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  1. 1. Management Information Systems Module Outline Module overview Information Systems (IS) are the collections of people and machines that make products and services in supply chains and individual firms. This is in both the public and the private sector, and at work and in people's free time. The study of Management Information Systems is concerned with how managers build, change, specify, design, upgrade, improve, control and maintain Information Systems. Here we focus upon how firms can use people and technology to create business value. This is a commercial and MBA perspective rather than a technical or engineering perspective. The overall aim of the module is to equip participants with the knowledge and conceptual tools to address the various management challenges involved in the effective design, implementation and management of an organisation's Information Systems and business processes. The course will highlight the strategic and competitive advantages of linking Information Systems to the business needs of the organisation. Theory and practice are a single solution system, like two sides of the same coin, and the omission of either detracts from the management of any organisation. Similarly, the tacit and experiential business knowledge of students is valued and students are expected to add this to the class discussion. Reading List There is no single core reference for this module. The course will be taught via a mixture of general texts, specialist books, research papers, and other web-based documentation. Specialist papers (journal articles in particular) will be published on this site in the resources section for each lecture. With some of the readings it is indicated whether the reading is Essential (E), Highly Recommended (HR) or for General Interest (GE). Like all MBA modules you are expected to read around the subject and this module page is just to help you start. Evidence of reading around the subject and appropriate use of the ideas you find will help you in the module assessments. The following two books provide broad coverage of the area, especially Laudon and Laudon, and both are full of useful case studies. The companion web-site for Laudon and Laudon also provides a valuable resource, including material for practical exercises (see below). Either text would be a useful purchase. Given its general coverage, if you are only buying one book, then we would advise Laudon and Laudon. Recommended Reading - Applegate, L., Austin, R., and McFarlan, F., (2006). Corporate Information Strategy and Management: text and cases (7th edition), McGraw-Hill. - Laudon, J. and Laudon, K. (2004 or 2005). Management Information Systems (International Edition, 8th or 9th edition). Prentice-hall. Further Reading
  2. 2. General texts are inevitably superficial and often uncritical in some areas. The course will draw on the following supplementary sources to provide more depth and nuance. Whilst these specialist books are useful, if you have a particular interest in a topic area, individual purchase is not required. - Ciborra, C. (2002). The Labyrinths of Information: challenging the wisdom of systems. Oxford University Press. - Galliers R., and Leidner D., (2003). Strategic Information Management (third edition), Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2003. - Hammer, M and Champy, J. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. - Kalakota R and Robinson M (2003) Services Blueprint: Roadmap For Execution, Addison- Wesley - Ross J. Anderson (2001) Security Engineering: A Guide to Building Dependable Distributed Systems, Wiley. There is a wealth of useful material available on the web: white papers, technical documentation, case studies, practitioner publications, blogs, and web magazines. Here are a few: Rough Type Nicholas Carr's Blog Information Age is another useful site with news, analysis and briefing material. www.wikipedia.org a multilingual open source encyclopaedia. IMPORTANT: this is a great site to start on but it sometimes has been wrong or biased so never use this as a source in an assignment. www.CIO.com a general source Business 2.0 on CNN Money www.fastcompany.com. Computing, a weekly newspaper for IT professionals, including useful reports and analysis. Companion web-site for Laudon and Laudon. Module Assessments This module is assessed by Group Presentation (30%) and Individual Report (70%). Group Presentation assessment Individual Assessment Report Groups - You are responsible for loading your MS Power Point files before the lecture starts Notes on suggested individual report structure Topic 1 Introduction to Management Information Systems and basic concepts
  3. 3. Lecturer and student introductions, module overview and discussion of outcomes. This lecture introduces the idea of an information system as a socio-technical system, the basic systems concepts that are useful in modern business management and the characteristics of an e-business. Reading: Laudon and Laudon, chapters 1 and 2. 1995-2005: The making of the information age, accessed 29th September, 2005. [Background to the MIS sector] informationage10yearreview.mht The Long Tail: basic examples http://www.wired.com/wired/images.html?issue=12.10&topic=tail&img=2 Chris Anderson's original Long Tail Article http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html Music charts, Snow Patrol and the Long Tail http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/click_online/6346507.stm Sharecropping the long tail by Nicholas Carr - user-generated content in a Long Tail context. http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2006/12/sharecropping_t.php Ten strategic tricks for CIOs, Director Magazine, August 2007 - cutting edge IT strategies. http://www.director.co.uk/MAGAZINE/2007/8%20Aug/it_costs_60_13.html YouTube video about the evolution of text into the web - interesting ideas set to very dodgy music. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE&eurl= Topic 2 IS and E-business models: Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 This lecture deals with how IT strategy, business infrastructure and business processes assemble into a firm's business model. Business models are a relatively new area of management theory with extreme practical significance because they describe firms as 'value engines'. Topic 1 was about breaking things into smaller pieces to prioritise the use of resources. Topic 2 is about mixing things together to create new value. Reading: Osterwalder A, Pigneur Y and Tucci CL (2005) Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, And Future Of The Concept, Communications of the AIS, 16 (1). Magretta, J (2002) Why Business Models Matter, Harvard Business Review 80(5): 86-92. Hedman J and Kalling T (2003) The business model concept: theoretical underpinnings and empirical illustrations, European Journal of Information Systems, 12, 49-59. Hedman & Kalling's paper on the components of a business model. Note: The components of Hedman and Kalling's model are based upon some key strategic management concepts so the references are well worth reading as well. Hedman&Kalling2003.pdf New dotcom entrepreneurs are lacing together bright ideas with shoestring budgets - How do their different business models work?
  4. 4. http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,,1923181,00.html Face Book's new business model: a platform strategy. Don't be the gold miner, be the person that organises picks and shovels. http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/07/19/could-facebook-become-the-next-microsoft/ Google's business model. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6902997.stm Manchester United Case. ManchesterUnitedv6.11MBA.pdf Zopa matches up borrowers and lenders in a peer-to-peer online lending service - a disruptive business model http://money.cnn.com/2006/09/15/technology/disruptors_zopa.biz2/index.htm More Zopa articles http://www.zopa.com/zopaweb/public/about-zopa/saying.html The mash-up future of the web. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6375525.stm Tagging: user-generated categories and editing of content. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6318531.stm Social production / Share cropping - This is when users generate content for free. Time magazine article: Getting Rich off Those Who Work for Free http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1590440,00.html Yahoo Pipes – mash ups http://pipes.yahoo.com Web 2.0 … The Machine is Us/ing Us - YouTube video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmP4nk0EOE&eurl= Nicholas Carr/ William Davies: key difference of Web 1.0 vs Web 2.0 http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/08/the_automation.php Nick Carr article on informal (myspace) and formal (company database) organisation and software in firms that underline knowledge management issues http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/11/myworkspace.php Some drivers of e-business models http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2008/10/a_typology_of_n.php Examples of Web 2.0 in business http://www.information-age.com/magazine/october-2008/features/650221/web-20-in- business.thtml Topic 3 The virtual organisation of an e-business Most businesses use Information Systems (IS); so most businesses are e-businesses. This lecture looks at the organisation of people and machines from a fully IS perspective: in terms of both Information and Systems. The focus of this lecture will be on the generation of value by business processes in single organisations. Overview: Introduction: Information Systems and Systems Theory How businesses create value using business processes -What are business processes?
  5. 5. Where IT and business processes fit into a business -Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP) Increasing business flexibility (agility and viability) -Business Process Management systems -Business Intelligence Please read before lecture: LexisNexis? order fulfilment system. The Brain Behind The Big, Bad Burger And Other Tales Of Business Intelligence. Extra reading: Haeckel S H and Nolan R L (1993) Managing by Wire, Harvard Business Review, Sept-Oct [Early and basic ?Sense and Respond? functionality delivered to businesses by MIS, via University of Nottingham Library Online Catalogue]. Resources: The Trouble with Enterprise Software [Cynthia Rettig, MIT Sloan Management Review, August 8, 2007] LexisNexis? order fulfilment system. [An automatic BPMS] The Brain Behind The Big, Bad Burger And Other Tales Of Business Intelligence. [Example of the use of Business Intelligence] ERP Market 2006 - short article Reel-time analytics - example from a DVD retailer Topic 4 Inter-organisational e-business No business is an island; they are all connected to customers and suppliers by business processes and information systems. Organisations exist within the 'ecosystem' called the global economy. The focus of this lecture will be on the complexity generated by inter- organisational business processes and how this can be managed for sustainability and success. Overview: Relationships between organisations A systems view of supply chains & business networks Inter-organisational coordination: ?managing dependencies? Two examples of managing inter-organisational complexity - standards: BP Exploration and Production case - standards: Electric Co case Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Modular architectures & e-business networks The dangers of unprotected relations Please read before lecture: Shaw, D. R., Snowdon R., Holland, C. P., Kawalek, P. and Warboys, B. (2004) The Viable Systems Model Applied To A Smart Network: The Case Of The UK Electricity Market, Journal of Information Technology, 19.
  6. 6. [Pages 1135-1140 only] Child J and McGrath R G (2001) Organizations Unfettered: Organizational Form in an Information Intensive Economy, Academy of management Journal, 44 (6). [Emerging core challenges to organisational form mostly driven by information systems, via University of Nottingham Library Online Catalogue]. Richard P J and Devinney T M (2005) Modular Strategies: B2B Technology and Architectural Knowledge, California Management Review, 47(4), summer. [Different network forms of organising supported by information technology, via University of Nottingham Library Online Catalogue]. The extended enterprise Phil Jones, Infoconomy.com, 19 September 2005. Extra reading: Holland C P, Shaw, D R and Kawalek P (forthcoming) BP?s Multi-Enterprise Asset Management System, Information and Software Technology. Hagel J (2002) Leveraged Growth: Expanding Sales Without Sacrificing Profits, Harvard Business Review, 80(10) 69-77. [Li & Fung the global supply chain orchestrator, via University of Nottingham Library Online Catalogue] Holland, C. P., Shaw, D. R. and Westwood, J. B. (2004) Marketing Translation Services Internationally: Exploiting IT to Achieve a Smart Network, Journal of Information Technology, 19. [The paper on TheBigWord, via University of Nottingham Library Online Catalogue] Ward M (2005) Deadly plague hits Warcraft world, BBC News website. Lethal guinea pig kills virtual people, Friday, 12th May, 2000, BBC News website. Tétrault J, Taoufiki M, and Tazi-Riffi A O (2005) Morocco's offshoring advantage, McKinsey Quarterly, 4. Resources: Shaw, D. R., Holland, C. P., Kawalek, P., Snowdon R. and Warboys, B. (2006) Electronic Commerce Strategy In The U.K. Electricity Industry: The Case Of Electric Co And Dataflow Software, International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 2 (3), 38-60. The extended enterprise Phil Jones, Infoconomy.com, 19 September 2005. [Evolving IT outsourcing to business process outsourcing to services] Holland C P, Shaw, D R and Kawalek P (forthcoming) BP?s Multi-Enterprise Asset Management System, Information and Software Technology. [A technology-led solution to a highly complex, high pressure environment] Ward M (2005) Deadly plague hits Warcraft world, BBC News website. [Example of emergence] Loosening up: How process networks unlock the power of specialization, John Seely Brown, Scott Durchslag, and John Hagel III in HBR. Topic 5: Security for e-businesses Previous lectures have demonstrated the importance of information systems in the successful functioning of modern business processes, both intra- and inter-organisationally. However, from a security perspective e-commerce is immature in its relations with external businesses and consumers, and this immaturity is increasingly being taken advantage of by different business, criminal and private entities.
  7. 7. This lecture introduces some of the different perspectives on e-business security that managers need to be aware of. The importance of security is justified and the links to information systems technology and social systems are explained. The multiple and evolving threats to business are developed into an overall architecture for a security policy. Overview: Introduction: why security is an important issue Socio-technical view - the technology - the people Business process view Complexity view Please read before lecture: Laudon and Laudon chapter 10 PWC Information Security Breaches Survey Dutta A and McCrohan K (2002) Sophos white paper Whitman M E (2003) Enemy at the gate: Threats to information security, Communications of the ACM, 46(8), p. 91. [Main threats, scale and seriousness from a survey of IT managers and staff, via University of Nottingham Library Online Catalogue] Resources: Dutta A and McCrohan K (2002) Management's Role in Information Security in a Cyber Economy, California Management Review, 45 (1), p67. [Key components of an information security strategy] Sophos white paper [What spam filters look for and the dirty tricks that spammers use. Spam filters use simple rules to recognise spam email but spammers try to get around these rules and thus precipitate an 'arms race'] The Spamhaus Project url Software security market 2006 BERR Information Security Breaches Survey 2008. [Latest survey giving illustrations of business security risks and their trends] Hackers booby trap legitimate sites. Net criminals shun virus attacks Apple iPhone issue highlights security debate. Cyber crime tool kits go on sale Symantec Internet Security Threat Report, September 2008 Malware in the safezone: Illegitimate code embedded in seemingly safe websites is replacing email as the main method of delivering malware The wider business implications of risk and complexity Spamalytics: An Empirical Analysis of Spam Marketing Conversion Topic 6: Can firms leverage IT/S to gain competitive advantage? Topics 6 to 9 form the second part of the module. They provide the theoretical knowledge and technology-based insights needed to manage effective problem solving with information technologies/systems (IT/S), and to extract most value from an actual and potential use of
  8. 8. IT/S. The second part combines lectures and case studies to help participants develop insights into the issues and complexities of managing IT/S. Topic 5 begins by providing the setting and the context of whether firms can leverage IT/S to gain competitive advantage. It examines the relationship between IT investment and firm productivity. It underlines the importance of studying the relationship at firm rather than macro economic level. It goes on to examine the types of firms that are most likely to benefit from IT/S. The lecture ends by providing a general framework to guide firms to realize business value. Carr's article on 'IT doesn't matter' CarrITmatter.pdf Responses to Carr Carrdebate.pdf Another polemical piece from Carr (O) The end of Corporate Computing This paper by Joe Peppard et al. (2007) introduces the Benefits Dependency Network (BDN) and illustrates how firms can use BDN to better realize business benefits from IT. managingtherealizationofbizbenefitsfromIT.pdf Responses to Joe Peppard et al. article. ThreeCIOadvisoryboardresponses2managingtherealizationofbusinessbenefits.pdf Taking RFID with Wal-Mart's CIO http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/feb2004/tc2004024_3168_tc165.htm RFID Progress at Wal-Mart http://www.idtechex.com/research/articles/rfid_progress_at_wal_mart_00000161.asp Wal-Marts New CIO Says Hell Back RFID http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Mobile-and-Wireless/WalMarts-New-CIO-Says-Hell-Back-RFID/ The CRM article by Goodhue et al. (2002). goodhue.pdf The limits to IT value by Chircu and Kauffman (2000). Chircu.pdf Productivity Paradox Brynjolfsson.pdf Ppt slides for "Realizing IT Values" MISMBA2008lt1.pdf Topic 7 How to better align IT/S with business strategy? This lecture introduces the concept of alignment; identifies the factors that influence alignment; examines the intermediaries between alignment and firms' performance; and introduces the 'practice approach' including the use of balanced scorecard to provide a more realistic evaluation of IT/S as part of a performance measurement system in translating strategy to outcomes and in achieving sustainable business-IT alignment.
  9. 9. Resources
  10. 10. Introduces the concept of alignment, covering many key ideas(E) Luftman (1999) "Strategic alignment" Reports SIM survey of CIO key issues, plus more useful material on alignment (HR) Luffman (2005) Key issues for Chief Information Officers Important case study cited in lecture slides (HR). First America case study, full paper (PDF) Interesting research paper with several short cases (HR). Reich and Benbasat (2000) "Social dimension of alignment" Package of optional further readings. Ciborra is HR! Note Sabherwal is in misc. section Note this is a ZIP file Interview with CIO of major financial services organisation, pseudonym "Acme". Very interesting observations on alignment and other issues on the contemporary CIO's agenda. Much wisdom and insight to be found herein (E). Interview with GP (CIO, Acme) full transcript Extract from the recent "Best Value" report of a nameless City Council. Shows how essential IS/IT has become to the strategic agenda in local government (O) Alignment in Erewhon City Council: Best Value review Most recent article by Chan et al. (2007) Chan2007JIT.pdf Rom's article on balanced scorecard

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