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Preliminary ADHD diagnosis using eye-tracking at home

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Preliminary ADHD diagnosis using eye-tracking at home

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Presentation slides of a research proposal for using simple eye-tracking system for diagnosis of ADHD.

In collaboration with Hossein Razbarry in the university of Trento. Affective Computing project.

Presentation slides of a research proposal for using simple eye-tracking system for diagnosis of ADHD.

In collaboration with Hossein Razbarry in the university of Trento. Affective Computing project.

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Preliminary ADHD diagnosis using eye-tracking at home

  1. 1. Alireza Mahmoudi Kamelabad Hossein Raspberry Eye-tracking as a Diagnostic Tool Affective Computing - 155004 Proff. Niculae Sebe 1
  2. 2. What? 2
  3. 3. ADHD 3 I am hungry What time is it? I should buy milk Who was the singer of hotel california? I like opera Pavarotti is the best one I should apply for Phd in philosophy He has american accent I still love my Ex I should call her someday NEVER My next laptop should has SSD
  4. 4. 4 Prevalence How many people? ≈ 50,000,000
  5. 5. Hypotheses and Aim of the Study 5 a) Results of eye-tracking analysis of ADHD children will be significantly different from normal children b) Eye-tracking will identify higher rate of inattention in ADHD children in comparison with normal children Aim: Help develop ADHD diagnosis lab
  6. 6. Why? 6
  7. 7. You are so LAZY! This is your problem!! 7 Risks I wanted to do that! But I couldn’t !
  8. 8. “90% of adults with ADHD are undiagnosed and untreated” 8 Dr. Russell Barkley, Monitor on Psychology March 2012, page 70
  9. 9. 9 Treatment and Control ● Clinical ● Medical ● Neurofeedback (EEG) ● Life Coach
  10. 10. How? 10
  11. 11. 11 Eye-Tracking Gaze Direction Eye Rotation Blink Frequency Pupil Diameter Changes
  12. 12. 12 Eye-Tracker
  13. 13. Methodology 1/3 Participants Children 7-12 13
  14. 14. Methodology 2/3 Tools ● Laptop (PC with External Webcam) ● Webgazer ● Game 14
  15. 15. Brown University ● Common Webcams ● Real Time ● Self-Calibrate ● Java Script ● Easily Integratable WebGazer 15
  16. 16. Methodology 3/3 Procedure ● 15 - 20 Min ● Coloured geometric shapes 16
  17. 17. 17 Current Methods Proposed Method Expensive Affordable Time consuming Quick Not accessible Accessible Scientific and Economic Relevance 1/3
  18. 18. Scientific and Economic Relevance 2/3 18 ADHD Computer Test-Evaluation 330 $ Proposed diagnosis through Eye-Tracking <10 $
  19. 19. Scientific and Economic Relevance 3/3 19 Visits to clinic Several days Test 30 min
  20. 20. Cost Estimates 20 Requested Budget: Amount (euro) Salary and overhead (3 researchers) 4 300 Experiment Place Rent for 5 days 500 System Development 1 300 Total requested funding 6 100
  21. 21. Research plan 21
  22. 22. Let’s do it for 50 Million people 22 Making earth better place to live...
  23. 23. References 1/2 American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. Anderson, J. R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York, NY, US: WH Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co. Armstrong, T., & Olatunji, B. O. (2009). What they see is what you get: Eye tracking of attention in the anxiety disorders. Psychological Science Agenda, 23(3). Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of abnormal psychology, 111(2), 279. Blazey, R. N., Patton, D. L., & Parks, P. A. (2003). U.S. Patent No. 6,652,458. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Galgani, F., Sun, Y., Lanzi, P. L., & Leigh, J. (2009, March). Automatic analysis of eye tracking data for medical diagnosis. In Computational Intelligence and Data Mining, 2009. CIDM'09. IEEE Symposium on (pp. 195-202). IEEE Gould, T. D., Bastain, T. M., Israel, M. E., Hommer, D. W., & Castellanos, F. X. (2001). Altered performance on an ocular fixation task in attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological psychiatry, 50(8), 633-635. Jacob, R. J. (1991). The use of eye movements in human-computer interaction techniques: what you look at is what you get. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), 9(2), 152-169. 23
  24. 24. Jacob, R. J., & Karn, K. S. (2003). Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research: Ready to deliver the promises. Mind, 2(3), 4. Kieling, C., Kieling, R. R., Rohde, L. A., Frick, P. J., Moffitt, T., Nigg, J. T., ... & Castellanos, F. X. (2010). The age at onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(1), 14-16. Klein, C. H., Raschke, A., & Brandenbusch, A. (2003). Development of pro–and antisaccades in children with attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Psychophysiology, 40(1), 17-28. Matza, L. S., Paramore, C., & Prasad, M. (2005). A review of the economic burden of ADHD. Cost effectiveness and resource allocation, 3(1), 5. Munoz, D. P., Armstrong, I. T., Hampton, K. A., & Moore, K. D. (2003). Altered control of visual fixation and saccadic eye movements in attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of neurophysiology, 90(1), 503-514. Sayal, K., Prasad, V., Daley, D., Ford, T., & Coghill, D. (2017). ADHD in children and young people: prevalence, care pathways, and service provision. The Lancet Psychiatry. Chicago Vos, T., Allen, C., Arora, M., Barber, R., Bhutta, Z., Brown, A., ... & Coggeshall, M. (2016). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 24 References 2/2

Editor's Notes

  • Hossein
  • Alireza: So as you saw in the first slide, the topic is eye-tracking as a diagnostic tool, but what is the target of our eye tracking tool? Or in other words what are we going to diagnose?
  • Hossein: ADHD stands for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder which is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior.
    Speaking of attention, let us define what it means, Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information.

    Alireza: For example, if an ADHD person was here, he would be distracted by all the irrelevant topics and questions in a short period of time.
  • Alireza: Let me tell you about some statistics of ADHD. At the moment, more than 5 percent of the worldwide population are suffering from ADHD which means more than 50 million people. Just to give you a better imagination of 50 million, well just consider the population of Spain or South Korea.
  • H: So… As you probably can make sense out of it by now, we are going to use eye-tracking to see if it can be a tool to measure a difference in the rate of attention or inattention in ADHD and normal children? In simple words, to see if there is a difference in the eye-tracking analysis of the 2 groups.

    A: Our hypotheses are as the following (read of the hypotheses a&b). The Aim of our study is to develop ADHD diagnosis lab, simply by using an eye-tracking method.
  • Hossein: So Why are we concerned with diagnosis of ADHD and why are we using eye tracking?
    Let’s start with ADHD.
  • Hossein:
    A typical conversation that people with ADHD have is like this:
    Alireza:

    Hossein: As you can see here in the bar charts, people suffering from ADHD have a high risk of suicide, teen pregnancy, being expelled from university, committing crime and so on.
    ADHD is a difficult disorder to diagnose. ADHD children may experience significant problems, such as school difficulties, academic underachievement, and low self-esteem. So if they are not diagnosed in time, they would face all those mentioned risks.
  • Alireza
  • Alireza: Moving on, ADHD is being treated either by a clinical psychologist, medication or a combination of both. Other methods of treatment are using neurofeedback or having regular check to life coach.
  • Hossein: But how are we going to connect ADHD to Eye-tracking? How can we use eye-tracking as a diagnostic tool for ADHD?
    Before explaining how, i would like to mention that people suffering from ADHD have different eye-movement patterns, and therefore we have focused on using eye-tracking rather than EEG or other tools.
  • Hossein:
    In the simplest terms, eye tracking is the measurement of eye activity. Where do we look? What do we ignore? When do we blink? How does the pupil react to different stimuli? The concept is basic, but the process and interpretation can be quite complex.

    Alireza:
    Eye tracking data is collected using either a remote or head-mounted ‘eye tracker’ connected to a computer. And The camera tracks the reflection of the light source along with visible ocular features such as the pupil. This data is used to extrapolate the rotation of the eye and ultimately the direction of gaze. Additional information such as blink frequency and changes in pupil diameter are also detected by the eye tracker. The aggregated data is written to a file that is compatible with eye-tracking analysis software such as Tobii, SMI, SR research eye link.
  • Hossein:
    It goes back to 1960 when eye tracking technology started
    This is one of the first eye tracker devices
    But nowadays the the technology is so accessible and everyone has one or two laptops, eyes can be simply tracked by webcams functioning as eye trackers.
  • Hossein: Participants will be children 7-12. The reason behind the specific age range is the onset of ADHD which is 7 years old. That is why previous research has also focused on participants within this age criterion.
    Control and experimental group

    Alireza: why do we have experimental and control group? What we are going to do with them?
  • Alireza: the tools that we are going to use the in this research are:
    Laptop
    https://webgazer.cs.brown.edu/, which is free and accessible to everyone.
    WebGazer is an eye tracking library that uses common webcams to infer the eye-gaze locations of screen in real time. The eye tracking model contains self-calibrates by watching participants interact with the screen. WebGazer is written entirely in JavaScript and with only a few lines of code can be integrated in any website or computer program.
    And of course A game that measures attention through certain coloured geometric shapes appearing on a computer screen.
  • Alireza: the tools that we are going to use the in this research are:
    Laptop
    https://webgazer.cs.brown.edu/, which is free and accessible to everyone.
    WebGazer is an eye tracking library that uses common webcams to infer the eye-gaze locations of screen in real time. The eye tracking model contains self-calibrates by watching participants interact with the screen. WebGazer is written entirely in JavaScript and with only a few lines of code can be integrated in any website or computer program.
    And of course A game that measures attention through certain coloured geometric shapes appearing on a computer screen.
  • Hossein: During the 15-20 minute task, the participant is instructed to respond as quickly and accurately as possible to certain coloured geometric shapes appearing on a computer screen by pressing a responder button. The participants will come to the lab where they will be shown the series of coloured shapes on a screen while their eye movements are monitored. As the participiant performs the task, the webgazer does the eye-tracking. The participants will be instructed to press a key whenever they see a red square, which appears around 25 per cent of the time.
    Alireza: why do we eye-track them?
    Hossein: Well According to research people suffering from ADHD have different eye movement patterns compared to normal children.
  • Alireza: Current methods of diagnosing ADHD are expensive, time consuming and not easily accessible to everyone.
    The aim of our study is to establish eye-tracking as the diagnostic tool for ADHD. And therefore, the proposed method will be accessible, affordable while saving the time. You may wonder how is it saving time, accessible and affordable?
  • Hossein
  • Hossein
  • Alireza: Here we have an estimation of the cost of this pilot study.
  • Hossein
  • Let’s make eye-tracking a a diagnostic tool, and help diagnosis of the next 50 million people.

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