Chapter 9


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  • Performance consulting – Focuses on identifying and addressing root causes of performance problems. Recognizing that the interaction of individual and organizational factors influences employee performance. Documenting the actions and accomplishments of higher performers and comparing them with actions of more typical performers.
  • HR Perspective: Research on Age Differences and Technology Training – Why do you think younger employees were quicker to tackle new software? How can employers help older workers accept and learn new software?
  • Chapter 9

    1. 1. Training <ul><li>Training – process whereby people acquire capabilities to facilitate goal achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive proposition for employers – employers spend over $60 billion a year on training. </li></ul><ul><li>Most organizations consider training vital to the success of their organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual responsibilities – HR staff & trainers must work as partners with operating managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Key to success of any type of training – must be linked to enhancing organizational performance. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Training Model <ul><li>Assessment – Determining Training needs, identifying training objectives, & development of assessment criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation – Select training methods, arrange for training, & conduct – </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – compare training outcomes against criteria. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Strategic Training <ul><li>Issues – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitiveness – aids retention & stock of human capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue Source – training as part of sales packages – promotes customer satisfaction and loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of Job Performance, Training, & Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking Training to Business Strategies – Figure 9-3 </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Training Needs Assessment <ul><li>Organizational Analyses – Sources – grievances, accidents, complaints, exit interviews, waste/scrap, equipment use, observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Task Analysis Sources – Job Requirements & Employee KSAs; Job Description Requirements & Job Specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Employee Sources – Tests, records, performance appraisals, assessment centers, surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>Gap Analysis – distance between where an organization is and where it needs to be - facilitates establishing of training objectives and priorities. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Training Design Issues <ul><li>Learning Concepts – learner readiness, learning styles, & transfer of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Readiness – do learners have basic skills necessary for learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivated to Learn? – Strength of growth need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Efficacy – person’s belief that he/she can successfully learn the training content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Styles – Auditory, Tactile, & Visual; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult Learners - </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Types of Training <ul><li>Internal vs. External – On The Job (OJT) – cost effective – informal or formal. </li></ul><ul><li>External – lack of expertise – new ideas – limited resources; use of outsourcing. </li></ul><ul><li>See figure 9-7, p. 286 of text. </li></ul><ul><li>E-Learning – use of the internet and or intranet – Advantages/Disadvantages – Figure 9-10, p.293. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Orientation – planned introduction of new employees to their jobs – many consider it the most important type of training. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Orientation achieves several key purposes: 1 st impressions, accelerates socialization, enhances performance, & reduces turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues – Mandated Training – OSHA, EPA, EEO. State and Federal Requirements. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Evaluating Training <ul><li>Cost/Benefit Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction – evaluation by trainees using questionnaires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning – pre and post testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior – Observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results – Measurements – productivity, turnover, sales, & costs. </li></ul></ul></ul>