Fiber Optics Cable Research Report
by Alina Baber,Mahira Shafique,Ramla Rizwan
The main objective of our report is giving the main concept of fibre optics and gives brief
description about fiber optics. Why fiber optics is better than other cables? And why its
performance is better than other cables we also describe the advantages and disadvantages of
using fiber optics cables.
Optics is the combination of Fiber + Optics its means that Light Guided in Optical Fiber and in other
words we can say Communication system with light as the carrier and fiber as communication medium.
Before 1980 for data communication we use copper wire. By using copper wire we face some kind of
problems in data communication example in copper wire we cannot transfer data in long distance also
big problem was tapping, damage etc. to solve this problem we use the concept of optics which means
total internal reflection. The data travel in the form of light.
The fiber optics consist of these following parts
Core: (Higher Refractive Index) it’s Place in the centre of the fiber, in which where the light will
Cladding: (Lower Refractive Index) outer optical material that reflects the light back into the
Coating: (Mechanical Protection) Plastic buffer coating that protects the fiber.
A thin and very fine strand of glass or plastic that carries light transmissions over long distance.Fibre
optics cables consist of one or more hair - thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket.
They can conduct light pulse generated by lasers at transmission rate as high as 30billion bits per second
this is about 60times greater than coaxial cables and 3000 times better than twisted pair wires. Fiber
optics also has a much lower data error rate than other media and it’s harder to tap than electrical wire
and cable. Fiber optic wire carries much more information than conventional copper wire and is far less
subject to electromagnetic interference. Most telephone company long-distance lines are now fiber
SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits
BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or
RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other
MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.
There are two types of Fiber Optics cables
Singe Mode Cable: Single mode fiber generally is usable up to about 100KM (62 miles) without a
repeater. Laser light transmitters normally are used to send information over single mode fiber,
because high light power is needed to reach long distances. Used to transmit one signal per fiber (Single
Mode fibers are generally used for telephone and cable TV applications.)
Multi Mode Cable: Used to transmit many signals per fiber. (Multi Mode fibers are generally used for
computer networks, LAN applications).
Types Of Multi Mode Cables
1. Multimode step-index fiber: The density of the core remains constant from the center to the edges
2. Multimode graded-index fiber: Decreases the distortion of the signal through the cable.
Connectors for fiber Optics
Higher bandwidth: fiber optics has higher bandwidth which is more helpful to transfer large
amount of data from source to destination.
Less signal attenuation: less signal attenuation means in fiber optics we facing less amount of
attenuation or weak signal.
Resistance to corrosive materials.: in fiber optics less amount of resistance
Light weight: its means fastest speed of data transmission
Greater immunity to tapping: means less chance of tapping data , protection etc.
Installation and maintenance. Fiber-optic cable is a relatively new technology. Its installation
and maintenance require expertise that is not yet available everywhere.
Unidirectional light propagation. Propagation of light is unidirectional. If we need bidirectional
communication, two fibers are needed.
Cost. The cable and the interfaces are relatively more expensive than those of other guided
media. If the demand for bandwidth is not high, often the use of optical fiber cannot be
Uses of Fiber Optics :
Fiber cables are commonly used to connect networks for long distance. They used to be common for
implementing computer networks, in particular Ethernet. They are mostly common use in internet.
In conclusion fiber optics cables are reliable and more efficient as compare to other cables it’s more
expensive but when we compare other cable whose use for long distance transfer data using repeaters
so expensive is as like fiber optics. Its performance is more fastest then other cables for data
communication. Over all fiber optics is good for fastest and reliable for data transmission and the main
big problem of fiber optics is maintaince matter because it’s a new technology and its maintaince is
more expensive and they are not repair easily.