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Presentation on
Maxwell collapse
Submitted to:
Shaikh Masrick Hasan
Assistant professor,
Department of Finance
Jagannath University, Dhaka.
Submitted by:
M...
Members of Group:
SL No. Name ID no
1 MD. Asif Ibne Ahsan M150203047
2 Alim Ehsan Dipon M150203056
3 Akib Hossain Chowdhur...
Now Presenting …
MD. Asif Ibne Ahsan
Id: M150203047
• Cases like Polly Peck in 1990, Maxwell
and BCCI in 1991, had an important role
to play in the UK company law reforms
and...
• Maxwell was ambitious to succeed in the
publishing industry.
• Robert Maxwell was born in 1923 in a
Jewish family.
• Max...
• Robert Maxwell had built up a media empire with a mix of private
and public companies that is shown in a simplified mann...
• Robert Maxwell, the founder, CEO & the chairman of Maxwell publishing
group,
• too much power in the hands of an individ...
• Maxwell case (1991) for instance, assets
were pledged as security for additional loans
and the CEO misappropriated emplo...
Now Presenting …
Alim Ehsan Dipon
Id: M150203056
THE LEASCO PERGAMON
TAKEOVER
• The year 1969 was critical in Maxwell’s
career. He and an American, Saulm
Steinberg (head of Leasco), agreed to
merge th...
• His strategy was to attempt to take over companies such as the
News of the World and increase their profitability and he...
• By August 1969 Steinberg and his advisers had
doubts about the future profitability of Pergamon;
they were becoming incr...
• The two inspectors appointed by the Board of Trade
were a lawyer, Owen Stable QC, and an accountant,
Ronald Leach, who w...
• Following publication of the Price Waterhouse report,
Leasco were understandably reluctant to pursue the
takeover of Per...
Now Presenting …
Tanvir Mahmud
Id:M150203083
After the Leasco Takeover
• In 1974, when Maxwell eventually regained control
of Pergamon, he put his energies into buildi...
Reasons for Debacle Acquisition
through Heavy Debt
• Robert Maxwell created a £530 million
hole in the pension funds of 16...
• The company borrowed $3 billion in 1988 to buy
the US publishers Macmillan and Official Airlines
Guide. Financial Diffic...
Now Presenting …
Akib Hossain Chowdhury
Id:M150203066
Uncertainties following the death
of Maxwell
• In 5th November 1991, chairman of the
group companies Robert Maxwell (68)
w...
• Maxwell's death (1991) triggered a flood of
instability with banks. The company incurred
heavy debts. His two sons Kevin...
Flaws in Corporate Governance
• Domineering CEO
• Maxwell had a complete control over the companies of
his empire.
• Perso...
Flaws in the audit
• The auditors of the company failed to
identify the transfers Maxwell was making
from the Mirror Group...
Now Presenting …
MD. Tariqul Islam Mukith
Id:M150203075
Discussion
• Smith (1992: 10–12) outlines four methods by
which Maxwell was able to misappropriate funds
from the companie...
• Thirdly, Maxwell used cash gained from pledging
shares to support the share price of MCC and
MGN. These purchases were n...
• The Cadbury Committee, which reported in 1992,
acknowledged that recent financial scandals (the Maxwell
case was specifi...
5. The majority [of non-executive directors] should be
independent of management and free from any business
or other relat...
Maxwell Collapse
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Maxwell Collapse

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Robert Maxwell, the founder, CEO & the chairman of Maxwell publishing group

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Maxwell Collapse

  1. 1. Presentation on Maxwell collapse
  2. 2. Submitted to: Shaikh Masrick Hasan Assistant professor, Department of Finance Jagannath University, Dhaka. Submitted by: MD. Asif Ibne Ahsan On behalf of Group MBA 6th Batch Department of Finance Jagannath University, Dhaka. .
  3. 3. Members of Group: SL No. Name ID no 1 MD. Asif Ibne Ahsan M150203047 2 Alim Ehsan Dipon M150203056 3 Akib Hossain Chowdhury M150203066 4 MD. Tariqul Islam Mukith M150203075 5 Tanvir Mahmud M150203083
  4. 4. Now Presenting … MD. Asif Ibne Ahsan Id: M150203047
  5. 5. • Cases like Polly Peck in 1990, Maxwell and BCCI in 1991, had an important role to play in the UK company law reforms and development of UK’s code of governance (Giles, 2012).
  6. 6. • Maxwell was ambitious to succeed in the publishing industry. • Robert Maxwell was born in 1923 in a Jewish family. • Maxwell built a vast publishing empire in the 1980s before it collapsed under a mountain of debt and fraud.
  7. 7. • Robert Maxwell had built up a media empire with a mix of private and public companies that is shown in a simplified manner of the following diagram.
  8. 8. • Robert Maxwell, the founder, CEO & the chairman of Maxwell publishing group, • too much power in the hands of an individual. one person enjoy the powers of two separate positions i.e. to work at the same time as Chief Executive officer and chairman of the board. • This can be seen from the collapse of Maxwell Communications, where Robert Maxwell was in charge of two main positions. • Robert Maxwell held the positions of Chief executive and chairman in Maxwell Communications from 1981till 1991. • He abused his powers and the result was the scandal was so big that his scandal at that time was termed as the biggest scandal of the 20th century. • He stole approximately £727 million from the pension funds of the companies he of which was charge as chief executive and chairman. • Cadbury also emphasized on the separation of powers at these two positions and held there must a balance of powers between individuals.
  9. 9. • Maxwell case (1991) for instance, assets were pledged as security for additional loans and the CEO misappropriated employee funds (Spalek, 2001). • Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), systematically defrauded its auditors over a number of years by falsification of accounts, to hide the losses and show healthy reserves (Kanas,2005).
  10. 10. Now Presenting … Alim Ehsan Dipon Id: M150203056
  11. 11. THE LEASCO PERGAMON TAKEOVER
  12. 12. • The year 1969 was critical in Maxwell’s career. He and an American, Saulm Steinberg (head of Leasco), agreed to merge their businesses, with Leasco. • The intention was to pool the expertise and resources of Steinberg and Maxwell by storing the data contained in Maxwell’s scientific journals and books on computers.
  13. 13. • His strategy was to attempt to take over companies such as the News of the World and increase their profitability and hence market value, so his defeat in the battle for the News of the World was a considerable blow to his business ambitions. • According to Bower (1992), Leasco’s profits in 1968 were $27m and assets amounted to $1bn, For Maxwell it was important that the accounts of Pergamon for 1968 should show a substantial profit since this would support the share price and assist his negotiations with Leasco. • The auditors of Pergamon were Chalmers Impey, but the Sunday Times had questioned the audit procedures used by Chalmers Impey on Pergamon’s accounts, for instance, alleging that stocks were overvalued. • In June 1969 Leasco and Pergamon had reached agreement in principle that Leasco would bid for Pergamon after having successfully completed investigations into the financial affairs of Pergamon.
  14. 14. • By August 1969 Steinberg and his advisers had doubts about the future profitability of Pergamon; they were becoming increasingly nervous about the takeover and wanted to withdraw from the bid. • It was finally agreed that the bid would go ahead. Maxwell would remain as chairman of Pergamon but would not be managing director. • The Takeover Panel also called for a full Board of Trade inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the Leasco bid for Pergamon.
  15. 15. • The two inspectors appointed by the Board of Trade were a lawyer, Owen Stable QC, and an accountant, Ronald Leach, who was a senior partner in Peat Marwick Mitchell. • At the same time the accountants Price Waterhouse carried out an independent audit of Pergamon’s 1968 financial statements. The Price Waterhouse audit was carried out by a senior partner, Martin Harris, and among its conclusions was the finding that the reported profits of Pergamon for 1968 had been overstated. Instead of a profit of £2.1m the corrected figure would have been £140,000. • Chalmers Impey subsequently resigned as auditors and Cooper Brothers took over the audit.
  16. 16. • Following publication of the Price Waterhouse report, Leasco were understandably reluctant to pursue the takeover of Pergamon, given the restatement of Pergamon’s reported profits and assets and the reduced valuation placed on its stocks. • In fact Maxwell was eventually able in 1974 to regain control of Pergamon. • DTI inspectors produced two further reports in April 1972 and November 1973, which were also damning of Maxwell’s business methods.
  17. 17. Now Presenting … Tanvir Mahmud Id:M150203083
  18. 18. After the Leasco Takeover • In 1974, when Maxwell eventually regained control of Pergamon, he put his energies into building up the business. This he managed to do successfully. • By 1977 Pergamon had substantially increased its assets and reported profits. Maxwell was keen to expand his business interests. • In 1980 turned his attention to the British Printing Corporation (BPC), later renamed the British Printing and Communications Corporation (BPCC).
  19. 19. Reasons for Debacle Acquisition through Heavy Debt • Robert Maxwell created a £530 million hole in the pension funds of 16,000 employees of Mirror Group newspapers. • These pension funds were ‘borrowed’ in a desperate attempt to prop up the ailing Maxwell Communications. • The borrowings were personal as well on company accounts.
  20. 20. • The company borrowed $3 billion in 1988 to buy the US publishers Macmillan and Official Airlines Guide. Financial Difficulties and Diversion of Funds • The Maxwell Empire kept afloat only by shifting funds around his maze, misappropriating pensioner’s funds, and relentless deal making. • Despite Maxwell’s eroding financial condition, he was able to pass annual audits. • In 1991, Maxwell sold Pergamon and floated Mirror Group Newspapers as a public company.
  21. 21. Now Presenting … Akib Hossain Chowdhury Id:M150203066
  22. 22. Uncertainties following the death of Maxwell • In 5th November 1991, chairman of the group companies Robert Maxwell (68) was found drowned behind his yacht. • Global empire of publishing and other businesses collapsed. • The stocks of Maxwell Communication plunged to $2.18 on 5 November 1991 from high of $4.28 a share in April 1991 and further dropped to $0.63.
  23. 23. • Maxwell's death (1991) triggered a flood of instability with banks. The company incurred heavy debts. His two sons Kevin and Ian struggled to hold the empire together, but were unable to prevent its collapse. • Maxwell had used hundreds of millions of pounds from the company’s pension funds to shore up the shares of his group and save his companies from bankruptcy but there was a huge loss of pension funds for the employees. • The son of Maxwell, Kevin was also declared bankrupt with debts of 400 million pounds. In 1995, Maxwell’s sons Kevin and Ian and 2 other former directors went on trial for the conspiracy to defraud, but were unanimously acquitted by the jury in 1996.
  24. 24. Flaws in Corporate Governance • Domineering CEO • Maxwell had a complete control over the companies of his empire. • Personally controlled the movement of funds around his big empire. • Relegated all the ethical and professional standards for commercial benefits and empire building. • Ineffective Board • Directors and all other reputed persons did not discharge their responsibilities effectively. • Lack of Transparency • Creditors, shareholders and even the family members of Maxwell were not fully aware of the corporate structure of the company.
  25. 25. Flaws in the audit • The auditors of the company failed to identify the transfers Maxwell was making from the Mirror Group pensions, even though they were in the position of doing so. • Complaints were lodged against the auditors of the company by Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales.
  26. 26. Now Presenting … MD. Tariqul Islam Mukith Id:M150203075
  27. 27. Discussion • Smith (1992: 10–12) outlines four methods by which Maxwell was able to misappropriate funds from the companies under his control. • Firstly, he pledged assets as security for additional loans. However, instead of delivering the assets to the lender, Maxwell would in some cases simply sell the assets for cash • Secondly, he diverted shares and cash from Mirror Group Newspapers to Bishopsgate Investment Management Limited (controlled by Maxwell). The shares were then pledged as security for further loans to Maxwell’s private companies.
  28. 28. • Thirdly, Maxwell used cash gained from pledging shares to support the share price of MCC and MGN. These purchases were not disclosed, as they should have been under Stock Exchange regulations • Fourthly and most simply, Maxwell took cash from MGN. After the flotation of MGN, £43m was passed to Maxwell’s private companies. Given the scale of what happened in the Maxwell organization, it was natural that the public would want to know who should be held accountable.
  29. 29. • The Cadbury Committee, which reported in 1992, acknowledged that recent financial scandals (the Maxwell case was specifically referred to) were one of the reasons for the committee being asked to report on corporate governance matters • The Cadbury Committee made a number of recommendations (Cadbury Report, 1992: 58), some of which seem directly relevant to the Maxwell case: 1. There should be a clearly accepted division of responsibilities at the head of a company, which will ensure a balance of power and authority, such that no one individual has unfettered powers of decision. 2. The board should include non-executive directors of sufficient calibre and number for their views to carry significant weight in the board’s decisions. 3. Non-executive directors should bring an independent judgement to bear on issues of strategy, performance, resources, including key appointments, and standards of conduct.
  30. 30. 5. The majority [of non-executive directors] should be independent of management and free from any business or other relationship which could materially interfere with the exercise of their independent judgment. •However, the Cadbury Committee also appeared to accept that regulation on its own would never be sufficient to ensure ‘good’ corporate governance •Effectively, the Cadbury Report is saying that in the final analysis a balance has to be struck to ensure an adequate level of corporate governance without stifling the play of competitive forces and entrepreneurship which are fundamental to a market-based economy.

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