An attempt to influence beliefs, attitudes, intentions,
motivations or behaviors (Gass & Seiter 2010, 33)
Manipulation is a type of social influence that leverages
pressure to change perceptions or behavior by means of
covert, deceptive or even abusive tactics in pursuit of
personal gain (Braiker 2004, 5-6).
Manipulation vs. Encouragement
Can we differ when it is persuasion and
when it is manipulation?
Encouraging / Discouraging
Encouraging doing good
Discouraging doing bad
Persuade or Manipulate?
Designer’s Code of Ethics
Gabe Zichermann’s code of ethics
Andrej Marczewski’s code of ethics
I will strive to design systems that help individuals, organizations and
societies achieve their true potential, acting consistently with their
values and enlightened interest.
I will not obfuscate the use of game mechanics with intent to
deceive users about the purpose or objectives of the system.
Where practical by law and contract, I will make an effort to share
what I’ve learned about motivating behavior with the community
so that others may leverage this understanding to advance society
and the state of the art
Be honest with both clients and users.
Make clients aware that Gamification is not a magic bullet. In most cases it is a long term
Do not use gamification as a way to dishonestly gather information that a user would not freely
give up under other circumstances.
Be open about the system; what data it collects, what it’s aims are etc.
Provide the best service possible for every client.
My Answer / What is yours?
Gamification as a Toolbox is
Guns don’t kill people; people kill people!
Shourabi’s code of ethics ;)
Have and show clear intentions with your design.
Always remember the WIN-WIN approach with an eye on Value-Sensitive Design.
Never lose sight of the ethics and emotional impacts in the culture you’re designing for.
Never exaggerate the power of gamification.
Not every problem is solved with gamification layer on top.
Gamification is not an exploitation tool.