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Learning outcomes

  1. 1. 课程名称:Globalisation and strategic management for Chinese firms 客座教授: Fang Lee Cooke 课程时间: 2010 年 (5 月 14 日-5 月 24 日,全天,周日下午除外) Course design This course unit analyses issues related to business environment, competition and business strategy in China at international, national, industrial and firm level. At the international and national level, it examines competitive pressures from foreign firms, motives for Chinese firms to invest overseas and the role of the governments in promoting foreign direct investment (FDI). It also examines issues related to human resource development, industrial policy, innovation, intellectual property rights, environment and corporate social responsibility that are linked to sustainable economic growth and social development. At the industry and firm level, more detailed discussions are given to analyse the dynamics of competition, characteristics of strategies and patterns of organisational practices of specific industries. Examples of firms are provided to illustrate the points at various levels. The course unit draws heavily on contemporary academic research and practical illustrations to investigate issues related to the business environment and strategies firms may deploy in China. While the focus is largely in the Chinese context, where possible, attention will be drawn to international trends and practices. Thirteen topical sessions will be taught in the course in addition to a review session for general queries about the course, as shown in the table below. These themes span across a number of sub-disciplines within business and management studies. These include, for example, corporate strategies, research and development (R&D) and technological innovation, corporate social responsibility, outsourcing, mergers and acquisitions, foreign direct investment, and human capital theory. Some of these thematic topics are revisited and expanded in other course units. As the course unfolds, students should develop an understanding of the topics and make connections between these topics and those that are taught in other courses of the degree programme. Throughout the whole course, students are encouraged to study each topic through a critical lens and challenge existing perspectives. Students are also encouraged to use their own experience of work to inform and make sense of what are discussed. Theme for each session No. of Hours 1. Business environment in China – an overview 3 2. Industrial policy and competitiveness of Chinese industries 3 Group work (preparation for presentation) 3 3. Business strategy of leading Chinese firms 3 4. Globalisation and outsourcing 3 5. Business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR) 3 6. Innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable development 3 Group work (preparation for presentation) 3 7. International mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in China 3 8. Chinese outward direct investment 3 9. Strategic human resource management (HRM) 3 10. Leadership and communication 3 11. Organisational culture and diversity management 3 12. Managing HR in a global context 3 13. Group debate – FDI decision making 6 (3 hrs preparation) 14. Course revision 2 1
  2. 2. Teaching/learning Style A variety of learning styles is employed for the course in which students are encouraged to participate actively. Each session will take a 2-hour lecture in addition to one hour seminar/group work. Some sessions will also require student-led group work during which students can discuss and debate certain topics through case studies etc. in order to reinforce their understanding on the topics and to develop team-working skills. The course seeks to develop presentation, analytical and teamworking skills in addition to providing a core of knowledge about business strategy and organisational management. In order to benefit from these sessions and ultimately do well in the course, students should read at least two items from the relevant reading list for each topic. Students, however, should not restrict themselves to reading two articles only and instead, should read much more widely to develop an understanding of the topics. Course Evaluation Questionnaires will be circulated to students towards the end of the course for the purpose of evaluating particular aspects of the course. Students are encouraged to provide on-going informal feedback on the course, and we are always happy to discuss academic and pedagogic issues as appropriate. There will be an opportunity for a formal review of the course towards the end of the semester, Assessment Assessment for this course is by group presentation (40%) during the course and a group essay assignment (60%) at the end of the course. Learning objectives The course aims to:  Provide an overview of China’s business environment by contemplating its political, economic, technological and environmental environment  Analyse the role of the state in shaping organisational practices and competition strategy  Explore the development of Chinese businesses as a result of the growing strength of the private sector, the entry of MNCs in China, and the global competition that the Chinese industries are increasingly facing  Outline major sources of competition, changes and types of business strategies, using a selection of Chinese industries and firms as examples  Analyse opportunities and key challenges for Chinese firms in internationalising their business  Raise students’ awareness of the likely impact of elements of business strategy on China’s environment and sustainability of long term development – economically, socially as well as ecologically  Highlight the importance of and challenges to effective management of human resources in the domestic as well as global context 2
  3. 3. Learning outcomes By the end of the course unit, you should be able to:  To understand theoretical models of strategy  Identify benefits and pitfalls of different aspects of business strategy  Explain the major institutional factors in China for business operations  Assess the likely impact of global, national and industrial competition on firms operating in China  Provide advice on the application of different elements of business strategies to business organisations  Explain the role of HRM in organisations, particularly multinational firms  Assess the likely impact of HR policies and practices on individuals in different national cultural and labour market environments  Provide advice on the practicability and application of different HR practices in employing organisations operating in and outside China. Recommended Readings Business environment and organisational strategy in China is a vast topic. One set of textbooks alone will not provide sufficient reading for the themes concerned. Students are required to read extensively from various sources such as books, journals and professional periodicals in order to prepare for the taught sessions and the exam. They should read materials on business environment and organisational strategy in general, as well as those dealing with the Chinese context. The suggested reading list for each topic should provide a useful starting point. Recommended books (* core readings): *Cooke, F. L. (2008) Competition, Strategy and Management in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. *Lasserre, P. and Schutte, H. (2006) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Meeting New Challenges. third edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chen, J. and Yao, S. (eds.) (2006) Globalisation, Competition and Growth in China. London: Routledge. Some relevant journals: Most international business and management journals contain some articles on China. Students are encouraged to browse through these journals to get an overview of issues of debate and empirical studies on thematic topics covered in this course in general and those that are related to Chinese business and management more specifically. • Asia Pacific Management Review • China Information • Journal of Asia Pacific Economy 3
  4. 4. • Asia Pacific Business Review • Management and Organization Review • Journal of International Business Studies • International Journal of Human Resource Management • Journal of Current Chinese Affairs • Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies Essay titles (Please choose ONE topic for your group essay, which is to be submitted by xxx date (to be specified). The length of the essay is approximately 4,000 words, not including the references) 1. Generally speaking, what major problems/disadvantages Chinese companies may face compared with their foreign multinational corporation competitors in China? Use a couple of industries to illustrate your points. 2. Critically evaluate the role of the Chinese government in China’s economic development in the last three decades, for example, the government as an employer, as a regulator and as an economic manager. 3. Imagine you are the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a large Chinese-owned automotive company. You are planning to develop an international market for the company’s product by setting up a car production plant in another developing country. What factors of the host country (e.g. institutional and cultural factors) do you need to consider in making a decision as to which country you would choose for the investment? Elaborate. Group work for some sessions Learning on Chinese business and management issues at both macro and micro level is most effectively done through group work in addition to lectures and guided readings. Most topics covered in this course will involve group work. For some topics, student groups will be required to give presentations. To maximize group effectiveness, each group should be no more than 4-5 people. Each student should pull his/her weight and not hide behind others. While most of the group work exercises are not assessed, they provide valuable opportunity for you to learn the topic in depth and prepare you for your essay assignment. Group presentations are normally made at the beginning of the lecture. Each presentation should last no more than 15 minutes. Group work for Session 2: Give a presentation on the challenges facing one of the Chinese industries of your own choice, but it should NOT be automotive, pharmaceutical, IT, retail or exhibition industry as these have been covered in Cooke (2008). Group work for Session 3: 4
  5. 5. Give a presentation on a case study of a successful Chinese company of your own choice. Your presentation should cover a brief summary of the company’s history, its business strategy, key challenges/competitive pressure and key success factors. Group work for Session 4: Give a presentation to critically analyse IT outsourcing in China in the context of globalisation. Assess the opportunities for, challenges to and prospects of the Chinese IT outsourcing industry. Group work for Session 5: Give a presentation on environmental problems in China and possible solutions. Provide a general overview, then use an industry or company of your choice to illustrate your points. Group work for Session 7: Two groups give presentations on a real case of cross-border M&As. Each group should research and present a case study of a real (foreign-owned) company that has carried out a merger or acquisition deal with a Chinese firm in China. In your presentation, you should, as far as possible, address the following points: • Background of the foreign (parent) company that acquired the Chinese (subsidiary) business • Background of the Chinese (subsidiary) business • Motives for the acquisition deal from both sides • Major challenges/issues in the acquisition process • Major challenges/issues in the post-acquisition integration • Impact of the acquisition for both sides and performance of the new business (measured by financial performance, market share, etc) • Other issues that you wish to cover Note: you may not have sufficient information to cover all the above points, but try to cover as much as possible by using websites, media coverage etc. Group work for Session 13: Grand debate on FDI decision making. See Session Description below for detail. Session descriptions: Session 1. Business environment in China – An overview Themes: This session examines some of the macro factors as part of the business environment under which firms operate in China. In particular, we focus on the following: the role of the Chinese government, industrialization and the development of industries, technology and innovation environment and the level of human capital in China. 5
  6. 6. Recommended readings Cooke, F. L. (2008) Competition, Strategy and Management in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapters 1 and 2. Garnaut, R. and Huang, Y. P. (2001) Growth without Miracles – Readings on the Chinese Economy in the Era of Reform. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nolan, P. (2004) Transforming China: Globalisation, Transition and Development. London: Anthem Press. Porter, M. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Session 2. Industrial policy and competitiveness of Chinese industries Themes: This session reviews the characteristics of key industries in China, using the automotive, pharmaceutical the IT industry as examples. It critically assesses the role of the government’s industrial policies in the development of these industries. Barriers to implementing a national industrial policy is analysed and the impact of market competition, particularly that from the MNCs, is considered. Recommended readings Cooke, F. L. (2008) Competition, Strategy and Management in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapters 4-7. Eun, J. and Lee, K. (2002), ‘Is an industrial policy possible in China? The case of the automobile industry’, Journal of International and Area Studies, 9, 2, pp.1-21. Li, D., Davis, J. and Wang, L. (1998), ‘Industrialization and the sustainability of China’s agriculture’, Economics and Planning, 31, pp.213-30. Linden, G. (2004), ‘China standard time: A study in strategic industrial policy’, Business and Politics, 6, 3, pp.1-26, electronic version produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2005, http://www.bepress.com/bap/vol6/iss3/art4. Perkins, D. (2001), ‘Industrial and financial policy in China and Vietnam: A new model or a replay of the East Asian experience?’ in J. Stiglitz and S. Yusuf (eds.), Rethinking the East Asia Miracle, The World Bank. Thun, E. (2004), ‘Keeping up with the Jones’: Decentralisation, policy imitation, and industrial development in China’, World Development, 32, 8, pp.1289-1308. Nolan, P. (2002), ‘China and the Global Business Revolution’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 26, pp.119-37. Child, J. and Tse, D. (2001), ‘China’s Transition and Its Implications for International Business’, Journal of International Business Studies, 32, 1, pp.5-21. Group work Group presentations on challenges to selected industries. Session 3. Business strategy of leading Chinese firms 6
  7. 7. Themes: This session analyses the key elements in the competition strategy adopted by top performing Chinese firms. Key strategies that are perceived to be related to these companies’ success include business development strategy, innovation strategy, product and production strategy, marketing strategy and human resource strategy. The role of product branding and corporate social responsibility (CSR) is also assessed. Recommended readings Cooke, F. L. (2008) Competition, Strategy and Management in China. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 3. Parris, K. (1999), ‘The rise of private business interests’, in M. Goldman and R. MacFarquhar (eds.), The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Lasserre, P. and Schűtte, H. (2006) Strategies for Asia Pacific: Meeting New Challenges. 3rd edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. C. K. Prahalad and G. Hamel, (1990), ‘The Core Competence of the Corporation’, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 79-91. Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (2002) Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases (6th edition). Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. M. Porter, (1980) Competitive Strategy. US: Free Press. Khanna, T. (2007) Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India Are Reshaping Their Futures and Yours. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Group work Group presentations on the case studies of selected successful Chinese companies. Session 4. Globalisation and outsourcing Themes: This session provides a summary of the driving forces of globalisation and the implications of outsourcing for national economies, industries, firms and individuals. It also examines the role of China as a major supplier country and the impact of globalisation on China’s economy and wellbeing of employees. Recommended readings Carroll, M., Cooke, F. L., Hassard, J. and Marchington, M. (2002), ‘The strategic management of outsourcing in the UK ceramic tableware industry’, Competition and Change, 6, 4, pp.327-343. Harney, A. (2009), The China Price: The True Cost of Chinese Competitive Advantage, Penguin Books. Cooke, F. L. and Budhwar, P. (2009), ‘HR offshoring and outsourcing: Research issues for IHRM’, in Sparrow, P. (ed.), Handbook of International Human Resource Management, Chichester: John Wiley, pp.341-361. Group work Give a presentation on ‘IT outsourcing in China: opportunities, challenges and prospects’. 7
  8. 8. Session 5. Business ethics and CSR Themes: This session discusses the notions of business ethics, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and challenges for firms to embrace these concepts in the Chinese context. Bhattacharya, C., Sen, S., & Korschun, D. 2008. Using corporate social responsibility to win the war for talent. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49, 2, pp.37-44. Egri, C., & Ralston, D. 2008. Corporate responsibility: A review of international management research from 1998 to 2007. Journal of International Management, 14, 4, pp.319-339. Luo, Y. D. 2006. Political behaviour, social responsibility, and perceived corruption: A structuration perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 6, pp.747-766. Cooke, F. L. and He, Q. L. (2009), ‘CSR and HRM in China: A study of textile and apparel enterprises’, Asia Pacific Business Review. Zinkin, J. (2004), ‘Maximising the “Licence to Operate”: CSR from an Asian Perspective’, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 14, pp.67-80. Journal of International Business Studies (2006), Vol. 37, No. 6 Part Focused Issue has several articles on CSR. Session 6. Innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable development Themes: This session looks at specific environmental issues in China and their impact on the country’s economic and social well-being in the long term. Recommended readings Ho, P. and Vermeer, E. (eds.) (2006), China’s Limits to Growth: Greening State and Society, Blackwell Publishing. Child, J. and Tsai, T. (2005), ‘The dynamic between firms’ environmental strategies and institutional constraints in emerging economies: Evidence from China and Taiwan’, Journal of Management Studies, 42, 1, pp.95-125. Daly, H. (2000), Beyond Growth: the Economics of Sustainable Development, Beacon Press. Ho, P. (2001), ‘Greening without conflict? Environmentalism, non-governmental organisations and civil society in China’, Development and Change, 32, pp.893-931. Hubacek, K., Guan, D. and Barua, A. (2007), “Changing lifestyles and consumption patterns in developing countries: a scenario analysis for China and India”, Futures, 39, pp.1084-1096. Group work Presentation on environmental problems in China and possible solutions. Session 7. International mergers and acquisitions in China 8
  9. 9. Themes: This session looks at the use of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) as a business strategy for growth and organisational transformation. It contemplates patterns and challenges of cross-border M&As, focusing particularly on the acquisition of Chinese SOEs by foreign firms. It questions the level of objectives alignment between the Chinese side and the FDI during the acquisition of Chinese SOEs. Recommended readings Cooke, F. L. (2008), Competition, Strategy and Management in China, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 8. Lin, Z., Peng, M., Yang, H. and Sun, S. (2009), ‘How do networks and learning drive M&As? An institutional comparison between China and the United States’, Strategic Management Journal, 30, 10, pp.1113-1132. Luo, Y. (2000), Partnering with Chinese Firms: Lessons for International Managers, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Björkman, I. and Lu, Y. (2001), ‘Institutionalisation and Bargaining Power Explanations of Human Resource Management in International Joint Ventures: The Case of Chinese-Western Joint Ventures’, Organization Studies, 22, pp.491-512. Cartwright, S. and Cooper, C. (1993), ‘The Role of Culture Compatibility in Successful Organisational Marriage’. The Academy of Management Executive, 2, pp.57-69. Child, J. and D. Faulkner (1998), Strategies of Co-operation: Managing Alliances, Networks and Joint Ventures, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gu, E. (1997), ‘Foreign Direct Investment and the Restructuring of Chinese State-Owned Enterprises (1992-1995): A New Institutionalist Perspective’, China Information, 3, pp.46-71. Bartlett, C. and Ghoshal, S. (2000), Managing across Borders: the Transnational Solution, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Hubbard, N. and Purcell, J. (2001), ‘Managing Employee Expectations during Acquisitions’, Human Resource Management Journal, 2, pp.17-33. Schuler, R. and Jackson, S. (2001), ‘HR Issues and Activities in Mergers and Acquisitions’, European Management Journal, 3, pp.239-253. Group work Two group presentations on a real case of cross-border M&As. Session 8. Chinese outward direct investment Themes: This session explores motives for foreign direct investment. It provides a brief overview of the growth of Chinese outward FDI. It analyses the driving forces for Chinese firms to invest overseas and their internationalization strategies through the choice of host countries. It identifies a range of challenges that Chinese firms may encounter in their overseas’ investment drive. Recommended readings Cooke, F. L. (2008), Competition, Strategy and Management in China, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 9. 9
  10. 10. Alon, A. and McIntyre, J. (2008) (eds.), Globalization of Chinese Enterprises, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Cai, K. (1999), ‘Outward foreign direct investment: A novel dimension of China’s integration into the regional and global economy’, China Quarterly, 160, pp.856-880. Young, S., Hood N. and Lu, T. (1998), ‘International development by Chinese enterprises: Key issues for the future’, Long Range Planning, 31, 886-993. Dunning, J. and Narula, R. (2004), Multinationals and Industrial Competitiveness: A New Agenda, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Group work Groups should start preparing for Session 8’s grand debate. Session 9. Strategic HRM: concepts and models Themes: This session explores the concept and conceptual models of HRM. It outlines the advent of HRM as a new management concept in a business environment marked by considerable political, economic, technological and organisational change and heightened global competition. It contemplates typologies of business strategy and explores the relationships between business strategy and HR strategy. Recommended readings Storey, J., Wright, P. and Ulrich, D. (2009), The Routledge Companion to Strategic Human Resource Management, London: Routledge, Part 4. Redman, T. and Wilkinson, A. (eds.) (2006), Contemporary Human Resource Management: Text and Cases, London: Financial Times and Prentice Hall, Chapter 1, pp.3-25. Ulrich, D. (1998), ‘A New Mandate for Human Resources’, Harvard Business Review, January-February, pp.124-134. Session 10. Leadership and communication Themes: This session discusses the meanings of leadership and critically analyses perspectives on leadership and their underlying assumptions in the business context. The session also investigates the role of power and communication in organisational life. Recommended readings Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (2004), Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 5th edition, London: Prentice Hall, Chapter 14. Kanter, K. M. (2003), ‘Leadership and the psychology of turnarounds’, Harvard Business Review, June, pp.58-66. Tsui, A., Zhang, Z. Wang, H., Xin, K. and Wu, J. (2006), ‘Unpacking the relationship between CEO leadership behavior and organisational culture’, The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 2, pp.113-37. Mintzberg, H. (1998), ‘Covert leadership: Notes on managing professionals’, Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec, pp.140-47. 10
  11. 11. Goleman, D. (1998), ‘What makes a leader?’ Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec, pp.93-102. Chen, Y. and Tjosvold, D. (2006), ‘Participative leadership by American and Chinese managers in China: The role of relationships’, Journal of Management Studies, 43, 8, pp. 1727-1752. Group work A video demonstrating perspectives of leadership will be shown. Session 11. Organisational culture and diversity management Themes: Two related themes are discussed in this session: managing organisational culture and workforce diversity. It is believed that organisational culture has an important implication for HRM and ultimately the performance of an organisation. This thematic sub-session discusses the multiple meanings and diverse perspectives of culture. It addresses the important issue if organisational culture can be managed or changed. It also investigates organisation’s motives in adopting organisational culture change initiatives and their likely impact on the workforce. Similarly, managing diversity has been recognized as one of the critical elements of business success in the strategic HRM literature. The objective of diversity management is to create organizations in which members of all socio-cultural backgrounds can contribute and achieve their full potential. This thematic sub-session discusses the conceptual premises and the perceived benefits of diversity management as promoted in western literature. It critically assesses the extent to which these are applicable in developing countries such as China and India. Recommended readings Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (2004), Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 5th edition, London: Prentice Hall, Chapter 19. Barney, J. (1986), ‘Organisational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage?’ Academy of Management Review 11, pp.791-800. Wilson, F. (1999), Organisational Behaviour: A Critical Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 8. Cooke, F. L. (2008), ‘Enterprise culture management in China: An “insiders”’ perspective’, Management and Organization Review. Tsui, A., Wang, H. and Xin, K. (2006), ‘Organizational culture in China: An analysis of culture dimensions and culture types’, Management and Organization Review, 2, 3, pp.345-76. Lorbiecki, A. and Jack, G., (2000), ‘Critical turns in the evolution of diversity management’, British Journal of Management, Vol.11, Special Issue, S17-S31. Maxwell, G., Blair, S. and McDougall, M, (2001), ‘Edging towards managing diversity in practice’, Employees Relations, 23, 5, pp.468-482. Session 12. Managing HR in a global context 11
  12. 12. Themes: This session compares and contrasts the employment and HR environment of developed and developing countries by drawing together some of the themes previously discussed in the course unit. It analyses the challenges multinational corporations may face in their global HRM, using Chinese MNCs as examples. Recommended readings Budhwar, P. (ed.) (2004) Managing Human Resources in Asia-Pacific. London: Routledge. Budhwar, P. and Debrah, Y.A. (eds.) (2001) HRM in Developing Countries. London: Routledge. Elvira, M. and Davila, A. (2005) Managing Human Resources in Latin America. London: Routledge. Schuler, R. and Jackson, S. (eds.) (2007) Strategic Human Resource Management (2nd edition). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Scullion, H. and Linehan, M. (eds.) (2005) International HRM: A Critical Text. London: Palgrave. Sparrow, P., Brewster, C. and Harris, H. (2004) Globalising Human Resource Management. London: Routledge. Session 13. Group debate – FDI decision making Students should divide themselves into five groups and each group carries out the following preparation for the Group Debate. The team of senior executive directors of ‘Chinese Auto’ will have four people in the group. A Chinese multinational car manufacturing corporation (‘Chinese Auto’) is intending to open a plant in another developing country in order to reduce cost and to tap into the local/regional market. It is intended that the new car manufacturing plant in the developing country will employ 15,000 workers. While senior managers of the new plant will be expatriates from the Chinese Auto Headquarters, middle ranking and junior managers will be selected from the local employees. A team of four senior executive directors of ‘Chinese Auto’ will be hosting an international bidding conference during which bidding teams from Russia, Vietnam, India and Brazil will compete against each other to win the bid for their country. Each country representative team should highlight the advantages of the employment environment and human resources, as well as other business advantages, of their country and expose the weaknesses in the employment system, as well as other disadvantages, such as political instability, of other competing countries. In other words, each team should be familiar not only with the country they have selected to represent, but also business and employment conditions in other competing countries. The team of the four senior executive directors from ‘Chinese Auto’ will be selected by Fang Lee Cooke. This team should have a reasonable knowledge of the business and employment environment of each country in order to give input in the debate and to make final decision on which country they should select to relocate the car manufacturing plant. This exercise is aimed to create a climatic ending to the course unit by bringing in all the knowledge that students have learned from the whole course and by making sure everybody has an active participation in the exercise. 12