1




          Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




     Corporate Strategy
1.   What is strategy?
2.   some models
3.   ...
2




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



      Porter: What is Corporate
               Strategy?
Corporate strat...
3




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



Porter: A diversified company has
two levels of strategy: (1) business
un...
4




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




Porter: "Corporate strategy is what
makes the corporate whole add up to...
5




           Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



         Some Key Terminology

1. "Value Chain" (Porter): This concep...
6




Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




  The Value Chain




      Ref. Porter
7




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



2. First-mover advantage
The notion that countries or firms which c...
8




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



           QUESTIONS:

1. Can you think of any first movers
who have succ...
9




          Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



3. Strategic Alliances
Linkages between firms to achieve economic
benefi...
10




           Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



Forms of Strategic Alliances

Alliances consist of long-term supply ...
11




            Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



          4. The experience curve

The concept that costs of produc...
12




                Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



5. Core Competences/Competencies
A set of differentiated skills...
13




           Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




6. SWOT Analysis


               INTERNAL      EXTERNAL
-         ...
14




         Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




 Some Models of Strategic Analysis

1.   Boston Consulting Group
2.  ...
15




          Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



   1. The Boston Consulting Group
               Model

 High
 Mkt
Gr...
16




          Some Notes on Corporate Strategy


             The BCG Matrix

Each business is located on a 2-dimension...
17




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



      The McKinsey 7-S Model




7 characteristic factors in a corporat...
18




                Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



McKinsey’s primary objective in developing the 7-S framework
wa...
19




            Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



The McKinsey study also found that most successful
organizations, r...
20




      Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



Michael Porter's "Five Forces" of
          Competition
21




             Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



           Porter's Cluster Model

"Clusters are geographic concen...
22




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




"The cluster concept represents a new way of thinking about
nati...
23




      Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



      Porter's "Diamond"
Sources of Locational Competitive
            Ad...
24




      Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




Example: California Wine Cluster
25




Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




Major U.S. Clusters
26




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




 1. Are there any current clusters in
           Southwest B.C.?...
27




                  Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



                     Cluster Check List

End-product or servi...
28




 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



How About High Tech?
29




Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




        (year)
30




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




SIC = standard industrial classification
   code (now replaced by NAICS...
31




                        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



                      GDP by industry - BC - 1998 (mill...
32




                        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy


Hi-Tech Average Weekly Earnings (including overtime) - 1...
33




                      Some Notes on Corporate Strategy

                   Hi-Tech Average Weekly Earnings (includi...
34




Some Notes on Corporate Strategy
         B.C.
35




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



  Mergers as Corporate Strategy

3 types of mergers:

1. horizontal - b...
36




             Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



           Merger evaluation matrix

               PRO           ...
37




                      Some Notes on Corporate Strategy


   Excerpts from "Mega-Mergers, Mega-Influence," By JEFFREY...
38




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy


 Excerpts from BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY INC. 1998 ANNUAL REPORT,
       ...
39




   Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



U.S. Mergers & Divestitures
        (billion $)
40




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



U.S. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS OF U.S. COMPANIES
- 1996

         ...
41




                       Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




U.S. MERGERS AND ACQUISI-
TIONS TOP 10
$ million
      ...
42




                       Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



                 Some Recent Big Mergers
RECENT LARGE ME...
43




Some Notes on Corporate Strategy
44




          Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




  Porter's 4 Concepts of Corporate
              Strategy

1.Portfol...
45




Some Notes on Corporate Strategy
46




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



Excerpts from: "How mergers go wrong"
Jul 20th 2000. From The Eco...
47




       Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



Some Recent High-Visibility Merger
            Disasters

          BMW-...
48




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



      Is bigger always better?
            One reaction:

November 10, ...
49




              Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



 Consider some additional evidence:
"The Dubious Logic of Global ...
50




  Some Notes on Corporate Strategy

So, what really is strategic
      management?
51




          Some Notes on Corporate Strategy




Opening paragraph by Mintzberg, Ahlstrand
and Lampel, 1998.

"We are...
52




        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



        The "10 Schools"

•   The Design School
•   The Planning School...
53




    Some Notes on Corporate Strategy

 The 10 Schools of Strategy




                # School            Strategy ...
54




                        Some Notes on Corporate Strategy
                             Mintzberg et al., 10 Schools ...
55




         Some Notes on Corporate Strategy



      Returning to the question:

do we have a field where there is a
c...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Corporate Strategy

1,678 views

Published on

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,678
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
170
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Corporate Strategy

  1. 1. 1 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Corporate Strategy 1. What is strategy? 2. some models 3. mergers as strategy 4. unresolved issue: is this really a field?
  2. 2. 2 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Porter: What is Corporate Strategy? Corporate strategy, the overall plan for a diversified company, is both the darling and the stepchild of contemporary management practice— the darling because CEOs have been obsessed with diversification since the early 1960s, the stepchild because almost no consensus exists about what corporate strategy is, much less about how a company should formulate it.
  3. 3. 3 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Porter: A diversified company has two levels of strategy: (1) business unit (or competitive) strategy, and (2) corporate (or company-wide) strategy. Competitive strategy concerns how to create competitive advantage in each of the businesses in which a company competes. Corporate strategy concerns two different questions: what businesses the corporation should be in and how the corporate office should manage the array of business units.
  4. 4. 4 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Porter: "Corporate strategy is what makes the corporate whole add up to more than the sum of its business unit parts. The track record of corporate strategies has been dismal. I studied the diversification records of 33 large, prestigious U.S. companies over the 1950-1986 period and found that most of them had divested many more acquisitions than they had kept. The corporate strategies of most companies have dissipated instead of created shareholder value."
  5. 5. 5 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Some Key Terminology 1. "Value Chain" (Porter): This concept allows the firm to be disaggregated into a vareity of strategically relevant activities which have different economic characteristics. (See figure below). One can use this structure to identify those activities which have a high potential for creating differentiation; and those which are most important in understanding cost behaviour. From this analysis, different strategic courses of action can be derived to develop differentiation
  6. 6. 6 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy The Value Chain Ref. Porter
  7. 7. 7 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 2. First-mover advantage The notion that countries or firms which create new industries or products first may establish a competitive advantage that makes it hard or impossible for other countries to follow in the same area. The advantage is most likely to prevail in sectors of large economies of scale, and especially in cases where the most efficient scale represents a high proportion of the global market. It would certainly be difficult for, say, China or Japan to enter wide-bodied aircraft manufacture in competition with Boeing and Airbus. The frequency with which airframe manufacture is quoted as an example of potential first-mover advantage, suggests it may be one of very few special cases requiring a large supplier chain and technological depth. It is not difficult to think of examples of other first movers - for example, motorcycles in the UK - which have failed to sustain an early advantage. Source: The Economist, Dictionary of Economics
  8. 8. 8 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy QUESTIONS: 1. Can you think of any first movers who have succeeded? Why? 2. Can you think of any first movers who have failed? Why?
  9. 9. 9 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 3. Strategic Alliances Linkages between firms to achieve economic benefits not available through arms-length market transactions, internal development or acquisition. Factors Promoting the Rise of Alliances All alliances are motivated by the need for risk reduction. Several environmental forces have accelerated alliance formation, including (a) sharing costs of commercializing cutting- edge technologies in research and development intensive industries, (b) shaping or transforming standards in fast-changing industries, (b) pooling resources for global economies of scale in value-adding activities, (d) speeding entry into new markets, and (e) learning skills and
  10. 10. 10 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Forms of Strategic Alliances Alliances consist of long-term supply contracts, licensing agreements, technology development pacts, joint ventures, equity ownership stakes, and cross-holding relationships. Regardless of the specific organization design, each alliance entails sharing knowledge among partners. Alliances compel firms to balance cooperation with competition. Knowledge flows can unintentionally strengthen future competitors, particularly if underlying technologies are applicable across numerous products. Carefully managed alliances enable firms to learn new skills from multiple sources, thereby strengthening their core competencies and strategic flexibility. Excessive dependence on alliances can “hollow out” the firm’s core competencies and skills.
  11. 11. 11 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 4. The experience curve The concept that costs of production decrease as the level of cumulative output increases. This is also referred to as a "learning curve." The source was originally ascribed to incerased labour productivity, but has since been expanded to include "learning by doing" at every stage of the value chain, including marketing, R&D and overhead costs. Source: Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management.
  12. 12. 12 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 5. Core Competences/Competencies A set of differentiated skills, complementary assets, and routines that provide the basis for a firm’s competitive capacities and sustainable advantage in a particular business. The concept of core competences is associated with the resource-based view of the firm. Rather than emphasizing (as in traditional approaches to strategy) products and markets, and focusing competitive analysis on product portfolios, the resource-based approach regards firms as bundles of resources which can be configured to provide firm-specific advantages. Core competences are typically characterized as: • unique to the firm • sustainable because they are hard to imitate or to substitute • conferring some kind of functionality to the customer (in the case of products and some services) or to the provider (in the case of other services) • partly the product of learning and, hence, as incorporating tacit as well as explicit knowledge • generic because they are incorporated into a number of products and/or processes Source: Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management
  13. 13. 13 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 6. SWOT Analysis INTERNAL EXTERNAL - - - PLUS Strengths Opportunities - - - NEGATIVE Weaknesses Threats - - -
  14. 14. 14 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Some Models of Strategic Analysis 1. Boston Consulting Group 2. McKinsey's 7-S 3. Porter's 5 Forces 4. Porter's Clusters
  15. 15. 15 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 1. The Boston Consulting Group Model High Mkt Growth ? Low Mkt Growth High Mkt share Low Mkt share - A framework for portfolio planning in a diversified company
  16. 16. 16 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy The BCG Matrix Each business is located on a 2-dimensional grid. One dimension represents industry attractiveness, summarized by the real annual rate of market growth. The other dimension represents the business' competitive position, summarized by its market share relative to its largest competitor. The strategic message is to invest in high-share businesses in high-growth markets ("stars") and divest low-share businesses in low-growth markets ("dogs"). Most profit and cash is gnerateed by "cash cows" (high share, low growth). Much debate is about whether to continue investing in low share businesses in high-growth markets ("question marks").
  17. 17. 17 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy The McKinsey 7-S Model 7 characteristic factors in a corporation interrelated in a hub-and-spoke
  18. 18. 18 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy McKinsey’s primary objective in developing the 7-S framework was to put a new spin on management style and suggest that soft issues could and should be managed. Further, the use of the wheel, a format borrowed from Porter, also emphasizes the idea that a firm is the comprehensive, inextricable sum of its parts. McKinsey made two key findings: (1) the consultants learned that a manager’s effectiveness was determined by both the strat- egy and the structure of the organization, and (2) there was no linear relationship governing these components, although they are interdependent. In reality, the management, structure, and strategy of an organization are related through a complex network of seven characteristic factors in the organization. Managers who try to run the firm as if it were a collection of several independent units soon learn about the spoke-and-hub concept of the wheel. A wheel is nothing more than a collection of spokes when there is no hub, and vice versa. Neither part alone can replicate the functions of a wheel. Similarly, an organization without common goals and strategy cannot function in the way it was intended. Source: The Portable MBA by Paul A. Argenti
  19. 19. 19 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy The McKinsey study also found that most successful organizations, regardless of line of business, had several practices in common: 1. Maintain a bias for action. 2. Learn from customers by staying close to them. 3. Encourage autonomy and entrepreneurship in man- agement by management. 4. Respect contributions of all employees, especially those traditionally undervalued. 5. Use a hands-on, highly visible management approach. 6. Stick to the knitting. 7. Keep the organizational structure simple and staff only as much management as is required for bare minimum. 8. Allow core values to govern.
  20. 20. 20 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Michael Porter's "Five Forces" of Competition
  21. 21. 21 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Porter's Cluster Model "Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in related industries, and associated institutions in particular fields that compete but also cooperate. Critical masses of unusual competitive success in particular business areas, clusters are a striking feature of virtually every national, regional, state, and even metropolitan economy, especially those of more economically advanced nations. "The tendency has been to see location as diminishing in importance. Globalization allows companies to source capital, goods, and technology from anywhere and to locate operations wherever it is most cost effective. Governments are widely seen as losing their influence over competition to global forces. This perspective does not accord with competitive reality."
  22. 22. 22 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy "The cluster concept represents a new way of thinking about national, state, and city economies, and points to new roles for companies, governments, and other institutions striving to enhance competitiveness. The presence of clusters suggests that much of competitive advantage lies outside a given company or even outside its industry, residing instead in the location of its business units. "The importance of clusters creates new management agendas that are rarely recognized. Companies have a tangible stake in the business environments where they are located in ways that go far beyond taxes, electricity costs, and wage rates. The health of the cluster is important to the health of the company. A company may actually benefit from the presence of local competitors. "Clusters also create new roles for government. Government’s more decisive influences are often at the microeconomic level. Removing obstacles to the growth and upgrading of existing and emerging clusters should be a priority. Clusters are a driving force in increasing exports and magnets for attracting foreign investment."
  23. 23. 23 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Porter's "Diamond" Sources of Locational Competitive Advantage
  24. 24. 24 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Example: California Wine Cluster
  25. 25. 25 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Major U.S. Clusters
  26. 26. 26 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy 1. Are there any current clusters in Southwest B.C.? 2. Are there any potential clusters in Southwest B.C.? GVRD employment by sector 1996 # % Agriculture and related 11,675 1.3% Fishing and trapping 2,335 0.3% Logging and forestry 2,900 0.3% Mining, quarry and oil well 2,960 0.3% Manufacturing 99,070 11.3% Construction 67,560 7.7% Transportation & Communication 80,515 9.2% Wholesale trade 59,975 6.8% Retail trade 115,810 13.2% Finance, insurance & real estate 71,405 8.1% Business service 87,530 10.0% Government service 41,920 4.8% Educational service 66,440 7.6% Health & social service 89,730 10.2% Accommodation, food & beverage 76,845 8.8% TOTAL 876,670 100.0%
  27. 27. 27 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Cluster Check List End-product or service companies suppliers of specialized inputs, components, machinery & services financial institutions firms in related industries firms in downstream industries (I.e. channels or customers) producers of complementary products specialized infrastructure providers universities think tanks vocational training providers other providers of specialized training, education, information, research and technical support standard-setting agencies trade associations
  28. 28. 28 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy How About High Tech?
  29. 29. 29 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy (year)
  30. 30. 30 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy SIC = standard industrial classification code (now replaced by NAICS or North American Industrial Classification System)
  31. 31. 31 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy GDP by industry - BC - 1998 (million $) SIC INDUSTRY Manufacturing $789.6 Industries 3192 Construction and Mining Machinery confidential 3211 Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Industry $99.7 3359 Other Communication and Electrical Equipment $116.9 3361 Electronic Computing and Peripheral Equipment $186.0 337 group Electrical Industrial Equipment Group $52.8 3711 Industrial Inorganic Chemicals confidential 3911 Indicating, Recording & Controlling Instruments $54.7 Other High Technology Manufacturing $249.9 Service $1,887.7 Industries 772 Computer And Related Services $794.4 77523 Engineering Services $711.8 77593 Scientific and Technical Services $291.3 868 Medical and other Health Laboratories $90.3 High Technology $2,677.3 Sector Total BC Industrial $96,216.4 Aggregate High Technology 2.8% as % of Total
  32. 32. 32 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Hi-Tech Average Weekly Earnings (including overtime) - 1999 - BC (million $) SIC INDUSTRY Manufacturing $860 Industries 3211 Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Industry $820 335 Communication and Other Electronic Equipment $890 336 Office, Store and Business Machines $1,040 3372 Electrical switchgear and protective equipment $1,040 3379 Other electrical industrial equipment industries $1,040 3911 Indicating, Recording & Controlling Instruments Industry $620 3912 Other instruments and related products industry $620 3192 Construction, Mining Machinery & Materials Handling Equipment $830 3194 Turbine and Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment $830 3199 Other Machinery and Equipment Industries, NEC $830 37 group Chemical and chemical products group $720 3 group Other manufacturing group $830 Service Industries $870 772 Computer And Related Services $900 7752 Engineering Services $880 7759 Scientific and Technical Services $880 868 Medical and other Health Laboratories $640 High Technology $870 Sector Total BC Industrial $630 Aggregate
  33. 33. 33 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Hi-Tech Average Weekly Earnings (including overtime) - 1999 - BC (million $) SIC INDUSTRY Manu- factur- ing Indus- tries $860 3211 Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Industry $820 335 Communication and Other Electronic Equipment $890 336 Office, Store and Business Machines $1,040 3372 Electrical switchgear and protective equipment $1,040 3379 Other electrical industrial equipment industries $1,040 3911 Indicating, Recording & Controlling Instruments Industry $620 3912 Other instruments and related products industry $620 3192 Construction, Mining Machinery & Materials Handling Equipment $830 3194 Turbine and Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment $830 3199 Other Machinery and Equipment Industries, NEC $830 37 group Chemical and chemical products group $720 3 group Other manufacturing group $830 Service Indus- tries $870 772 Computer And Related Services $900 7752 Engineering Services $880 7759 Scientific and Technical Services $880 868 Medical and other Health Laboratories $640 High Tech- nology Sector Total $870
  34. 34. 34 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy B.C.
  35. 35. 35 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Mergers as Corporate Strategy 3 types of mergers: 1. horizontal - between 2 firms in the same business 2. vertical - between 2 firms that are suppliers or customers of one another 3. conglomerate - between 2 firms in totally different industries
  36. 36. 36 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Merger evaluation matrix PRO CON HORIZONTAL Increase in allocative ef- Anti-competitive effects ficiency due to economies of scale VERTICAL May increase security of Potential anti-competi- supply or markets for par- tive effects ticipant companies; easier to transfer assets CONGLOMERATE Risk reduction through No anti-competitive diversification; economies effects. However, risk of scope of poor fit; rent-seeking through financial manip- ulation (Buffett); some concern over potential political power (Garten)
  37. 37. 37 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Excerpts from "Mega-Mergers, Mega-Influence," By JEFFREY GARTEN, Dean of the Yale School of Management, New York Times, October 26, 1999 In just the past few years corporate giants have Security financing and other issues of national emerged across all industries. Citibank and policy. Yes, companies have always lobbied, Travelers, Bank of America and Nationsbank, but these huge corporations often have more and Deutsche Bank and Bankers Trust are pull. Because there are fewer of them, their among the major mergers that have reshaped influence can be more focused, and in some banking. In other industries, Daimler-Benz cases, the country may be highly dependent on has linked up with Chrysler; AT&T with their survival. Mediaone; British Petroleum with Amoco; For example, corporate giants can have Aetna with Prudential Health. Still awaiting enormous le ver age when they focus on regulatory approval are some of the biggest America’s foreign and trade policy. Defense combinations of all, including those between contractors like Lockheed Martin, itself a Exxon and Mobil, MCI Worldcom and Sprint, result of a merger of two big firms, were able and Viacom and CBS. to exert ex traor di nar i ly powerful force to The big problem is not with how these influence legislation that approved enlarging businesses are affecting competition, but with NATO, a move that opened up new markets the inability of our political system to respond for American weapons sales to Poland and the to potential problems resulting from economic Czech Republic. globalization. Business leaders understandably Companies like Boeing, which not long ago operate on a global stage, while government acquired McDonnell Douglas, have expanded leaders act in a way that fails to recognize the their already formidable influence on trade new global economy. policy toward countries like China. Boeing Here is some of the fallout. Mega-banks is now the only American commercial aircraft like Citigroup or the new Bank of America have manufacturer. become too big to fail. Were they to falter, they Corporations like Exxon-Mobil will could take the entire global financial system negotiate with oil-producing countries almost down with them. as equals, conducting the most powerful private Many mega-companies could be beyond diplomacy since the 19th century, when the the law, too. Their deep pockets can buy teams British East India Company wielded near- of lawyers that can stymie prosecutors for years. sovereign influence in Asia. And if they lose in court, they can afford to pay But sooner or later — perhaps starting with huge fines without damaging their operations. the next serious economic downturn — the Moreover, no one should be surprised United States will have to confront one of that mega-companies navigate our scandously the great challenges of our times: How does a porous campaign financing system to influence sovereign nation govern itself effectively when tax policy, environmental standards, Social
  38. 38. 38 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Excerpts from BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY INC. 1998 ANNUAL REPORT, Chairman’s Letter (Copyright © 1999 By Warren E. Buffett) When it comes to restructurings accounting stratagems. These and merger accounting, many either manufacture the desired man age ments pur pose ful ly “earnings” or set the stage for work at manipulating numbers them in the future. and deceiving investors. Managements now Many major corporations fre quent ly use merg ers to still play things straight, but dis hon est ly rearrange the a sig nif i cant and growing value of assets and liabilities number of oth er wise high- in ways that will allow them to grade man ag ers have come both smooth and swell future to the view that it’s okay to earnings. manipulate earnings to satisfy In a landmark speech what they believe are Wall last September, Arthur Levitt Street’s desires. [chairman of the U.S. SEC] These managers start with called for an end to “earnings the assumption, all too common, man age ment.” He correctly that their job at all times is to observed, “Too many corporate encourage the highest stock managers, auditors and analysts price possible (a premise with are participants in a game of which we adamantly disagree). nods and winks.” And then When operations don’t produce he laid on a real indictment: the result hoped for, these “Managing may be giving way CEOs resort to unadmirable
  39. 39. 39 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy U.S. Mergers & Divestitures (billion $)
  40. 40. 40 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy U.S. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS OF U.S. COMPANIES - 1996 # $ million % Total activity 2,670 $556,308 avg value 100% Telecommunications 58 $77,815 $1,342 14% Electric, gas, water distribution 41 $40,355 $984 7% Radio & television broadcasting stations 178 $32,065 $180 6% Business services 263 $28,633 $109 5% Transportation and shipping (except air) 51 $28,266 $554 5% Oil and gas; petroleum refining 138 $26,018 $189 5% Commercial banks, bank holding companies 185 $21,259 $115 4% Measuring, medical, photo equip; clocks 92 $21,065 $229 4% Aerospace and aircraft 10 $19,628 $1,963 4% Insurance 86 $15,266 $178 3% Electronic and electrical equipment 59 $14,296 $242 3% Hotels and casinos 135 $13,991 $104 3% Investment & commodity firms, dealers, exchanges 73 $12,974 $178 2% Real estate, mortgage bankers and brokers 122 $11,077 $91 2% Prepackaged software 84 $9,951 $118 2% Drugs 27 $9,437 $350 2% Chemicals and allied products 33 $9,208 $279 2% Mining 17 $6,797 $400 1% Repair services 13 $6,763 $520 1% Communications equipment 33 $6,580 $199 1% Transportation equipment 28 $6,495 $232 1% Food and kindred products 8 $5,497 $687 1% Printing, publishing, and allied services 34 $5,393 $159 1% Sanitary services 27 $4,890 $181 1% Wholesale trade—durable goods 86 $4,783 $56 1% Metal and metal products 66 $4,307 $65 1% Retail trade—general merchandise and apparel 19 $4,178 $220 1% Machinery 49 $3,763 $77 1% Computer and office equipment 39 $3,643 $93 1% Wood products, furniture, and fixtures 20 $3,243 $162 1% Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 16 $3,140 $196 1% Motion picture production and distribution 17 $2,507 $147 0.5% Paper and allied products 15 $2,329 $155 0.4% Holding companies, except banks 1 $2,251 $2,251 0.4% Amusement and recreation services 41 $1,756 $43 0.3% Textile and apparel products 19 $1,342 $71 0.2% Construction firms 18 $1,284 $71 0.2% Stone, clay, glass and concrete products 7 $936 $134 0.2% Advertising services 14 $844 $60 0.2% Personal services 5 $715 $143 0.1% Public administration 3 $408 $136 0.1% Air transportation and shipping 2 $264 $132 0.05% Tobacco products 2 $200 $100 0.04% Other financial 2 $19 $9 0.003%
  41. 41. 41 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy U.S. MERGERS AND ACQUISI- TIONS TOP 10 $ million 1996 1994 Total activity $618,499 Total activity $358,718 Telecommunications $79,302 Drugs $26,419 Commercial banks, bank holding Electric, gas, water distribution $49,927 companies $23,629 Business services $34,177 Food and kindred products $19,451 Radio & television broadcasting sta- tions $32,580 Insurance $18,175 Oil and gas; petroleum refining $30,271 Business services $16,702 Transportation and shipping (except Radio & television broadcasting air) $28,873 stations $15,064 Measuring, medical, photo equip; clocks $22,260 Health services $14,760 Commercial banks, bank holding companies $21,328 Oil and gas; petroleum refining $14,545 Aerospace and aircraft $19,628 Telecommunications $14,129 Investment & commodity firms, Insurance $16,346 dealers, exchanges $13,996 1992 1990 Total activity $125,308 TOTAL $172,319 Commercial banks $16,390 services $32,746 Electric, gas, water distribution $6,904 finance, insurance, real estate $28,142 Radio and television broadcasting $6,585 Transportation and public utilities $19,838 Food and kindred products $6,407 Chemicals and allied products $15,612 Security and commodity brokers $5,760 Mining $11,646 Oil and gas and petroleum refining $5,418 Food and kindred products $9,246 Savings and loans $5,305 retail trade $7,373 Electrical and electronic equip- Insurance $5,169 ment $6,381 Industrial machinery, computer Wholesale $4,595 equipment $5,978 Chemicals and allied products $4,572 Paper and allied products $5,682
  42. 42. 42 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Some Recent Big Mergers RECENT LARGE MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS PARTIES DATE PRICE STATUS (billion $) AOL Time-Warner 2000 $182 Completed MCI Sprint 1999 $130 Pfizer Warner-Lambert 2000 $90 Contested Glaxo Wellcome SmithKline Beecham 2000 $78 The Travelers Citcorp 1998 $70 Completed SBC Ameritech 1998 $62 Completed Bank of America NationsBank 1998 $60 Completed JDS Uniphase E-Tek Dynamics 2000 $55 Daimler-Benz Chrysler 1998 $39 Completed Chevron Texaco 2000 $36 World Com MCI 1998 $37 Completed BP Amoco-ARCO 1999 $29 Contested Boeing McDonnell Douglas 1997 $16 Completed El Paso Energy Coastal Corp 2000 $15 Telefonica SA Telecommunicacoes de Sao Paulo 2000 $10 Taiwan Semiconductor Worldwide Semiconductor 2000 $6 France Telecom Global One 2000 $4 Telfonica SA Telefonica de Argentina 2000 $4 Telewest Communications Flextech 2000 $4 Source: www.securitiesdata.com
  43. 43. 43 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy
  44. 44. 44 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Porter's 4 Concepts of Corporate Strategy 1.Portfolio Management 2. Restructuring 3. Tranferring skills 4. Sharing activities Porter's conclusion: only #3 and #4 are sound and even they depend on good industry structure and implementation
  45. 45. 45 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy
  46. 46. 46 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Excerpts from: "How mergers go wrong" Jul 20th 2000. From The Economist print edition A stream of studies has shown that corporate mergers have even higher failure rates than the liaisons of Hollywood stars. One report by KPMG, a consultancy, concluded that over half of them had destroyed shareholder value, and a further third had made no difference. Yet over the past two years, companies around the globe have jumped into bed with each other on an unprecedented scale. In 1999, the worldwide value of mergers and acquisitions rose by over a third to more than $3.4 trillion. Most of the mergers we have looked at were defensive, meaning that they were initiated in part because the companies involved were under threat. Sometimes, the threat was a change in the size or nature of a particular market. Occasionally the threat lay in that buzzword of today, globalisation, and its concomitant de- mand for greater scale. Or the threat may have come from an- other predator. When a company merges to escape a threat, it often imports its problems into the marriage. As important as the need for clear vision and due diligence before a merger is a clear strategy after it. As every employee knows full well, mergers tend to mean job losses. No sooner is the an- nouncement out than the most marketable and valuable members of staff send out their resumés. Without leadership from its top manager, a company that is being bought can all too often feel like a defeated army in an occupied land, and will wage guerrilla warfare against a deal.
  47. 47. 47 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Some Recent High-Visibility Merger Disasters BMW-Rover Daimler-Chrysler Compaq-Digital AT&T-NCR Mattel-Learning Company Hypobank-Bayerische Vereinsbank
  48. 48. 48 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Is bigger always better? One reaction: November 10, 2000: British Telecommunications to split into 2 companies November 1, 2000: Worldcom announces plan to split into two Oct 26, 2000: AT&T to break itself into 4 businesses
  49. 49. 49 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Consider some additional evidence: "The Dubious Logic of Global Megamergers" Ghemawat, Pankaj; Ghadar, Fariborz; HBR, 7/1/2000 "The almost universal belief among executives today is that bigger is better: companies are entering into huge, pricey cross- border mergers at an unprecedented rate. Common wisdom is that industries will become more concentrated as they become more global. In this article, the authors debunk the myth of increased concentration; the perceived links between the globalization of an industry and the concentration of that industry are weak. Empirical research shows that global—or globalizing—industries have actually been marked by steady decreases in concentration since World War II. The authors present the biases that managers often have about consolidation and offer alternative strategies to pursuing the big M&A deal. There are better, more profitable ways of dealing with globalization than relentless expansion, they say. Those strategies include buying up cast-off assets from merging rivals; focusing more on domestic or regional growth rather than on global expansion; taking advantage of merging rivals’ weakened market position during integration and launching an aggressive marketing campaign; and building alliances with other companies rather than buying them up."
  50. 50. 50 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy So, what really is strategic management?
  51. 51. 51 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Opening paragraph by Mintzberg, Ahlstrand and Lampel, 1998. "We are the blind people and strategy formation is our elephant. Since no one has had the vision to see the entire beast, everyone has grabbed hold of some part or other and “railed on in utter ignorance” about the rest. We certainly do not get an elephant by adding up its parts. An elephant is more than that. Yet to comprehend the whole we also need to understand the parts. The next ten chapters describe ten parts of our strategy-formation beast. Each forms one “school of thought.”
  52. 52. 52 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy The "10 Schools" • The Design School • The Planning School • The Positioning School • The Entrepreneurial School • The Cognitive School • The Learning School • The Power School • The Cultural School • The Environmental School • The Configuration School
  53. 53. 53 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy The 10 Schools of Strategy # School Strategy Formation as: PRESCRIPTIVE SCHOOLS 1 Design a process of conception 2 Planning a formal process 3 Positioning an analytical process DESCRIPTIVE SCHOOLS 4 Entrepreneurial a visionary process 5 Cognitive as a mental process 6 Learning an emergent process 7 Power a process of negotiation 8 Cultural a collective process 9 Environmental a reactive process INTEGRATIVE SCHOOL 10 Configuration a process of transformation
  54. 54. 54 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Mintzberg et al., 10 Schools of Strategic Management SCHOOL Pro/Des ESSENCE TECHNIQUES PEOPLE 1 Design Prescriptive seeks to attain a fit between internal capabilities and external pos- SWOT analysis Christensen et al. sibilities (HBS) 2 Planning Prescriptive take the SWOT model, divide it into neatly delineated steps, ar- Planning hierar- Ansoff; SRI, etc. ticulate each of those with lots of checklists & techniques, and give chies special attention to the setting of objectives on the front end and the elaboration of budgets & operating plans on the back end 3 Positioning Prescriptive only a few key strategies - as positions in the economic marketplace BCG growth-share Porter, BCG - are desirable in any given industry; ones that can be defended matrix; experience against existing and future competitors. There are a limited number curve of basic or generic strategies; e.g., cost leadership, product differen- tiation and market scope 4 Entrepreneurial Descriptive the key concept is the leader’s vision Schumpeter 5 Cognitive Descriptive 2 forms: (1) positivist - treats the processing & structuring of understanding and Simon knowledge as an effort to produce some kind of objective represen- removing biases in tation of the world; (2) subjective - where strategy is some kind of decision making interpretation of the world. 6 Learning Descriptive strategy emerges as people, acting alone or collectively, come to incrementalism Lindblom, Quinn learn about a situation as well as their organization’s capability of dealing with it. Eventually they converge on patterns of behaviour that work 7 Power Descriptive strategy formation is characterized as an overt process of influence, coalition building, Allison emphasizing the use of power and politics to negotiate strategies fa- bargaining, negoti- vourable to particular interests. Two forms: (1) micro - use of power ating and jockeying inside the organization; (2) macro - use of power by the organization for position 8 Cultural Descriptive Five propositions: (1) strategy is a process of social interaction, inspired by Japanese based on shared beliefs; (2) people acquire these beliefs through corporate culture acculturation; (3) these beliefs are often tacit or nonverbal; (4) strategy is therefore perspective rather than positions; (5) culture encourages the status quo 9 Environmental Descriptive the organization is considered passive, something that spends its time reacting to an environment that sets the agenda. Differences in organizations are explained by environmental characteristics such as stability, complexity, market diversity and hostility. 10 Configuration Integrative describes the relative stability of strategy within given states, inter- Mintzberg rupted by occasional and rather dramatic leaps (or transformations) to new ones
  55. 55. 55 Some Notes on Corporate Strategy Returning to the question: do we have a field where there is a coherent and relatively consistent body of theory which (a) describes the world of corporate strategy, and (b) precribes certain strategic actions? OR is this a discipline still in its formative stages?

×