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  1. 1. OVERCOMING GLOBAL GIANTS IN THE LOCAL MARKET: JOLLIBEE’S COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES AGAINST MCDONALD’S Keiichi Yamada Faculty of Business, Marketing, and Distribution, Nakamura Gakuen University 5-7-1, Befu, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City, 814-0198, Japan. Yamada-k@nakamura-u.ac.jp Abstract In this study, the author tries to figure out the secret of success by setting up hypothesis through history, and strategy analysis including analysis of business model in the case of Jollibee Foods Corporation (JFC), and tries to bring out effective strategies for local companies to compete against global giants in the local market and implies critical success factors (CSF). Keyword: critical success factors, local market structure, glocalization, technical enmvironments, institutional environments INTRODUCTION A fast food restaurant, or Quick Service Restaurant (QSR) has the following 3 characteristics (Lorenzana 2008). It is characterized by its fast food cuisine and minimal table service. It offers limited menu, cooked in bulk in advance, kept hot, finished, packaged to order, and available to take-out, drive-thru, and dine-in. It is usually a part of a chain or franchise operation, which provisions standardized ingredients and/or partially prepared foods and supplies to each restaurant through controlled supply channels. McDonald‟s is one of the most famous QSR in the world. McDonald‟s was founded by Mac and Dick McDonald – the McDonald‟s brothers in 1937 (Kroc 1987). It was once closed in 1948 and reopened a short time later with a radically different kind of operation – a restaurant with the minimum service and menu, the prototype of fast-food units that later would spread across the world (Kroc 1987). „Hamburgers, fries, and beverages were prepared on an assembly line basis, and, to the amazement of everyone (Kroc 1987: 70-71)‟. It has been developed under management and leadership of Ray Kroc and expanded its market and became one of the world giants of QSR (Kroc 1987). McDonald‟s became No.1 in every country of more than 100 countries in the world (Watson 2006) except Philippines where JFC has been overwhelming strength against McDonald‟s (Kleinfelder 2004: 37). 1
  2. 2. On the other hand, JFC was founded by Chinese-Filipino Mr. Tony Tan Caktiong (TTC) as the ice-cream parlor at Cubao City in 1975. 30 years after its foundation, it has grown up to a huge first foods conglomerate in Philippines. It gained No.1 popular company in Philippines for years.1 At present, its operation is not only domestic but also overseas such as U.S.A., Brunei, Hong Kong, Guam, Vietnam, Middle East, etc.. JFC offers first foods such as hamburger (Champ and Yum Burger), fried chicken (Chicken Joy), pasta (spaghetti), sandwiches (Jolly Hotdog), desserts and beverages, etc. and it is the most popular QSR in Philippines2. The objectives of this study are to analysis strategies that JFC adopted, to seek the secret of success, and to present CSF of JFC for the purpose of giving implications for local companies to overcome global giants in the local market. In order to obtain such goals, we will use history analysis, strategy analysis including analysis of competition focusing on the domestic development of JFC and business model of operation management and logistic systems. METHODOLOGIES OF ANALYSIS Methodology of History Analysis In analyzing case historically, we use History Analysis Chart shown in APPENDIX. In this chart, GE, PS, MT, PR and RL represents general affair, product and service, market, promotion, reputation and legitimacy respectively. And each event shall be marked in applicable categories by (+) – in case the event promotes its performance, or (-). – in case the event constrains or hinders it. The reasons I selected these elements in history analysis are: 1. Objectives of history analysis is to illustrate how a certain company grew up and developed, and to know what kind of strategies were adopted and how they were implemented to realize these growth and development. 2. Basically a new venture need to clarify three elements such as: what to sell (products & services), whom to sell (market), and how to sell (promotion). 3. Furthermore, legitimacy and reputation play a significant role for a company to get acknowledged and accepted by its customers and other stakeholders. 4. Therefore, we classify each historical event into five categories as explained the above. Methodology of Strategy Analysis In order to analyze strategy of overcoming its competitors, we can utilize following tools. 1 JFC Annual Reports 2006 2 Jollibee’s Official Website and JFC Annual Reports 2
  3. 3. 1. Four-Tier Structure of Market and Type of Glocalization  Four-Tier Structure of Market In considering domestic competitions in developing countries, we have to consider the characteristics and structures of market in developing countries. Khanna & Palepu (2006) introduced the Four-Tiered Structure of Market (See Chart 1). They insisted that most product markets comprise four distinct tires: global, glocal, local, and regional. In Global segment, products of global quality with global features at global prices are offered. In Glocal segment, products of global quality with local features (and local soul) at less than global prices are offered. In local segment, local products with local features at local prices are offered. Regional segment can afford to buy only the most inexpensive products (Khanna & Palepu 2006: 5). Multinational corporations typically compete for consumers and talent only in the global tier. Meanwhile, smart local companies, which dominate the local tier, move into the global tier and also create breakthrough products for the bottom segment as economies liberalize. These businesses often become emerging giants (Khanna & Palepu 2006: 4).  Type of Glocalization As objectives of glocalization can be product/service and business model, two types of glocalization – product/service glocalization and business model glocalization. With this typologies more specific characteristics of a firm‟s glocalization can be obtained (See Chart 2). Chart 1 Four-Tiered Structure of the Market in Developing Countries Source Khanna & Palepu 2006 3
  4. 4. Chart 2 Type of Glocalization 2. Porter‟s competitive strategies, such as Generic Strategies (1980) and Forces Governing Competition (1980) in an Industry when we can draw maps of competition. Of course though we must consider strategy based on Resource Based View (Barney 2002) and Core Competence (Prahalad & Hamel 1990), we shall focus on the competition between McDonald‟s and JFC, and adopt Porter‟s positioning approach – especially Generic Strategies in this paper. 3. In analyzing business model, we have to refer to operation and logistic systems – how do they relate to competitive advantage or at least competitive parity (Barney & Hesterly 2006: 13). CASE OF JOLLIBEE FOODS CORPORATION Corporate Profile3 Foundation: 1975 in Quezon City, Philippines Incorporated: 1978 (100% Filipino Corporation) Headquarters: Emerald Ave. Ortigas Center, Pasig City, Metro Manila, Philippines Founder, President & CEO: Tony Tan Caktiong Industry: QSR (Quick Service Restaurant) Consolidated System-wide Retail Sales: 51,550 million Philippine Pesos (2007) Net Income: 2,388 million Philippine Pesos (2007) Number of stores: 1,639 (Philippines 1,460 and abroad 179 as of fiscal year end of 2007) Number of employee: 32,918 (as of fiscal year end of 2007) Subsidiaries: Chow King, Greenwich, Red Ribbon, Delifrance, Yonghe King, Chun Shui Tang, Manong Pepe‟s, Jollibee Foundation, etc.. 3 Jollibee’s Official Website and JFC Annual Report 2007 4
  5. 5. HISTRY ANALYSIS OF JOLLIBEE CORPORATION We listed our history analysis in APPENDIX in this paper. According to this analysis, we can point out following issues. By the time it listed its stock in 1993, JFC concentrated on the following strategy. JFC tried to improve customers‟ recognition and reputation by adopting mascots and logo, development and introduction of new products, and active sales promotions through TV and music. It enabled sharp increase of stores including franchising, and built the undisputed position in the domestic market (Market Penetration Strategy – Ansoff 1965: 109). After listed its stocks, JFC grew and developed sharply through active franchising, Joint Venture and M&A both in domestic and in overseas aiming synergy (Ansoff 1965: 75-102) effects of foods business by utilizing the credibility, reputation and funds obtained by the stock-listing. STRATEGY ANALYSIS McDonald‟s entered the Philppine market in 1981 (Bartlet 2001). Before then TTC had already learned that sooner or later McDonald‟s would enter the Philippine market and then he went to the States and observed his future possible competitor and gathered information as per a lesson from the ancient Chinese military tactician Sun Tzu (Conde 2005). TTC had three options to cope with this problem: sell Jollibee to McDonald‟s, be its franchise holder in Philippines, and fight McDonald‟s. He took the third options (Conde 2005). Using the same strategies that made McDonald‟s successful: the mascot, the colorful uniforms of the crew, their cheerful greetings, French fries, fried chicken and a burger with Filipino tastes and lower price, JFC decided to fight McDonald‟s (Conde 2005). Though McDonald‟s had much financial strength and highly developed operation systems, Jollibee had one major asset that Philippine consumers preferred the taste of Jollibee‟s hamburger by a wide margin (Bartlett 2001). After entered into the Phillipine market, McDonald‟s opened six stores in 2 years and spent much money for sales promotions. Per store sales quickly surpassed Jollibee‟s and by 1983, McDonald‟s had grabbed a 27% share of the fast food market, within striking range of Jollibee‟s 32% (Bartlett 2001). In August 1983, the political turmoil started with the assassination of „Ninoy‟ Aquino (Agoincillo 1990: 584-585, Zaide 1999: 393-396). The instability of political status influenced in economy and it made most foreign investors including McDonald‟s to their investment in the Philippines slower (Bartlett 2001). By the time President Marcos fled the Philippines after the mass demonstration of “people power (EDSA I),” and the political stability called economic stability in 5
  6. 6. Philippines under the Corazon Aquino Administration (Agoincillo 1990: 585-586, Zaide 1999: 397-407), Jollibee developed its core menu with taste-tested offerings of chicken, spaghetti and a unique peach-mango dessert pie, all developed to local consumers‟ tastes and opened its stores (Bartlett 2001). When the McDonald‟s came back to the market, Jollibee had 31 stores and the dominant presence in the market (Bartlett 2001). Now, if you ask 10 Philippines “Which do you like better Jollibee or McDonald‟s ?” then more than nine out of ten would reply “I prefer Jollibee, it is the best taste for us.” And Jollibee even became their culture. Everyone likes Jollibee – from little children to old people. And eating in Jollibee is a young girl‟s fashion. Using the tool of Four-Tiered Structure of Market (Khanna & Palepu 2006), JFC‟s strategy falls into Glocal Strategy (Chart 3). Its product/service are global with local taste (feature) and cheaper price than global one. Chart 3 JFC‟s Strategy in Four-Tiered Structure Market Source Khanna & Palepu 2006 Using the Porter‟s Generic Strategy Model (1980: 35-41), McDonald‟s usually adopts „Cost-leadership Strategy‟ (Chart 4). In order to survive competition against this global giant, successful option is not to choose the same strategy the giant adopts. In other words, in order to overcome global giants, adoption of „Differentiation Strategy‟ or „Focus Strategy‟ is a successful option4. However JFC choose head-to-head competition to McDonald‟s and adopted „Differentiation Strategy‟ and even „Cost-Leadership Strategy‟ simultaneously (Chart 4). It differentiates taste for local needs and wants (localization) with adopting the same business model as McDonald‟s adopted (Chart 5). 4 MOS Food Japan adopted Focus Strategy (Focus-Differentiation) and fled from the lower price war and survived and climbed up to the 2nd place in the hamburger market in Japan. 6
  7. 7. Even though the political turmoil during 1983 and 1986 that was the most significant timing for the competition between JFC and McDonald‟s helped JFC‟s survival and triumph in the local market, fundamental reason of success lies in the basic strategy of JFC – in order to realize its philosophy of Five Fs: Friendliness, Flavored foods, Fun atmosphere, Flexibility in catering customer needs, and Focus on families (Bartlett 2001) – it integrated products development and promotions with friendly naming of products, logo and mascots and campaigns. TV promotions and songs were effective and made its popularity higher, and various kinds of awards obtained from various institutions made its reputations better. As a result, JFC has been No.1 company in Philippines for 8 consecutive years (as of 2006)5. After listed its stock in Philippine Stock Exchange in 1993, it adopted M&A as its growth strategy. It acquired Greenwich Pizza (1994), Delifrance (1996), Chow King (2000), Yonghe King (2004), Red Ribbon (2005), Chun Shui Tang (2006), and Manong Pepe‟s Karinderia (2007), etc.6. Chart 4 Three Generic Strategies McDonald‟ Uniqueness perceived s JFC Low Cost Position by the Customer Industrywide Differentiation Overall Cost Leadership Strategy Strategies Strategic Target Particular Focus (cf. MOS) Segment only (Source: Porter 1980: 39) Chart 5 Type of Glocalization (Products/Services vs. Business Model) Products/Services Glocalization Global Local Global Giants Global such as JFC McDonald‟s Business Model - (cf. MOS) Local 5 JFC Annual Report 2006 6 JFC Annual Report 2008 7
  8. 8. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS MODEL Operation Management The operation process of Jollibee is aligned with the same basic idea as McDonald‟s – to offer the customer fast food (Kleinfelder 2004: 37). Main process of store operation is ordering, preparation, food supply management, and accounting. After McDonald‟s entered the market, the Jollibee management changed the waiters –served-system to self-served-system with ordering in counters through computerized cashiers and efficient fast food production system was established (Kleinfelder 2004: 38). To realize such system, Jollibee introduced “Food Utilization Management System” – highly developed computerized system for ordering, preparation, food management, and accounting process in 1984 (Kleinfelder 2004: 38). Jollibee developed “Drive-Through System” with the states of the art technology in 1989 (Kleinfelder 2004: 38). Jollibee also utilizes high technology to ensure the quality of the products and maintains its own research and development unit (Kleinfelder 2004: 38). Thus the operation of Jollibee is standardized and systematized for rationalization. Supply Chain Management Jollibee has commissary system which is a network of production and distribution facilities strategically located to efficiently supply its widespread outlets. This commissary system consists of sourcing of raw materials and ingredients, warehousing, manufacturing of processed food for stores, physical distribution and logistics (Young 2008). Jollibee‟s objectives of supply chain management (SCM) are (Lorenzana 2008):  Lower inventories (as low as 2 days)  No sub-distributors (direct deliveries to stores)  Pressure on Gross Margins  Managing OPEX a challenge  24 hours a day/7 days a week operations  Freshness and quality of food product s are key  Cold Chain  Dry, Wet, and Frozen Logistics  HACCP certification In order to realize these objectives, Jollibee established three main commissaries in the strategic area of Manila, Cebu in central Philippines, and Canlubang, south of Manila (Young 2008)(See Chart 6). 8
  9. 9. Chart 6 Three Main commissaries Manila (Pasig City) Cebu (Mandaue Canlubang Location City) Built 1990 1996 2004 Products Bread and sauces Bread, pie, sauce and 157,000 pies, 150,000 frozen patty pieces of chicken, 480,000 burger patties per day Coverage North Manila and Central and Southern Local supply chain area North Luzon areas Philippines. and overseas stores Ten-hectare facility: the biggest and most advanced commissary in Philippines (Source: Young 2008) STRATEGIES AND CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF JFC The author carried out History Analysis and Strategy Analysis of Jollibee by the previous chapters. Through the result of those analysis, we hereby draw a whole picture of JFC‟s strategies (See Chart 7). Chart 7 Whole picture of JFC‟s strategies Corporate philosophy Institutional Environment Friendliness Good reputation/ Stakeholders legitimacy Flavored foods Branding Acknowledge Fun atmosphere -Logo, Mascots, TV commercials and songs Acceptance Flexibility in catering customer Good reputation/Legitimacy Fashion needs -CSR, transparency and Focus on families Awards Culture Technical Environment Differentiation Competitive Customer needs/wants (Global products in strategies Local taste) Proactive Local taste strategies Low price -Take market Technical strategies opportunities Low cost operation First comer‟s Cost leadership (Low price) Franchise Chain advantage -Leading M&A/Strategic Alliance market as first comer 9
  10. 10. The author proposes the concept of 2 kinds of environments here: technical and institutional (Meyer, Scott & Deal 1981: pp.46-48, Scott 1992: pp.13-14). In technical environments a firm tries to maximize its sales and make its operation more efficient and profitable. On the other hand, in institutional environments, it tries to obtain stakeholders‟ acknowledge and acceptance through good reputation and legitimacy. Therefore corporate strategies have to be considered in both environments. In technical environments, JFC tried to meet customers‟ needs and wants: global products/service in local taste and local price (lower price than global standards). In order to realize these requirements, JFC pursued Global products/service in local taste and built up low cost operation systems simultaneously, while McDonald‟s brought American taste (global products/features) in the local market with low cost operation. In institutional environments, JFC made effort to establish its brand with its logo, mascots and TV commercials and familiar songs. It also tried to keep Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and to keep transparency to every stakeholder as much as possible. It made JFC to be one of the most respectable and popular companies in Philippines for years and as a result TTC was selected the best entrepreneur in 2004. Thus its good reputation and its legitimacy have been accumulated. Furthermore, JFC has been the most popular first food restaurant in Philippines for more than 20 years and for young generation JFC has been the most popular existence and it becomes their fashion to eat and stay in Jollibee for them, or even their part of life or a part of their culture, as McDonald‟s does in other countries. We summarize CFS of Jollibee as follows. 1. JFC entered into the first foods market earlier than McDonald‟s debut in Philippines. Or even it created and led the first foods market in Philippines. That was the reason it could enjoy the first comer‟s advantage. 2. Furthermore, it was the great luck for JFC that the incident of the EDSA I – the collapse of Marcos administration – brought suspension of foreign investment in Philippines because of political instability. And during such period JFC expanded its chain stores and built competitive advantage against foreign competitors. 3. As a local company which knows local needs and local wants well, JFC developed its low cost operation systems with local taste. 4. Same as McDonald‟s did in USA, JFC created its logo, mascot – red bee wears chef‟s hat, advertisement, etc. and tried to make good corporate image. Through TV commercial, friendly songs, branding, and good corporate image, it became the most popular company for all generation in Philippines. 5. JFC also built its low cost operation systems, and obtained the competitive cost leadership position in the first foods market in Philippines same as McDonald‟s. Price of JFC is thought to be cheaper than that of McDonald‟s among peoples. 6. JFC grew and developed through M&A of such companies as Chaw King 10
  11. 11. (chicken wing & Chinese foods), Greenwich (pizza & pasta), Red Ribbon (cakes), Deli France (sandwiches and drinks), and Yonghe King (Chinese foods), etc. by utilizing synergy effects among these brands and menus. 7. Good reputation that JFC obtained brought TTC‟s selection of the best entrepreneurship awards 2004 in Philippines and many other awards to JFC. And it strengthened JFC‟s legitimacy and good reputation as the result. 8. It is a kind of fashion for young people in Philippines to eat and stay in Jollibee. For them, Jollibee is the most familiar existence because they know Jollibee since they are young children and Jollibee is their part of life and even their culture. 9. JFC has experienced organizational learning especially in overseas operations which enables elaboration of its managerial and operational expertise. CONCLUSION: FUTURE ISSUES Lopez (2007) pointed out that JFC is losing ground to McDonald‟s due to deterioration of its service level in store operation, and McDonald‟s introduction of new menu and active store development, extensive advertising and promotional campaign beginning in the latter part of 2005. If Mr. Lopez‟s indication is correct, sooner or later, McDonald‟s may catch up with JFC in the near future. It is more significant that, if JFC‟s service level is really deteriorating due to bureaucratic and non-customer-oriented manners, the reputation and brands of JFC may be damaged someday, and once some kinds of scandals – such as foods poisoning due to ill management of quality control – occur, its reputation may be heavily damaged and customers may leave. McDonald‟ also has been trying to construct store adjacent to JFC stores to challenge head-to-head competition and defeat JFC. Thus new competition between JFC and McDonald‟s started and it becomes one of critical future issues how to compete against McDonald‟s – a global giant. The author thinks that this paper is still a kind of research in progress. Because the whole picture the author presented in chart 7 is a kind of hypothesis which needs proof by data. As this reason, the author carried out customers‟ image survey7 in March 2009, and started a comparative study of JFC and Golden Arch Development Corp. (McDonald‟s Philippines). The author will present the result of these further research in the next opportunity. 7The author carried out the survey towards 400 possible customers of Jollibee and McDonald’s which breakdown is Angeles City, Central Luzon (100), Caloocan City, Metro Manila (100), Taguig City, Metro Manila (100), and Batangas City, South Luzon (100) on March 20 to March 27, 2009. 11
  12. 12. APPENDIX History Analysis Chart year Activities GN PS MT PR RL 1975 TTC & his family opened Ice Cream Parlor at Cubao + + 1978 JFC established (100% Filipino Company) + Bakery was established in Cubao + Jollibee posted 1st year sales of PHP 2 million + 1979 Spaghetti Special was introduced + 1st Franchise owned store opened at Ronquillo Sta. Cruz. + 1980 Jollibee launched 1st TV commercial + Jollibee Chicken Joy and French Fries were introduced + Jollibee mascot debut + 1981 JFC earned a list of Top 1000 Corporations + Jollibee ended the year with 10 stores + 1982 In-store promotions, premium items & Kiddie Birthday packages + + Palabok Fiesta was introduced + 1983 The Langhap-Sarap TV ad Campaign + + Chickee and Lady Moo join the Jollibee mascots + 1984 Champ hamburger was introduced + Jollibee entered list of Top 500 + Mascot Champ and Hetty joined the Jollibee family + Jollibee obtained Gold record award for the sales of Jollibee songs + + 1985 Jollibee became the market leader of the fast food industry + Breakfast Joy was introduced + Langhap-Sarap awards the 9th Philippine Advertising Congress + + 1986 Jollibee won the 9th International Foods Award in El Comestible + TTC won the Agora Award for entrepreneurship by the Philippine + Marketing Association JFC entered Top 250 Corporation list + Jollibee opens its 1st international store in Taiwan + Jollibee added Chunky Chicken Sandwich in its menu + 1987 2nd Taiwan store opened + Sales of PHP 570 million pushed Jollibee into the elite Top 100 + + Corporation Jollibee opened 1st fast food outlet in Brunei + 1988 Jolly Twirls softserve was successfully launched + Jollibee system wide sales hit PHP 921 million, further leading market share of 31% in the fast food industry and a dominant 57% + share in the hamburger segment Jollibee celebrated 10th year anniversary + TTC was named one of the Ten Outstanding Manilans + Jollibee won the Anvil Award for outstanding PR campaign in relation to the achievement of marketing objective with its + Filipino Talents campaign 1989 2nd Brunei store opened + Balut and Ligaw TV commercials won the Kidlat Award in the Service and Leisure Products category during the 11th Philippine + + Ad Congress Jollibee sales hit PHP 1.3 billion marked, first fast food chain to + surpass billion-peso sales marked Jollibee added coleslaw, Jolly Hotdog, Chikenjoy Take-Me-Out 1990 + and Peach mango Pie to its ever-growing menu Jollibee post sales of PHP 1.8 billion + TTC was awarded the Triple Award by AIM as Outstanding AIM + Alumnus Jollibee received the Excellence in Marketing Management Award + 12
  13. 13. from the Asian Institute of Management 1991 Jollibee‟s 100th store opened in Davao City + Jollibee opened a record high of 35 new stores + Opened 1st outside Luzon in Cagayan de Oro City + Jollibee launched its Pancakes and Jolly Meals + Jollibee sales hit a whopping PHP 2.65 billion + The Lola TV commercial won the Grand Araw Award and an award of excellence for the promotion of Filipino Values during + + the Philippine Ad Congress Jollibee received award for the outstanding Corporate Safety Consciousness Program by the Safety Organization of the + Philippines (SOP) 1992 Jollibee sales hit the PHP 3.365 billion + Started using frozen patties for its popular hamburgers + Improved softserve ice cream line by offering fruit flavored ice + cream Acquired 73% of the Hamburger segment (in the market) + Opened another store in Jakarta totaling to 2 stores in Indonesia + Jollibee had 112 stores nationwide + Maintained its advantage over its competitors by acquiring more + than 50% share of the first food industry July 13, JFC was listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange with an 1993 + + initial offering of PHP9.00 per share JFC share were being sold for PHP 20.00, a windfall or more than + 135% in October Improved softserv ice cream line by offering fruit flavored ice + cream Marketing launched its At Home Ako sa Jollibee ad campaign, + focusing on Jollibee‟s loyal customers Introduced the Kiddie Pack Promo + + Moved to Jollibee Centre Building in Ortigas Center, Pasig, the + new Main Office site 1994 148 Jollibee stores nationwide by the year end + Jollibee expanded into the pizza-pasta segment with the + + acquisition of Greenwich Pizza Corporation Jollibee was cited as one of the leading companies in Asia by the + Far Eastern Economic Review 1995 Jollibee acquires franchise of Delifrance + + 20 more stores opened in the Philippines, bringing the total to 168 + Jollibee successfully opens stores abroad: Guam, Dubai, UAE, + Kuwait, Jeddah and Saudi Arabia 1996 Jollibee opened its 200th stores in Malolos, Bulacan + Jollibee was cited again as on of the leading companies in Asia by + the Far Eastern Economic Reviw The company reengineered its visual identity system + Jollibee system wide sales increased to PHP 8.29 billion which translated to a market share of more than 50% among all + hamburger fast food chain Jollibee had 208 stores nationwide + July 10: Mary‟s Chicken was born; a semi-self service restaurant + and another Jollibee subsidiary. The company reengineered its visual identity system + Amazing Aloha was launched + 1st Jollibee store in Hong Kong opened + Jollibee launched various projects, such as Maaga ang Pasko sa + + Jollibee and Chikiting Patrol: at Home Ako Dito. These projects‟ 13
  14. 14. main objective was to protect and contribute to the development of the Filipino children. 1997 System wide sales increased to PHP 11.17 billion + Jollibee International opened Jollibee Xiamen located in the + People‟s Republic of China Jollibee launched “Kaya mo Kid” project which aims to instill positive values, which helps children achieve their dreams and + + ambitions. 1998 Jollibee opened in Daly City + The company celebrated its 20th year anniversary + Opened 62 stores nationwide, bringing the total to 300 stores + Jollibee opened its 300th store in Balagtas, Bulacan + Jollibee receives the ISO9002 Certification for its frozen patty line + Jollibee wins the Employee of the Year Award + 1999 Opened 50 stores nation-wide; total of 350 stores + Introduced the Cheezy Bacon Mushroom Burger to its line of + specialty burgers 2000 31 more Jollibee stores opened, bringing the total to 381 stores + Jollibee acquired Chowking Foods Corporation + + For the 3rd straight year, Far Eastern Economic Review ranked + Jollibee as the Philippines‟ leading company Asian Business Magazine ranks Jollibee as the Most Admired Company in the Philippines and the 3rd over-all in Asia, surpassed + only by global giants General Electric and Microsoft Systemwide sales reached PHP 20 billion + 2001 Jollibee opened its 400th store in Intramuros + Systemwide sales rose to 18.8% to PHP 24.11 billion. Income, before non-recurring charges, to PHP 959 million. Network + expanded to 800 restaurants Revenues neared the PHP 27 billion mark. Number of stores 2002 + exceeded 900 TTC made MAP “Management Man of the Year” + 2003 Jollibee store count closed to 988 stores nationwide + For the sixth straight year, the Far Eastern Economic Review + ranked JFC as the Philippines‟ Leading Company TTC was named the Ernst and Young‟s 2004 World Entrepreneur 2004 + of the Year JFC acquired 100% of the Red Ribbon Bakeshop In January 2006, JFC acquired Green Foods Franchising, Inc.‟s 2006 20% stake in Greenwich Pizza Corporation for 384 million pesos + + which were paid in cash. JFC entered into a new business venture with Ice Tea International, Inc., and affiliate of Chun Sui Tang Tea House Ltd., + + in Taiwan, JFC got the exclusive right to operate a restaurant chain in China that carries the Chun Shui Tang Tea House brand. Opened the first Chun Shui Tang Tea House in Shanghai on May 20, On September 29. JFC also acquired the 50% stake of our + joint venture partner. Delifrance Asia Ltd. (DAL), in Baker Fresh Foods Philippines, Inc. (BFFPI) making BFFPI a wholly-owned subsidiary of JFC, + and the Delifrance business in Philippines managed solely by JFC. 14
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  16. 16. Scott, W. Richard. (1992). “Introduction: From Technology to Environment,” in Meyer, John W., and W. Richard Scott. (eds.). Organizational Environments, Updated Edition, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Watson, James L. (2006). Golden Arches East – McDonald’s in East Asia Second Edition, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Young, Paula. (2008). “The Jollibee Supply chain,” Supply Chain Asia January- February 2008: 40. Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines – A Unique Nation: History of the Republic of the Philippines Second Edition, Cubao, Quezon City: All Nations Publishing. 16

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