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about classes ,ip address &domain names

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  1. 2. What is the Internet? <ul><li>A network of network, joining many government university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, file archives, hypertext documents and other computational resources. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Contd… <ul><li>Computers on internet have a unique address - IP address </li></ul><ul><li>Network of networks connected using a common communication protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Contd… <ul><li>The internet is a global network of computers and computer network communicating under one set of guidelines, formally called Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul>
  4. 5. How internet works? <ul><li>Protocols – standardized rules that define how computers communicate and exchange data </li></ul><ul><li>IP address – unique number used to identify computers on internet </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name – structured naming system to locate computers on the internet </li></ul>
  5. 6. Contd… <ul><li>URL – uniform naming scheme that specifies unique address of internet resources </li></ul><ul><li>Client and Server – computing architecture used by most internet services </li></ul>
  6. 7. Contd… <ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The internet is a packet switching network that uses TCP/IP as its core protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that govern network addresses and the organization and packaging of the information to be sent over the internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP-flow control $ recovery of packets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP – addressing and forwarding of individual packets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Internet protocols <ul><li>HTTP – for accessing and transmitting World Wide Web documents </li></ul><ul><li>FTP – for transferring files from one computer to another </li></ul><ul><li>Gopher Protocol – for accessing documents via Gopher menu </li></ul><ul><li>Telnet Protocol – allows users to login to a remote computer </li></ul><ul><li>SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for sending and managing electronic mails(e-mail) </li></ul>
  8. 9. IP address <ul><li>IP address is a unique address assigned to each computer connected to the internet </li></ul><ul><li>It is used by TCP/IP to route packets of information from sender to a location on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>IP address consist of four sets of numbers ranging from 0 to 255 </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. - </li></ul>
  9. 11. Contd… <ul><li>The first two numbers set designate the network </li></ul><ul><li>Third number set identifies local network </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth number set identifies the particular machine </li></ul>
  10. 12. IP VERSION <ul><li>There are two versions of IP:- </li></ul><ul><li>IPV4 e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>IPV6 e.g. 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 </li></ul>
  11. 13. TYPES OF ADDRESS <ul><li>Static Address </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Address </li></ul>
  12. 14. contd…. <ul><li>Static Address </li></ul><ul><li>manually input by network administrator. </li></ul><ul><li>manageable for small networks . </li></ul><ul><li>requires careful check to avoid duplication. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Contd… <ul><li>Dynamic Address </li></ul><ul><li>assigned on LANs and broadband networks by DHCP servers. </li></ul><ul><li>derived automatically from the range of addresses. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Various forms of IP Addresses <ul><li>Decimal system with base 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name system-By it own name. </li></ul><ul><li>DWORD format - Decimal number system. </li></ul><ul><li>Octal system - Base 8. </li></ul><ul><li>Hexadecimal - Base 16. </li></ul><ul><li>A cross breed – Combination of above two. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Domain names <ul><li>Domain names are the alias or English language equivalent of computers IP addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>DNS allows the use of easier to remember domain names instead of IP addresses to locate computers on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Name resolvers scattered across the internet translate domain names into IP addresses </li></ul>
  16. 18. Contd… <ul><li> Domain names have two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First part names the host computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second part identifies the top level domain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top level domains – identify the type of host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country Code Top Level Domains </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Top Level Domain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domain names are used in URLs and email addresses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Top Level Domains <ul><ul><li>.com - commercial/company site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>edu/ac - educational/academic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gov - government site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.org - non profit organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mil - military sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.int - international organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.net - network providers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Additional Top level Domains <ul><li>.aero - restricted use by the air transportations industry </li></ul><ul><li>.biz - general use by businesses </li></ul><ul><li>.coop - restricted use by cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>.info - general use by both commercial and non commercial sites </li></ul><ul><li>.museum - restricted use by museums </li></ul><ul><li>.name - general use by individuals </li></ul><ul><li>.pro - restricted use by certified professionals </li></ul>
  19. 21. DNS Tree
  20. 22. Working of D N S
  21. 24. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>