ELC 200
  Day 26
Agenda

  Questions from last Class?
  Assignment 6, 7 & 8 all posted
     Assignment 6 Corrected
         6 A’s, 5 B’...
E-Strategy Landscape

 Strategy initiation: organization prepares
  information about its vision, mission,
  purpose, and...
E-Strategy Landscape (cont.)


 Strategy implementation:
   Organization’s resources are analyzed
   A plan is develope...
Exhibit 11.1
The Landscape of EC Strategy
Strategy Initiation

 Strategy initiation—the initial phase of e-
  strategy in which an organization prepares
  informat...
Industry Assessment

 What industry is the EC        How is value added
  initiative related to?          throughout the...
Company Assessment
 The organization         It looks at everything
  investigates its own:     that has an impact on
  ...
Industry, Company, and
Competitive Analysis

 SWOT analysis—a methodology that surveys the
  opportunities and threats in...
Exhibit 11.2
SWOT Matrix
1.Top wireless provider in the U.S. serving 49 of the top 50       1.49 billion dollars in long term
Verizon              ...
Competitive Intelligence on the Internet

  Internet can play a major role as a
   source of competitive information
   (...
Competitive Intelligence
on the Internet (cont.)

   Analyze related discussion groups
     Find out what people think a...
Issues in Strategy Initiation

 To be a first mover or a follower?
 Advantages               Disadvantages
  Chance to ...
Should You Have a Separate
Online Company?
 Advantages                      Disadvantages
   Reducing or eliminating   ...
Strategy Formulation

Strategy formulation
   Development of long-range and strategic plans to
   exploit opportunities a...
Discovering EC Opportunities


3 common mistakes in allocating EC
 investment
  Let a thousand flowers bloom—fund many
 ...
Discovering EC Opportunities (cont.)

Approaches to identifying EC
 opportunities
  Problem-driven
  Technology-driven
...
Determining an Appropriate
EC Application Portfolio
 Find the most appropriate portfolio in order to share
  limited reso...
BCG Matrix
                                             Relative Market Share Position
                                   ...
Making the Business Case for EC

Business case—written document that is
 used by managers to garner funding for
 specific...
Content of an E-Business Case

Business case for EC approach for
 garnering funding for projects used to:
  Provide just...
Content of an E-Business Case (cont.)


Content of an E-business case
  Strategic justification—”where are we going?”
  ...
Cost-Benefit and Risk Analysis

  How to conduct an            Revenue model
                                  Properly...
Cost-Benefit and Risk Analysis (cont.)


 It is difficult to justify EC investment due to
  many intangible variables
   ...
Value Proposition
 Value proposition—the benefit a company
  can derive from implementing a new
  project, such as EC, us...
Risk Analysis
 Risk analysis program       E-business risks
  should                       Strategic risks
  Identify ...
Issues in Strategy Formulation

 How to handle channel conflicts
    Let established old-economy-type dealers
     handl...
Issues in Strategy Formulation (cont.)


  How to handle conflict between off-line
   and online businesses
    Clear su...
Issues in Strategy Formulation (cont.)

Pricing strategy
  Setting prices lower than off-line business may
   lead to in...
Strategy Implementation


 Strategy implementation--The execution
  of the e-strategy plan, in which detailed,
  short-te...
Strategy Implementation (cont.)


Strategy implementation issues
  Evaluating outsourcing
    Build an in-house EC infr...
Strategy and Project Assessment
 Strategy assessment—the periodic formal
  evaluation of progress toward the organization...
Measuring Results & Using Metrics

 Metric—a measurable standard or a target
  against which actual performance is compar...
Measuring Results &
Using Metrics (cont.)

Balanced scorecard—a structured
 methodology for measuring
 performance in org...
Measuring Results &
Using Metrics (cont.)

Performance dashboard—a structured
 methodology proposed by Rayport and
 Jawor...
Performance Dashboard
EC Failures & Lessons Learned

 E-Tailing failures
   Lack of funding
   Incorrect revenue model
 Exchange failures
  ...
Success Stories & Lessons Learned

Reasons for success:
  Brick-and-mortar companies add online
   channels
  Mergers a...
Success Stories &
Lessons Learned (cont.)

 Asian CEOs CSFs:
   Select robust business models
   Understand dot-com fut...
Virtual Communities

Virtual community—a group of people with
similar interests who interact with one another
using the In...
Virtual Communities (cont.)


 Communities of           Communities of
  transactions—             relations
  facilitat...
Virtual Communities (cont.)
Commercial aspects of community:
  Understand a particular niche industry
  Build a site th...
Exhibit 11.9
Value Creation in E-Communities
Virtual Communities (cont.)

Financial viability of communities
  Based on sponsorship and advertisement
  Expenses are...
Virtual Communities (cont.)

 Key strategies for successful online communities
  1. Increase traffic and participation
  ...
Going Global


Decision to go global is a strategic one
  Geographical borders are falling
  Artificial borders are bei...
Benefits and Extent of Operations

 Major advantage of EC—ability to do business
  any time, anywhere, rapidly at a reaso...
Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce
  Legal Issues
     Uncoordinated actions must be avoided and an
     internationa...
Small Business Goes Global


Cardiac Science—trying to break into
 the international market for years
  Within 2 years a...
Small Business Goes Global (cont.)


 Advice for small businesses going global at:
  Universal Business Exchange (unibex...
Barriers to Global
Electronic Commerce (cont.)

Other Issues
  Language and translation
      Primary problems are cost,...
Breaking down the
Global EC Barriers
 Value the human       Keep the site flexible
  touch                  and up-to-da...
EC in SMEs

Advantages/benefits of EC in SMEs
  Inexpensive
    Source of information
    Advertising
    Conducting ...
EC in SMEs (cont.)

Disadvantages/risks
  Inability to use EDI, unless it is EDI/Internet
  Lack of resources to fully ...
Critical Success Factors for SMEs

 Capital investment must be small
 Inventory should be minimal or non-existent
 Elec...
Supporting Small Business


 Technical support from IBM (for a fee of
  only $25 per month) at
  ibm.com.search:businessc...
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)


 Organizational transformation—the
  process of completely or drastically
  transf...
BPR (cont.)

 Redesign of the enterprise process and BPR
  Does not make sense to automate poorly designed
   process—so...
Workflow Technologies


Workflow system—software programs that
 manage all the steps in a business
 process from start to...
Virtual Corporations

 Virtual corporation—an organization composed
  of several business partners (some of whom
  may be...
The Future of EC (CSF’s)

 Internet usage              Payment systems
 Opportunities for buying    Business-to-busine...
EC Technology Trends


 Clients             EC software and
 Embedded clients     services
 Servers             Searc...
The Digital Divide
 Digital divide—the gap between those who have
  and those who do not have the ability to access
  ele...
Integrating
Marketplace and Marketspace

Click-and-mortar organization
  How to cooperate in planning, advertising,
   l...
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  1. 1. ELC 200 Day 26
  2. 2. Agenda  Questions from last Class?  Assignment 6, 7 & 8 all posted  Assignment 6 Corrected  6 A’s, 5 B’s, 1 C, 1 F (late) and 1 MIA  Assignment 7 due Today  Will have them back to you on Thursday  Assignment 8 due May 8 @ 8AM  EBiz plan and presentations  Send your plans and PowerPoints to me in WebCT by 8AM on May 8  More information in assignments section of WebCT  Today we will the discussing eCommerce Strategies.
  3. 3. E-Strategy Landscape  Strategy initiation: organization prepares information about its vision, mission, purpose, and the contribution that EC could make to the business  Strategy formulation: Identification of EC applications Cost-benefit analysis Risk analysis
  4. 4. E-Strategy Landscape (cont.) Strategy implementation: Organization’s resources are analyzed A plan is developed for attaining the goals Strategy assessment: Organization periodically assesses progress toward the strategic goals Involves the development of EC metrics
  5. 5. Exhibit 11.1 The Landscape of EC Strategy
  6. 6. Strategy Initiation  Strategy initiation—the initial phase of e- strategy in which an organization prepares information about its vision, mission, purpose, and the contribution that EC could make 1. Review the organization’s business and IT vision and mission 2. Generate vision and mission for EC 3. Begin with industry and competitive analysis
  7. 7. Industry Assessment  What industry is the EC  How is value added initiative related to? throughout the value chain?  Who are the customers?  What are the major  What are the current opportunities and threats? practices of selling and  Are there any metrics or buying? best practices in place?  Who are the major  What are the existing and competitors? (How intense potential partnerships for is the competition?) EC?  What e-strategies are used, by whom?
  8. 8. Company Assessment  The organization  It looks at everything investigates its own: that has an impact on Business strategy its operations Performance Processes Customers People Partners Information flows Technology support
  9. 9. Industry, Company, and Competitive Analysis  SWOT analysis—a methodology that surveys the opportunities and threats in the external environment and relates them to the organization’s particular strengths and weaknesses  SWOT Analysis Strengths Opportunities Weaknesses Threats
  10. 10. Exhibit 11.2 SWOT Matrix
  11. 11. 1.Top wireless provider in the U.S. serving 49 of the top 50 1.49 billion dollars in long term Verizon markets 2.High-speed data network in all major markets debt 2.Lack of international presence 3.Largest provider of local, long distance, data, and broadband 3.Revenue only increased 4 percent since services in 2/3 of the top 100 markets in the U.S. year end 2000. 4.Leading print and on-line directory publisher with 2100 in U.S. and 13 other countries 5.Verizon invested 12 billion in 2002 in 400,000 miles of fiber- optic cable. 6.Marketing campaign – brand awareness S-O Strategies W-O Strategies 1.141 million possible investors in Europe, 1.Expand wireless services into Europe, UK and/or Germany 1.Purchase international wireless UK, and Germany (S1, O1, O3) providers such as MMO2 (W2, O4) 2.Strengthening foreign currencies vs dollar- 2.Expand high speed internet service in Europe, UK and/or 2.Offer services to people in Euro advantages Germany (S2,O5) Europe to increase revenue due to 3.Increased usage in wireless services 3.Acquire small domestic wireless providers such as Powertel the difference in foreign currency 4.Small wireless providers are consolidating or Aerial (S1, O4) (W1, O2) with larger providers due to increased 4.Invest capital into fiber optic cable to compete with cable competition companies. (S5, O5) 5.Increased desire for high-speed internet service S-T Strategies W-T Strategies 1.New regulatory complaints (new phone # 1.Enter into a joint venture with MCI to offer a package deal 1.Expand globally in Europe (W2, portability) (S1, T12) T7) 2.Rising costs of healthcare 2.Proceed with legal battles to serve local markets to increase 2.Liquidate the 3.Global unrest- economic monetary and traditional voice and fixed lines.(S3, T7) Telecommunications Services such financial as fixed lines and traditional lines 4.Consumer privacy rights being attacked business to reduce long-term debt. 5.Weak Consumer spending (W1, T6) 6.Decreasing demand for traditional voice lines and fixed lines 7.Increasing overlap of telecommunication territories 8.Increasing competition for providers of web search directories 9.Increasing providers of wireless services 10.Brand recognition
  12. 12. Competitive Intelligence on the Internet  Internet can play a major role as a source of competitive information (competitive intelligence)  Review competitors’ Web sites  Examine publicly available financial documents  Edgar Online, Valueline  Ask the customers—award prizes to those who best describe your competitors’ strengths and weaknesses
  13. 13. Competitive Intelligence on the Internet (cont.) Analyze related discussion groups Find out what people think about a company and its products and competitor's products Reaction to new ideas and products Use information delivery services Find out what it published on the Internet Known as push technologies Corporate research companies provide information about your competitors: Examine chat rooms
  14. 14. Issues in Strategy Initiation To be a first mover or a follower?  Advantages  Disadvantages Chance to capture Cost of developing EC large markets initiative is usually very Establishing a brand high name Chance of failure is high Exclusive strategic System may be obsolete alliances as compared to second wave arrivals No support services are available at the beginning
  15. 15. Should You Have a Separate Online Company?  Advantages  Disadvantages  Reducing or eliminating May be very costly internal conflicts and risky  Providing more freedom Collaboration with off- to management in line business may be pricing, advertising, etc. difficult  Can create new brands Lose expertise of quickly business functions  Take the e-business to an unless you use close IPO and make a fortune collaboration
  16. 16. Strategy Formulation Strategy formulation Development of long-range and strategic plans to exploit opportunities and manage threats in the business environment in light of corporate strengths and weaknesses Includes examining or redefining EC mission Specifying achievable objectives Developing strategies Setting implementation guidelines
  17. 17. Discovering EC Opportunities 3 common mistakes in allocating EC investment Let a thousand flowers bloom—fund many projects indiscriminately Bet it all—put everything on a single high-stake initiative Trend-surf—follow the crowd toward the next “big thing” Any of the above can be risky and costly
  18. 18. Discovering EC Opportunities (cont.) Approaches to identifying EC opportunities Problem-driven Technology-driven Market-driven—waiting to see what the competitors will do Fear or greed-driven Afraid if they do not practice EC they will be big losers Think they can make lots of money going into EC
  19. 19. Determining an Appropriate EC Application Portfolio  Find the most appropriate portfolio in order to share limited resources Combine long-term speculative investments in new potentially high-growth business With short-term investments in existing, profit- making businesses  Boston Consulting Group’s matrix Cash cows Questionable projects Starts Dogs
  20. 20. BCG Matrix Relative Market Share Position High Medium Low 1.0 .50 0.0 High +20 Industry Sales Growth Rate Stars Question Marks II I Medium 0 Cash Cows Dogs III IV Low -20 20
  21. 21. Making the Business Case for EC Business case—written document that is used by managers to garner funding for specific applications or projects by providing justification for investments Provides foundation for tactical decision making and technology by management Helps clarify the company’s use of its resources to accomplish the e-strategy
  22. 22. Content of an E-Business Case Business case for EC approach for garnering funding for projects used to: Provide justification for investments Provides bridge between EC plan and the execution Provides foundation for tactical decision making and technology risk management Clarifies how the organization will use resources to accomplish the e-strategy
  23. 23. Content of an E-Business Case (cont.) Content of an E-business case Strategic justification—”where are we going?” Generational justification—”how will we get there?” Technical justification—”when will we get there?” Financial justification—”why will we win?”
  24. 24. Cost-Benefit and Risk Analysis  How to conduct an  Revenue model  Properly planned e-business case revenue model is a  Develop goal critical success factor statement  Revenues from sales depend on customer  Set measurable goals acquisition cost and  Develop short- and advertisement long-term action plans  Must be figured into the  Gain approval and analysis support
  25. 25. Cost-Benefit and Risk Analysis (cont.) It is difficult to justify EC investment due to many intangible variables Return on investment (ROI) Discounted cash flow Two common methods Value proposition Risk analysis
  26. 26. Value Proposition Value proposition—the benefit a company can derive from implementing a new project, such as EC, usually by increasing its competitiveness and by providing better service to its customers
  27. 27. Risk Analysis  Risk analysis program  E-business risks should Strategic risks Identify all potential Financial risks risks Operational risks Assess potential damage Evaluate possibility of protection (insurance) Evaluate cost of protection vs. benefits
  28. 28. Issues in Strategy Formulation How to handle channel conflicts Let established old-economy-type dealers handle e-business fulfillment Sell some products only online Help your intermediaries (e.g., build portals) Sell online and off-line Do not sell online
  29. 29. Issues in Strategy Formulation (cont.) How to handle conflict between off-line and online businesses Clear support of top management Use of innovative processes that support collaboration Clear strategy of “what and how”
  30. 30. Issues in Strategy Formulation (cont.) Pricing strategy Setting prices lower than off-line business may lead to internal conflict Setting prices at the same level may hurt competitiveness Should you get financing from big venture capital firms? Venture capital financing causes loss of control over business Benefit: access to various VC experts and get the cash you need
  31. 31. Strategy Implementation Strategy implementation--The execution of the e-strategy plan, in which detailed, short-term plans are developed for attaining strategic goals Establish a Web team that continues the execution of the plan Start with a pilot project Planning for resources
  32. 32. Strategy Implementation (cont.) Strategy implementation issues Evaluating outsourcing Build an in-house EC infrastructure Purchase a commercial EC software package or EC suite Use a Web hosting company Partners’ strategy How to coordinate B2B and B2C
  33. 33. Strategy and Project Assessment  Strategy assessment—the periodic formal evaluation of progress toward the organization's strategic goals; may include needed actions and strategy reformulation  Objectives of assessment Find out if EC project delivers what it was supposed to deliver Adjust plans if necessary Determine if EC project is still viable Reassess initial strategy in order to learn from mistakes and improve future planning Identify failing projects as soon as possible and determine reasons for failure
  34. 34. Measuring Results & Using Metrics  Metric—a measurable standard or a target against which actual performance is compared Response time to customers’ enquiries Response quality Security/trust level Download time, Timeliness of fulfillment How up-to-date information Availability Site effectiveness, ease of use, and navigability
  35. 35. Measuring Results & Using Metrics (cont.) Balanced scorecard—a structured methodology for measuring performance in organizations, using metrics in four areas Finance Customers’ assessments Internal business processes Learning and growth
  36. 36. Measuring Results & Using Metrics (cont.) Performance dashboard—a structured methodology proposed by Rayport and Jaworski (2001) for measuring EC performance using: Desired outcomes Corresponding metrics Leading and lagging indicators of performance
  37. 37. Performance Dashboard
  38. 38. EC Failures & Lessons Learned  E-Tailing failures Lack of funding Incorrect revenue model  Exchange failures Revenue growth too slow Need to move to new business model  EC initiatives failures Levi Strauss stopped online direct sales of its apparel (levistrauss.com) when major distributors and retailers put pressure on the company not to compete with their brick-and-mortar outlets
  39. 39. Success Stories & Lessons Learned Reasons for success: Brick-and-mortar companies add online channels Mergers and acquisitions Peter Drucker: Analyze the opportunities Go out to look keep it focused Start small (one thing at a time) Aim at market leadership
  40. 40. Success Stories & Lessons Learned (cont.) Asian CEOs CSFs: Select robust business models Understand dot-com future Foster e-innovation Evaluate a spin-off strategy Co-brand Employ ex-dot-com staffers Focus on the e-generation as your market Get the technology right, avoid expensive technology and technology malfunctions
  41. 41. Virtual Communities Virtual community—a group of people with similar interests who interact with one another using the Internet Elements of interaction: Communication—bulletin boards, chat rooms/threaded discussions, e-mail and instant messaging Information—directories and yellow pages, search engine, member-generated content EC elements—e-catalogs, shopping carts, ads, auctions of all types
  42. 42. Virtual Communities (cont.)  Communities of  Communities of transactions— relations facilitate buying and (practice)— selling organized around  Communities of certain life interest—people experiences interact with each  Communities of other on a specific fantasy—share topic imaginary environments
  43. 43. Virtual Communities (cont.) Commercial aspects of community: Understand a particular niche industry Build a site that provides valuable information Site should mirror the steps a user goes through in the information-gathering and decision-making process Build a community that relies on the site for decision support Start selling products and services that fit into the decision-support process
  44. 44. Exhibit 11.9 Value Creation in E-Communities
  45. 45. Virtual Communities (cont.) Financial viability of communities Based on sponsorship and advertisement Expenses are very high because of the need to provide: Fresh content Free services Free membership This model did not work well, many companies sustained heavy losses in 2000-2001; too few members, too few purchases
  46. 46. Virtual Communities (cont.)  Key strategies for successful online communities 1. Increase traffic and participation 2. Focus on the needs of the members (facilitators and coordinators) 3. Encourage free sharing of opinions and information 4. Financial sponsorship is a must 5. Consider the cultural environment 6. Provide tools and activities for member use 7. Community members involved in activities and recruiting 8. Guide discussions, provoke controversy, and raise sticky issues
  47. 47. Going Global Decision to go global is a strategic one Geographical borders are falling Artificial borders are being erected through Local language preferences, Local regulations Access limitations
  48. 48. Benefits and Extent of Operations  Major advantage of EC—ability to do business any time, anywhere, rapidly at a reasonable cost  Success stories E*TRADE or boom.com as your broker for stock trading Amazon.com Small companies sell to hundreds of customers worldwide (virtualvine.com) Increasing number of out-of-the-country vendors participate in electronic requests for quotes Successful employees recruitment Successful collaboration in B2B exchanges
  49. 49. Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce  Legal Issues Uncoordinated actions must be avoided and an international policy of cooperation should be encouraged  Market Access Issues Companies starting e-commerce need to evaluate bandwidth needs by analyzing the data required, time constraints, access demands, and user technology limitations  Financial Issues Customs and taxation Electronic payment systems
  50. 50. Small Business Goes Global Cardiac Science—trying to break into the international market for years Within 2 years after Internet inception in the company, it was shipping its products to 46 countries Today, 85 percent of the company’s revenue is international, much of this is executed at (cardiacscience.com)
  51. 51. Small Business Goes Global (cont.)  Advice for small businesses going global at: Universal Business Exchange (unibex.com) Several government agencies (stat-usa.gov)  Cardiac’s CEO “crafting a solid export strategy takes a lot more commitment than putting up a snazzy Web site and waiting for the world to show up at our door. It’s all about building relationships.”
  52. 52. Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce (cont.) Other Issues Language and translation Primary problems are cost, speed, inaccuracy Localization Adapt local business practices Culture Multiple cultures warrant different marketing approaches
  53. 53. Breaking down the Global EC Barriers  Value the human  Keep the site flexible touch and up-to-date  Be strategic  Synchronize content  Know your audience  OECD (oecd.org)  Be a perfectionist read  Remember, it’s the “Dismantling the Web Barriers to Global EC”  Integrate properly
  54. 54. EC in SMEs Advantages/benefits of EC in SMEs Inexpensive Source of information Advertising Conducting market research Build (or rent) a storefront Low transaction costs Niche markets are best Provide catalogs Way to reach worldwide customers
  55. 55. EC in SMEs (cont.) Disadvantages/risks Inability to use EDI, unless it is EDI/Internet Lack of resources to fully exploit the Web Lack of expertise in legal issues, advertisement Less risk tolerance than a large company Disadvantage when a commodity is the product (for example, CDs) No more personal contact, which is a strong point of a small business No advantage to being in a local community
  56. 56. Critical Success Factors for SMEs  Capital investment must be small  Inventory should be minimal or non-existent  Electronic payments scheme  Payment methods must be flexible  Logistical services must be quick and reliable  The Web site should be submitted to directory-based search engine services  Join an online service or mall and do banner exchange  Design a Web site that is functional and provides all needed services to consumers
  57. 57. Supporting Small Business  Technical support from IBM (for a fee of only $25 per month) at ibm.com.search:businesscenter  Digital’s virtual stores  Microsoft’s Personal Web Server (PWS)  Gartner Group provides access to online research material at gartner.com
  58. 58. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Organizational transformation—the process of completely or drastically transforming an entire organization to a new mode of operation Business process reengineering (BPR)—a methodology for comprehensive redesign of an enterprise’s processes
  59. 59. BPR (cont.)  Redesign of the enterprise process and BPR Does not make sense to automate poorly designed process—so restructure Necessary to change processes to fit commercially available software Fit is required between systems and processes of different companies Change processes to fit procedures and standards of public e-marketplaces Adjust procedures and processes to align with available services (logistics, payments, security) Changes to assure flexibility and scalability
  60. 60. Workflow Technologies Workflow system—software programs that manage all the steps in a business process from start to finish, including all exception conditions Two categories: Collaborative workflow—products address project-oriented and collaborative processes Production workflow—tools address mission- critical, transaction-oriented processes
  61. 61. Virtual Corporations  Virtual corporation—an organization composed of several business partners (some of whom may be pure-play EC players) sharing costs and resources for the production or purchasing of a product or service  Major attributes of VCs: Utilization Excellence Opportunism Lack of borders Trust Adaptability to change Technology
  62. 62. The Future of EC (CSF’s)  Internet usage  Payment systems  Opportunities for buying  Business-to-business  M-commerce  B2B exchanges  Purchasing incentives  Auctions  Increased security and  Going global trust  E-government--  Efficient information comprehensive handing  Intrabusiness EC  Innovative organizations  E-learning  Virtual Communities
  63. 63. EC Technology Trends  Clients  EC software and  Embedded clients services  Servers  Search engines  Networks  P2P technology  Wireless  Integration communications  Wearable devices
  64. 64. The Digital Divide  Digital divide—the gap between those who have and those who do not have the ability to access electronic technology in general, and the Internet and EC in particular  90% of all Internet computers are where 15% of the world’s population live
  65. 65. Integrating Marketplace and Marketspace Click-and-mortar organization How to cooperate in planning, advertising, logistics, resource allocation How to align the strategic plans B2C ordering systems The impact of EC on our lives may be as much as, or more than that of the Industrial Revolution

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