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Study guide

  1. 1. STUDY GUIDE Survival guide to TOK midterm
  2. 2. Chapter 1: Problem of Knowledge <ul><li>Common Sense </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Gullibility </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Map </li></ul><ul><li>Open-mindedness </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox of cartography </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common Sense (p.5)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Consists of little more than general and untested beliefs, which are based on narrow-mindedness, believing what you hear, and desiring authority. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mental Map (p.5)
  6. 6. <ul><li>The way people view reality; consists of what we find true and false, unreasonable and reasonable. </li></ul><ul><li>*your everyday understandings ! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Paradox of cartography (p. 7)
  8. 8. <ul><li>“If a map is to be useful, then it must of necessity be imperfect.” </li></ul><ul><li>The imperfections in the map make it useful. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gullibility (p.12)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Willing to believe everything that you read, see, or hear. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Evidence (p. 14)
  12. 12. <ul><li>In order to call something reasonable, there should be positive evidence to support it. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Confirmation bias (p.14)
  14. 14. <ul><li>The tendency we have to notice the evidence that ONLY supports our beliefs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Open-mindedness (p.12)
  16. 16. <ul><li>We have to be open-minded enough to allow that there is a possibility of a strange thing being true. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chapter 2: The nature of knowledge <ul><li>Justified true belief </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge by authority </li></ul><ul><li>News media </li></ul><ul><li>Primary knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Second-hand knowledge </li></ul>
  18. 18. Justified belief (p. 24)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Preliminary definition of knowledge is to say that it is a justified true belief. </li></ul><ul><li>The three elements that make it up: truth, belief, justification (*primary knowledge) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Second-hand knowledge (p.30)
  21. 21. <ul><li>Accepting knowledge from other people; accepting the beliefs and practice passed on from one generation to yours. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Knowledge by authority (p.30)
  23. 23. <ul><li>Another name for second-hand knowledge and knowledge by testimony, which are made up of cultural tradition, school, the internet, expert opinion and the news media. </li></ul>
  24. 24. News Media (p.34)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Shapes our picture of the world with bias in selection and presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Bad news </li></ul><ul><li>B. Extraordinary news </li></ul><ul><li>C. It’s relevant news </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chapter 3: Language <ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation </li></ul><ul><li>Denotation Sapir-Whorf hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Euphemism Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Idiom Weasel words </li></ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ambiguity (p. 56)
  28. 28. <ul><li>The meaning of words and phrases that have different meanings (misleads people). </li></ul>
  29. 29. Secondary meaning (p.57)
  30. 30. <ul><li>Denotation: the primal meaning (the dictionary’s definitions). *general </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation: the associations that surround a word. *Varies b/w people </li></ul><ul><li>Euphemisms: sugar coat harsh words </li></ul><ul><li>(He died = he passed away) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Metaphor (p.57)
  32. 32. <ul><li>Metaphorical truth differs from literal truth. </li></ul><ul><li>Dead metaphors are in our language; examples: We broke it off. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Irony (p.58)
  34. 34. <ul><li>The saying of one thing in order to mean the opposite. (adds to the ambiguity to language) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Idioms (p.62)
  36. 36. <ul><li>A conversational expression whose meaning cannot be worked out from the meanings of the words it contains… example: It’s raining cats and dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>*Doesn’t make sense when translated. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Stereotype (p.66)
  38. 38. <ul><li>Labels on people that hardened; statements which prove that assumptions were made of a group. (biased) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (p.68)
  40. 40. <ul><li>A hypothesis which states language determines our experience of reality, and we can see and think only what our language allows us to see and think. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Linguistic determinism (p.68)
  42. 42. <ul><li>Form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A government who changes language to limit and restrict the way his people think. </li></ul><ul><li>language shapes thought?! </li></ul>
  43. 43. Weasel Words (p. 73)
  44. 44. <ul><li>Examples: many, should, probably </li></ul><ul><li>Words used by people to allow them to escape a task etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“This will work if you simply follow the instructions.” </li></ul>
  45. 45. Chapter 4:Perception <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Figure and ground </li></ul><ul><li>Optical illusions </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Visual grouping </li></ul>
  46. 46. Empiricism (p.86)
  47. 47. <ul><li>The belief that all knowledge is ultimately based on perceptual experience. (experiences dealing with senses) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Context (p.87)
  49. 49. <ul><li>The way we see something depends on the context in which we see it. </li></ul><ul><li>We make contextual judgments unaware that we are doing it. “He looks bigger than Mike”… etc. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Expectations (p.90)
  51. 51. <ul><li>Influence how we see things because we perceive things the way we expect them to appear; therefore, we miss things that are right in front of us. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Figure and ground (p.89)
  53. 53. <ul><li>We have the tendency to highlight certain aspects of what we see (figure) and treat other parts of it as background (ground). </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul>
  54. 54. Visual grouping (p.89)
  55. 55. <ul><li>We naturally look for meanings in things we see in order to figure out a connection between one image and another. </li></ul><ul><li>A few patches of black can look like a dog to us because we want to create meaningful pictures. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Optical illusions (p.87)
  57. 57. <ul><li>Interpretation (what is provided by our minds) is put to a test when dealing with visuals illusions, for we create the illusions with the interpretation we put on them. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Context </li></ul><ul><li>B. Visual Grouping </li></ul><ul><li>C. Figure and Ground </li></ul><ul><li>D. Expectations </li></ul>
  58. 58. Sensation (p.87)
  59. 59. <ul><li>Component of perception </li></ul><ul><li>Is provided by the world; flood into our senses to experience something </li></ul>
  60. 60. Selectivity of perception (p.91)
  61. 61. <ul><li>We need to be careful with our senses, for they are selective. Certain aspects engage our attention and stand out, and the rest fade away. </li></ul><ul><li>What grabs attention- contrast, intensity, interest </li></ul><ul><li>What shapes perception: mood, feelings, emotions. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Chapter 5: Reason <ul><li>Ad hominem </li></ul><ul><li>Belief bias </li></ul><ul><li>Circular reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Deduction </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>False analogy </li></ul><ul><li>False dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Hasty generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Venn diagram </li></ul>
  63. 63. Premises, rationalism, fallacies (p.113)
  64. 64. <ul><li>Premise – No if’s of but’s about it, the root of an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalism- discovering important truths about reality through the use of reason alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacies- invalid patterns of reasoning. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Deduction (p.114)
  66. 66. <ul><li>Reasoning from general to particular </li></ul><ul><li>Example: All metals expand when heated. A is a metal; therefore A expands when heated. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain but not informative </li></ul>
  67. 67. Induction (p.119)
  68. 68. <ul><li>Reasoning from particular to general </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Metal A expands when heated; metal B expands when heated; metal C expands when heated. Therefore all metals expand when heated. </li></ul><ul><li>More informative but not certain. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Belief bias (p.116)
  70. 70. <ul><li>The tendency we have to believe that an argument is valid simply because we agree with the conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to be cautious because agreeing with a conclusion doesn’t make the argument a good one. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Venn diagrams (p.116)
  72. 72. <ul><li>Is helpful when deciding whether or not a syllogism (deductive argument) is valid. </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping circles do not always make the argument valid. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Post hoc ergo propter hoc (p.124)
  74. 74. <ul><li>Deadly fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>Confusing a connection with a causal connection </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that because one thing, follows another thing, A, then A must be the cause of B. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Hasty generalization (p.129)
  76. 76. <ul><li>Generalizing from insufficient evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Deadly fallacy </li></ul>
  77. 77. Ad hominem (p.129)
  78. 78. <ul><li>Deadly fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking/ supporting the person rather than the argument </li></ul>
  79. 79. Circular reasoning (p.125)
  80. 80. <ul><li>Deadly fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming the truth of what your are supposed to be proving </li></ul>
  81. 81. False analogy (p.127)
  82. 82. <ul><li>Assuming that because two things are alike in some aspects they are exactly alike </li></ul><ul><li>Deadly fallacy </li></ul>
  83. 83. False dilemma (p.129)
  84. 84. <ul><li>Deadly fallacy </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming that only two alternatives exist when there is in fact wider ranger of options </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: binary (black v. white) </li></ul>
  85. 85. Lateral thinking (p.135)
  86. 86. <ul><li>Thinking outside the box since we cannot rely on traditional logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward de Bono says we need to come up with creative ways of thinking to come up with better solutions to problems. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Chapter 6: Emotion <ul><li>Emotional coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Emotive language </li></ul><ul><li>James-Lange theory </li></ul><ul><li>Primary emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Wheel of rationalization </li></ul>
  88. 88. Primary emotions (p.147)
  89. 89. <ul><li>Six basic inborn (not learned) emotions: </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust </li></ul>
  90. 90. James-Lange Theory (p.148)
  91. 91. <ul><li>A psychologist who claims that emotions share a connection with our bodies. Emotions are physical in nature; body movements come before feeling sad etc. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Wheel of Rationalization (p.153)
  93. 93. <ul><li>Powerful emotions  biased perception  fallacious reasoning  emotive language </li></ul><ul><li>“When we are in the grip of strong emotions, we tend not to reason…” </li></ul>
  94. 94. Emotional coloring (p.151)
  95. 95. <ul><li>Our perception of things can be colored by strong emotions (“love is blind”). </li></ul><ul><li>Make us aware of some aspects of reality and keeping out the other aspects. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Emotive Language (p.151)
  97. 97. <ul><li>A person in deep emotion usually uses emotive and biased language. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking in a way because you feel a certain way (language that derives from emotions). </li></ul>
  98. 98. Chapters 3 to 6 were the ways of knowing.