Chapter 7:  Multinational Formation Keith Head Sauder School of Business
The “take-away” for this chapter <ul><li>Chapter 7 asks “ Where  should we do the things we do?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At ...
Nestle
IBM worldwide
LG Electronics (part of LG Group, formerly Goldstar Electronics)
Levels of Multinational Strategy <ul><li>Who is the  we  in “Where should  we  do it”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual...
Multinational (single) “Business” Strategy H-form F-form R-form
Examples of Centralization <ul><li>Home Centralization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boeing commercial aircraft assembly in U.S. ...
Boeing’s Everett Factory: the largest building in the world  ( 472 million cubic feet of space   )
Boeing’s Everett Factory: sole location of 747 assembly
Boeing’s 747
Nestle, the Replicator  254,000 Employees in 508 Factories in 85 Countries (2002 Management Report) 27% 41% (1.8%) 32% Fac...
Critical Foreign Market Size to Justify Overseas “Replication”
Critical Distance to Justify Overseas “Replication”
At Home, Abroad, or Both? The Answer Depends (in part) on  Where Demand Is
Home Centralization benefits from <ul><li>Strong PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to export to foreign country </li...
Foreign Centralization benefits from <ul><li>Strong PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to  import  from foreign count...
Replication Form  benefits from <ul><li>Weak PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Both markets are large </li></ul><ul><li>High trade c...
Multi-product Multinationals <ul><li>Corporate  multinational strategy considers best form for firms operating in more tha...
Multinational Forms: Vertically Related Products  <ul><li>Upstream (U) creates inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream (D) use...
Bao Steel’s integrated works
ExxonMobil <ul><li>Upstream: exploration in 37 countries and “production” in 26 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream: re...
ExxonMobil’s “Upstream” Sites
ExxonMobil’s “Downstream” Sites
Multinational Forms for 2 vertically related products
Vertical Specialization good if <ul><li>Strong PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to  export   U to foreign country <...
Branching Form <ul><li>Examples:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca Cola’s concentrate (U) and bottling (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Multisourcing form <ul><li>Defn: procuring  same input  from multiple source countries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></...
Forms for 2 horizontally related products, served by upstream
Key trends in world economy <ul><li>Falling trade costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient transportation (containers, E...
Implications for Multinationals <ul><li>Less Replication </li></ul><ul><li>More Vertical Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Final PPT (big file due to pictures)

  1. 1. Chapter 7: Multinational Formation Keith Head Sauder School of Business
  2. 2. The “take-away” for this chapter <ul><li>Chapter 7 asks “ Where should we do the things we do?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At home: the country where top mgmt is based. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abroad: offshore, overseas, in a foreign country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The answer: “It all depends on the 4 elements of MN strategy: trade costs, factor advantages, PLEoS, market sizes.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nestle
  4. 4. IBM worldwide
  5. 5. LG Electronics (part of LG Group, formerly Goldstar Electronics)
  6. 6. Levels of Multinational Strategy <ul><li>Who is the we in “Where should we do it”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual business unit  business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of business units under the same ownership  corporate strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of business units linked through a mix of equity ties and long term contractual arrangements  network strategy </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Multinational (single) “Business” Strategy H-form F-form R-form
  8. 8. Examples of Centralization <ul><li>Home Centralization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boeing commercial aircraft assembly in U.S. (mainly Seattle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airbus commercial aircraft assembly in EU (mainly Toulouse) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign Centralization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mattel’s Barbie dolls (2 factories in Dongguan, China +1 in Malaysia +1 in Indon.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matsushita’s TVs (Malaysia) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Boeing’s Everett Factory: the largest building in the world ( 472 million cubic feet of space )
  10. 10. Boeing’s Everett Factory: sole location of 747 assembly
  11. 11. Boeing’s 747
  12. 12. Nestle, the Replicator 254,000 Employees in 508 Factories in 85 Countries (2002 Management Report) 27% 41% (1.8%) 32% Factories 25% 20% Asia, Africa & Oceania 34% (2.6%) 40% (1.6%) Europe (Switz.) 41% 40% Americas Employees Sales Area
  13. 13. Critical Foreign Market Size to Justify Overseas “Replication”
  14. 14. Critical Distance to Justify Overseas “Replication”
  15. 15. At Home, Abroad, or Both? The Answer Depends (in part) on Where Demand Is
  16. 16. Home Centralization benefits from <ul><li>Strong PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to export to foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>Large home market </li></ul><ul><li>Home country has factor advantages </li></ul>
  17. 17. Foreign Centralization benefits from <ul><li>Strong PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to import from foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>Large foreign market </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign country has factor advantages </li></ul>
  18. 18. Replication Form benefits from <ul><li>Weak PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Both markets are large </li></ul><ul><li>High trade costs impede exports & imports </li></ul><ul><li>Unimportant factor advantages: costs of production similar across countries. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Multi-product Multinationals <ul><li>Corporate multinational strategy considers best form for firms operating in more than one business (product). </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships between products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical (intermediate inputs vs final outputs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal (complements vs substitutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint products </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Multinational Forms: Vertically Related Products <ul><li>Upstream (U) creates inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream (D) uses U inputs to create outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching: U is PPT preparation, D is presentation to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies: U is writing & casting, D is filming & editing ( or U is movie production and D is movie exhibition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel: U is blast furnace, D is steel furnace & rolling mill </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Bao Steel’s integrated works
  22. 22. ExxonMobil <ul><li>Upstream: exploration in 37 countries and “production” in 26 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream: refining and “marketing” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owns 45 refineries, located in 25 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates 37,000 retail sites in 100+ countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“presence in about 200 countries” </li></ul>
  23. 23. ExxonMobil’s “Upstream” Sites
  24. 24. ExxonMobil’s “Downstream” Sites
  25. 25. Multinational Forms for 2 vertically related products
  26. 26. Vertical Specialization good if <ul><li>Strong PLEoS </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to export U to foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>Low trade costs to import D from foreign country </li></ul><ul><li>Home country has factor adv. for U </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign country has factor adv. for D </li></ul>
  27. 27. Branching Form <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca Cola’s concentrate (U) and bottling (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subaru’s engines (U) and car assembly (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low trade costs on U, high on D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low PLEoS on D, high on U </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home factor adv. in U, weak factor advs. in D </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Multisourcing form <ul><li>Defn: procuring same input from multiple source countries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refinery in one country, sourcing crude oil from multiple drilling sites (in different countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nike’s “network” strategy in shoe mnfg. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low trade costs (for U & D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dis economies of scale for U </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain (unpredictable) factor adv. for U. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Forms for 2 horizontally related products, served by upstream
  30. 30. Key trends in world economy <ul><li>Falling trade costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient transportation (containers, EDI, use of air transport) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower tariffs, WTO oversight of disguised protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology-powered improvements in long distance communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rising economies of scale? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Implications for Multinationals <ul><li>Less Replication </li></ul><ul><li>More Vertical Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Firms face very different industry conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast Nestle, Boeing, Mattel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will continue to pursue divergent strategies </li></ul></ul>

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