available to answer student questions or concerns. Nonetheless, other forms of WBT have many potential uses in the transit industry, depending on the particular subject matter, the needs and capabilities of the students, and the resources available for WBT. For example, self-paced courses similar to those originally available on CD-ROMs can by useful for some employees and training topics. CD-based training is being supplanted because the web-based equivalents are much easier and less expensive to distribute and update. The online help systems described in the body of the reporteither as stand-alone information systems or as follow-up support to other WBT solutionscan provide crucial job support for both technical and professional and operating and line staff. These job-support systems can also help to stem the loss of knowledge often experienced following traditional classroom training. The distinction among WBT applications is less pronounced when training objectives, content, and outcomes are the primary guidelines in course development. When such guidelines are followed, the use of hybrids of the four primary WBT methods (which are described later) can produce the most effective and efficient online training programs. 2.8 WBT Technology The transit industry and individual agencies should be aware that WBT courses could involve content and technologies that would make it difficult for students to take advantage of the courses, either at work or at homefor example, something as basic as Internet connection speed can affect the student experience by slowing down response time or affecting how graphics load. Therefore, at least for the near future, WBT courses should be designed for any Internet connection and a for range of computers, operating systems, and web browsers. In general, transit agencies should carefully search for the most appropriate technologies and service providers to achieve the desired training outcomes by ensuring that hardware or software does not create student dissatisfaction. 2-6
  20. 20. 2.9 WBT Value Creation To maximize the value of WBT in the transit industry, it is critical that experienced WBT experts (who may consult in other industries or already have transit experience) work with transit agency staff to develop appropriate training material tailored to the target audience. Instructional systems design experts should specify assessment approaches and requisite tools. Selecting the most appropriate applications and technologies is fundamental to creating value. Similarly, securing the services from existing transit industry expertssuch as the SMEs involved in this research or reputable WBT vendors, especially those who are willing to work with the nuances of the transit industryis fundamental. In order to maximize the value of WBT, the transit industry should develop the training in an environment of collaboration and knowledge exchange among individual transit agencies and transit trainers across the industry. The transit industry should approach promoting and supporting WBT with the objective of centralizing and sharing training resources so that investments are maximized. This perspective supports the goal of standardizing WBT training with the tools needed to customize specific courses to the particular needs of individual transit agencies, regardless of size, financial resources, and so forth. One or more of the existing transit trade or training organizations such as APTA, the National Transit Institute (NTI), TRB, or the Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA) could step into this role. 2.10 Conclusions TCRP Project J-09 Task 6, “Web-Based Training and Certification,” has examined the potential role of WBT in providing training to transit employees. Based on the findings of this research, WBT offers considerable opportunity for use by the transit industry. Although there will be management, financial, and technological obstacles along this road, WBT in its various forms has the potential to address training needs for skill and knowledge sets throughout transit organizations. The profusion of approaches, content, and resources, however, can be overwhelming, as the project team discovered. For every information source, technology, or resource mentioned in this report, another 10 could 2-7
  21. 21. have been cited. The situation is similar to that faced by transit agencies trying to develop other e-business or Internet information services. Further work is clearly needed to identify and prioritize specific applications of WBT to transit in order to maximize the benefits the training is capable of providing. The products of this study represent a useful first step in making transit professionals aware of both the opportunities and issues associated with using WBT. More importantly, the report provides access to a wide range of resources transit agencies could begin to use now. 2-8
  22. 22. 3. RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY AND OBJECTIVES In 2001, the TCRP initiated Project J-09, “e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation.” This multitask study of the potential for electronic business activities in the transit industry has seven tasks ranging from supply-chain management to web-based customer information. TRB’s overall objective for the e-transit tasks is described below: The declining costs of communications, data storage, and data retrieval are accelerating the opportunities spawned by the Internet and other information and communications technologies. Choosing and sequencing investments in technologies, processes, and people to reduce costs and increase productivity present challenges to the transit manager, who must weigh the costs, benefits, and risks of changing the ways services are delivered....TCRP’s e-transit research program will identify, develop, and promote research to maximize the benefits of e-commerce and other new technology applications for public transportation and mobility management...[and] to provide flexible, ongoing, quick-response research designed to bring electronic business strategies to public transportation and mobility management.”1 WBT is accepted in other business sectors as an accessible, centralized, flexible, and effective way to deliver training. An April 2001, The New York Times published an article about WBT entitled “Employee Training, Without the No-Doz.” The article states the following: Employers are embracing e-learning because it is less expensive than classroom setups and more accessible to large numbers of workers. All that employees need is a computer hooked up to the Web…. A proliferation of vendors is offering content, consulting services and delivery solutions to companies interested in contracting out their training. International Data [Corporation] estimates that the corporate market for 1 From the J-09 Webpage at http://www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf/63b33593db2829ee8525672f0062cef3/219e37784f3f1aa1852569ac00665c62?OpenDocument; this page also shows all the J-09 tasks. 3-1
  23. 23. e-learning in the United States will exceed $11 billion by 2003, up from $2.2 billion 2 last year…. The project team’s working hypothesis has been that WBT has the potential to • Address many training needs of the transit industry by increasing opportunities for training personnel throughout different parts of transit agencies and at different levels in the chain of command; • Standardize certain aspects of training; and • Provide a mechanism for rapid curriculum updates (which is very difficult with CD-ROM-based computer-based training [CBT]). Various established and developing Internet technologies provide the flexibility to train transit staff located in different places and working at different times. However, the transit industry is being held back at least in part because it lacks a knowledge base that transit agencies can easily access to identify WBT approaches, requirements, and resources. As a result, TRB designed this project to explore the potential of WBT to provide cost-effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. As the research progressed, the project team came to consider whether individual transit agencies should develop their own WBT resources or whether the industry should consider centralizing WBT resources. Issues about competency testing and certification were also part of the research because these issues were identified as particularly important to the transit industry. However, as explained later in the report, not all WBT topics could be researched within the confines of this Task 6. 2 “Business to Business; Employee Training, Without the No-Doz,” by Susan Stellin for The New York Times, April 18, 2001. 3-2

×