Nutrition during pregnancy


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Nutrition during pregnancy

  1. 1. Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation
  2. 2. WHAT IS PREGNANCY? <ul><li>It starts when a male’s sperm fertilizes a female’s ovum (egg), and the fertilized ovum implants in the lining of the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an example of physiological synergism in which mother, fetus, and placenta collaborate to sustain and nurture new life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A normal pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, or 280 days. </li></ul><ul><li>The 40 weeks of pregnancy are divided into three trimesters. </li></ul><ul><li>The developing baby is called an embryo for the first 8 weeks, after which it is called a fetus. All of its major organs develop in the first trimester. In the mother, nausea and vomiting are common, especially in the morning. The breasts may enlarge and become tender, and weight begins to increase. </li></ul>In the egg cell shown here, the nuclei of the sperm and egg appear as two yellow-brown, irregular shapes. When these two nuclei fuse, fertilization is accomplished
  4. 4. <ul><li>The second trimester fetus grows quickly. The mother’s pregnancy is noticeable both externally and internally, as she can feel the fetus moving. </li></ul><ul><li>Her heart rate and blood pressure increase to accommodate the needs of the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>In the third trimester, the fetal organs mature. Most babies born prematurely at the beginning of the third trimester survive, and their chances increase dramatically with each week in the womb. </li></ul>
  5. 5. PLACENTA <ul><li>A vascular organ, the placenta is responsible for respiration and excretion in the growing fetus. Fetal blood flows through the blood vessels of the umbilical cord to the placenta, where fingerlike capillary nets are surrounded by pools of the mother’s blood. Here carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes diffuse from fetus to mother, and oxygen and nutrients pass from mother to fetus. Fetal and maternal blood do not mix. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The first few months are the most critical for the developing infant, because during this period the infant’s brain, arms, legs, and internal organs are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason a pregnant woman should be especially careful about her food habits and nutritional status before conception, as well as during her pregnancy, influence the pregnancy’s outcome. </li></ul>
  7. 7. UMBILICAL CORD <ul><li>Is a long flexible cord that allows a fetus to be nourished as it grows and develops within the uterus, or womb. </li></ul><ul><li>On one end, the cord attaches to the abdominal area of the fetus. On the other end, the cord attaches to the placenta. </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the placenta that the blood vessels of the mother and fetus exchange contents from each other’s circulatory systems. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The umbilical cord contains two large arteries, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the fetus from the placenta, and one large vein, which carries carbon dioxide and other wastes from the fetus to the placenta. </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred to the bloodstream, most of these wastes are soon eliminated through the mother’s excretory system. </li></ul><ul><li>As the fetus approaches birth, the umbilical cord is about 50 cm (20 in) long and has a diameter of 1.5 cm (0.5 in </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Therefore the woman should have a well balanced diet with increased amount of all the essential nutrients. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY <ul><li>woman’s breasts usually increase in size, and her nipples darken. The most obvious symptom is weight gain; most physicians now recommend a gain of about 9 to 12 kg by the end of pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal weight woman- 10-14.5 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Underweight woman- 13-16.5 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight woman- 7.3-11kg </li></ul>
  11. 11. WEIGHT OF PRODUCTS OF A NORMAL PREGNANCY 1800-3600g Maternal stores 11000-1300g (11-13 kg) total 1800g Blood volume (weight increase) 1400g Breast tissue (weight increase) 1100g Uterus (weight increase) 900g Amniotic fluid 450g Placenta 3400g Fetus WEIGHT PRODUCTS
  13. 13. ANEMIA <ul><li>Anemia is common during pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>A deficiency of iron or folate in the mother diet can cause nutritional anemia, so dietary intake needs to be determined and supplements used as indicated. </li></ul>
  14. 14. CONSTIPATION <ul><li>A minor complain, may in the later period of pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>as a result of increasing pressure of the enlarging uterus and the muscle- relaxing effect of placental hormones on the gastrointestinal tract, which reduces normal peristalsis. </li></ul>
  15. 15. PREGNANCY- INDUCED HYPERTENSION <ul><li>Formerly called toxemia, pregnancy- induced hypertension (PIH) is primarily a disease of malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Especially related to diets low in protein, kcalories, calcium and salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Such malnutrition affects the liver and its metabolic activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom of PIH, which occur in late pregnancy near term, are elevated blood pressure, abnormal and excessive water retention, albumin in the urine, and in sever cases convulsions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. GENERAL CONCERNS <ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>The so-called morning sickness of early pregnancy is usually mild. </li></ul><ul><li>It is caused by hormonal adaptations in the first weeks and may be increased by stress or anxieties about the pregnancy itself. </li></ul>
  17. 17. NUTRITIONAL DEMANDS <ul><li>Energy needs </li></ul><ul><li>The mother needs more kcalorie for two reasons </li></ul><ul><li>to supply the increased fuel demanded by the enlarged metabolic workload, </li></ul><ul><li>to spare protein for the added tissue-building requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 36 kcal/kg is required for efficient use of protein during pregnancy. </li></ul>
  18. 18. PROTEIN NEEDS <ul><li>Protein is a primary need during pregnancy as it is the growth element for the body tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for this increased need reflects the tremendous growth involved during pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid growth of the baby </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of maternal tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Increased maternal blood volume </li></ul><ul><li>Amniotic fluid </li></ul>
  19. 19. MINERAL AND VITAMIN NEEDS <ul><li>All the minerals and vitamins are needed during pregnancy to meet the greater structural and metabolic requirements. </li></ul>
  20. 20. VITAMINS <ul><li>Vitamins A & C are needed in increased amounts during pregnancy because they are both important elements in tissue growth. The B vitamins are needed in increased amounts because of their vital roles as coenzyme factors in energy production and protein metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Folate is especially needed to build mature red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The increased vitamin D needed to ensure absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus for fetal bone growth. </li></ul>
  21. 21. CALCIUM <ul><li>A good supply of calcium along with phosphorus and vitamin D, is essential for fetal development of bones and teeth, as well as the mother’s own body needs </li></ul><ul><li>It is also necessary for proper clotting of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>A diet that includes 1 quart fortified milk daily plus green vegetable, whole grains and egg will usually supply sufficient calcium. </li></ul>
  22. 22. IRON AND IODINE <ul><li>Iron is essential for increased hemoglobin synthesis required for greater maternal blood volume as well as for the necessary prenatal storage of iron in the baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate iodine intake is essential for producing more thyroxine, the thyroid hormone needed is greater amounts to control the increased basal metabolic rate during pregnancy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Nutritional needs <ul><li>The basic diet during pregnancy, as well as the prenatal nutrient supplement used, can be continued through the lactation period. </li></ul><ul><li>DIET </li></ul><ul><li>Milk production requires energy, about 800kcal,/day, for both the process and the product. Thus more food for more kcal is needed. </li></ul>
  24. 24. FLUIDS <ul><li>Since milk is a fluid tissue, the breast-feeding mother needs more fluids for adequate milk production. Water and other beverages such as juices and milk add to the fluid necessary to produce milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and caffeine containing beverages should be limited or avoided since they are secreted to some extent in the mother’s milk. </li></ul>
  25. 25. REST AND RELAXATION <ul><li>In addition to the increased diet and fluid, the breast feeding requires rest , moderate exercise, and relaxation. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Diet plan 10 servings 10 servings Bread & cereals Moderate amounts Moderate amount Butter or fortified margarine 4-6 servings 4-6 servings Other Vegetables, fruits, juices 1 good source & 1 fair source or 2 good source 1 good source & 1 fair source or 2 good source Vitamin C rich foods 1-2 servings 1 servings Vegetable (dark green or deep yellow) 1-2 servings 1-2 Eggs 2 ½ servings 2 servings Meat (lean meat, fish, poultry) 4-5 cups 3-4 cups Milk, cheese, ice cream, skimmed or buttermilk Lactation Pregnancy Food
  27. 29. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>