Memory

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Memory

  1. 1. Memory
  2. 2. What is memory? <ul><li>Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters and recovers (retrieved) information. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to record, retain, retrieve information- the three R’s of remembering. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Steps of memory <ul><li>Here are 3 steps of memory. </li></ul><ul><li>(put into memory) (to store) (recovery) </li></ul><ul><li>Each and every memory flaw is associated with these 3 steps. </li></ul>Encoding Storage Retrieval
  4. 4. Types of memory <ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing an exact copy of incoming info for a few seconds; the first stage of memory (much used, much vast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All information which our senses are giving, are stored in sensory memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all the information which our senses are giving is stored for longer period of time. Because sensory memory is short lived indeed very short lived; for few seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which part of memory gains our most attention is stored further; otherwise it’s discarded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All  discarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some  attention </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sensory memory (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fleeting mental image of visual representation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After a sound is heard a brief continuation of sound is the auditory. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Short term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds small amount of info briefly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Working memory”- another name for STM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like a “mental scratchpad” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>numbers about 7 plus or minus stored in 2 “chunks” of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 18 to 20 sec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonetically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storing info by sounds, that’s easy to store info by sounds as compared to image. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Flow sheet for memory: </li></ul><ul><li>selectively successfully coded </li></ul><ul><li>attended for storage in LTM </li></ul>Incoming info Sensory memory STM LTM Forgotten Not coded while in STM
  7. 7. <ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores relatively permanently information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored on basis of meaning and importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtually unlimited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Explicit & implicit memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit > which we want to save. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit > things associated with desired info. additional info </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory of perceptual, motor and cognitive skills required to complete complex tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(writing, cooking, drawing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming and difficult initially but relatively permanent and automatic. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li> Declarative memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LTM section that contains factual info. (every bit of info about world) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Semantic memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonal facts and everyday knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ideas, meanings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Episodic memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal experiences linked with specific times and places (autobiographical memories) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Flashbulb memories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very vivid; very clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason for being vivid: they were associated with emotional stage. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Distortion & Reconstruction of memories <ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means sometimes they aren't 100% accurate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudo memories are build under hypnosis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forgetting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repressed memories </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Forgetting (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesia (memory exhaust) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde (before) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory of events prior to amnesia is impaired </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interograde (after) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals can’t remember the events that occur after amnesia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesia as a result of Korsakoff’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Brain & Memory <ul><li>Temporal lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Portion of occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of information from STM to LTM; deficits in explicit memory </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit memory </li></ul><ul><li>korsakoff’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul>

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